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Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management in the Western Pacific

Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management in the Western Pacific

Edward Glazier

ISBN: 978-0-470-95946-6

May 2011

400 pages



As the ecosystem-based trend in fisheries management continues to be implemented worldwide, a thorough background of this new management approach and resulting implementation strategies is needed.  Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management in the Western Pacific presents a full picture of the process changes used in switching from target species based management to EBFM, using a region that is at the forefront of this widely accepted movement.

Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management in the Western Pacific is the outgrowth of a series of three workshops convened by the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management council.  The book follows the logical approach of each workshop, beginning with an assessment of the current state of fisheries management, transitioning through the data sources and modeling systems used to advance EBFM, and ending with practical methodologies for more thorough global implementation in the future.

Contributed by experts from the Pacific regions as well as the UK and Non-pacific States, this book is one of the first available compendiums on this important movement and will be applicable to fisheries scientists and researchers, fisheries managers, policy makers, and social scientists worldwide

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xxvii

List of Acronyms xxix

Section 1: Ecosystem Science and Planning

Chapter 1. Introduction to Ecosystem Science and Planning 3

Background 3

Workshop Goal and Objectives 4

Organization 4

Opening Discussion 5

Ms Kitty M. Simonds 5

Opening Presentations 6

Steve Murawski 6

Carl Walters 11

Paul Dalzell 15

Gerard DiNardo 20

Chapter 2. Data Sources 23

Fishery-Dependent Data 23

Kurt Kawamoto 23

Russell Ito 27

Michael Quach 27

Resource and Habitat Data 31

Russell Brainard 32

Frank Parrish 33

Bud Antonelis 33

Oceanographic Data 35

Russell Moffitt 35

Reconstructing Time-Series Catch Data 38

Dirk Zeller 38

References 41

Chapter 3. Ecosystem Models and Modeling 43

Lessons from Other Regions 43

Neil Gribble 43

Jerald Ault 47

Carl Walters 50

Villy Christensen 51

Patrick Lehodey 53

Jeff Polovina 54

References 64

Chapter 4. Ecosystem Indicators 65

David Kirby 65

Robert Wakeford 67

Mike Fogarty 68

David Witherell 70

References 77

Chapter 5. Working Groups 79

Prelude to Breakout Sessions 79

Data Needs Working Group Report 82

Ecosystem Models Working Group Report 86

Indicators Working Group Report 87

References 91

Chapter 6. Synthesis 93

Summary Synthesis: Mike Orbach 93

Summary Synthesis: David Fluharty 95

Conclusions and Recommendations 97

Reference 101

Section 2: Ecosystem Social Science and Planning

Chapter 7. Background on Ecosystem Social Science and Planning 105

Rationale and Questions for an EAFM in the Western Pacific 105

Purpose of the Social Science Workshop 107

Organization of the Chapter 107

Western Pacific Council Mission and Purview 107

Brief Overview of the Fisheries 108

A History of EAFM in the Pacific Islands 111

Pacific Islands and Ecosystems 112

The Antiquity of Ecosystem Concepts in the Region 113

The Ahupua‘a and Other Forms of EAFM in the Pacific Islands 114

Formal Conceptual and Policy Background 118

References 125

Chapter 8. Introduction to Ecosystem Social Science and Planning 129

Workshop Goal and Objectives 129

Introductory Presentations 130

Kitty Simonds 130

Paul Dalzell 132

Steven Murawski 136

Samuel Pooley 137

Michael Orbach 139

Susan Hanna 142

Reference 144

Chapter 9. Ecosystem Social Science Models 145

Jeffrey Johnson 145

Richard Pollnac 148

Lee Anderson 150

Tim Hennessey 152

Chapter 10. Social Science Data Sources 155

Bryan P. Oles 155

Susan Abbott-Jamieson 156

Peter Wiley 158

Island Context and Social Science Data Challenges and Solutions 160

Paul Dalzell 160

Craig Severance 162

Paul Bartram 163

Fini Aitaoto 166

Judith R. Amesbury 168

Jesse Rosario 170

John Gourley 171

Chapter 11. Social and Economic Indicators and Applications for EAFM in the Pacific 173

Patrick Christie 173

Leah Bunce 176

Joeli Veitayaki 178

Leanne Fernandes 181

Leimana DaMate 182

Chapter 12. Synthesis: Toward Incorporating Social Science in EAFM 185

Drawing on Ancient Concepts and Practices 185

Existing Institutions and Institutional Parameters 186

Pursuing Ecosystem Goals and Objectives through Application of Social Science 188

Research and Monitoring of Direct Ecosystem Relationships 188

A Note on Social and Economic Indicators 191

Research and Monitoring of Indirect Ecosystem Relationships and Effects 192

Choices and Priorities 193

Elements of Social Science Approaches to EAFM in the Western Pacific Region 194

Addressing Variation with an Adaptive Approach 195

Steps for Incorporating Social Science in EAFM in the Region 196

References 198

Chapter 13. Summary Conclusions 199

Summary Points of Particular Relevance to Council FEP

Objectives 199

Concluding Discussion 201

Section 3: The Ecosystem Policy Workshop

Chapter 14. Introduction to Ecosystem Policy 205

Background 205

An Ecosystem Approach for the Western Pacific 206

A Vast and Complex Region 206

Addressing Uncertainties with an Adaptive and Incremental Strategy 207

The Suitability of EAFM Policy in the Western Pacific 208

Prelude to the Ecosystem Policy Workshop 209

Organization of the Chapter 209

References 210

Chapter 15. Ecosystem Policy 211

Objectives and Issues 211

Overview of Findings 212

References 212

Chapter 16. Opening Presentations 213

Kitty Simonds 213

Samuel Pooley 213

Michael Orbach 214

David Fluharty 215

Paul Dalzell 216

David Kirby 219

Frank Parrish 220

Susan Hanna 222

Stewart Allen 223

Chapter 17. Policy for Indigenous Resource User Groups 227

David Kirby 228

John Gourley 228

Judith Amesbury 230

Fini Aitaoto 231

Leimana DaMate 232

Colin Kippen 234

Paul Dalzell 235

Chapter 18. Options for Community and Agency Interaction 241

Paul Dalzell 242

Jared Makaiau 243

Reference 245

Chapter 19. Conclusions and Recommendations 247

Overview 247

Potential Benefits of the EAFM 248

Summary Recommendations for Maximizing the Benefits of the New Approach 249

Biophysical Workshop Recommendations Reiterated 249

Social Science Ecosystem Workshop Recommendations Reiterated 250

Policy Workshop Recommendations for Enhancing Participation 251

Policy Workshop Recommendations for Identifying Fiscal and Human Resources 252

Conclusions and Final Recommendations 253

References 256

Appendix A: Speaker Biographies 257

Appendix B: Select Demographic Tables 269

Index 273