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Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes



Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes

Stephen Wratten (Editor), Harpinder Sandhu (Editor), Ross Cullen (Editor), Robert Costanza (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-50624-0 January 2013 Wiley-Blackwell 224 Pages

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Ecosystem services are the resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems which benefit humankind (for example, pollination of crops by insects, or water filtration by wetlands). They underpin life on earth, provide major inputs to many economic sectors and support our lifestyles. Agricultural and urban areas are by far the largest users of ecosystems and their services and (for the first time) this book explores the role that ecosystem services play in these managed environments. The book also explores methods of evaluating ecosystem services, and discusses how these services can be maintained and enhanced in our farmlands and cities. This book will be useful to students and researchers from a variety of fields, including applied ecology, environmental economics, agriculture and forestry, and also to local and regional planners and policy makers.

Contributors xi

Reviewers xiv

Foreword xv

Introduction xvi
Steve Wratten, Harpinder Sandhu, Ross Cullen and Robert Costanza

Part A: Scene Setting 1

1 Ecosystem Services in Farmland and Cities 3
Harpinder Sandhu and Steve Wratten

Abstract 3

Introduction 4

What are ecosystem services? 4

Ecosystem functions, goods and services 5

The ES framework 6

Engineered systems 7

Agricultural systems 7

Urban systems 10

ES and their interactions in engineered systems 11

2 Ecological Processes, Functions and Ecosystem Services: Inextricable Linkages between Wetlands and Agricultural Systems 16
Onil Banerjee, Neville D. Crossman and Rudolf S. de Groot

Abstract 16

Introduction 17

Linking ecosystem function with ecosystem service 18

Wetlands 19

Wetland functions 20

Wetland–agricultural systems interactions 22

Some research challenges 24

Understanding complexity and resilience 24

Trade-offs 25

3 Key Ideas and Concepts from Economics for Understanding the Roles and Value of Ecosystem Services 28
Pamela Kaval and Ramesh Baskaran

Abstract 28

How can ecosystem services be valued? 28

Ecosystem service valuation methodologies 31

Revealed preference methods 32

Stated preference methods 32

Other methods 33

How ecosystem services have been measured in the past 34

Ecosystem service valuation study recommendations 37

Conclusions 39

Part B: Ecosystem Services in Three Settings 43

4 Viticulture can be Modified to Provide Multiple Ecosystem Services 45
Sofia Orre-Gordon, Marco Jacometti, Jean Tompkins and Steve Wratten

Abstract 45

Introduction 45

Enhancing CBC in vineyards 46

Leafrollers and Botrytis cinerea in the vineyards 48

Habitat modification to enhance naturally occurring pest control 48

Floral resource supplementation as a form of habitat modification 48

Mulch application as a form of habitat modification 49

Combining two forms of habitat modification 51

The deployment of herbivore-induced plant volatiles as a form of habitat modification 51

Habitat modification may provide further ecosystem services 52

The future 55

5 Aquaculture and Ecosystem Services: Reframing the Environmental and Social Debate 58
Corinne Baulcomb

Abstract 58

Introduction 58

Aquaculture and the environment 59

A typology of aquaculture operations and the link to ecosystem services 60

Inland production systems 64

Overview 64

Case study 1: hypothetical integrated agriculture–aquaculture carp polyculture 65

Case study 2: hypothetical inland marine shrimp cultivation 68

Marine and coastal-based production systems 71

Overview 71

Case study 3: hypothetic nearshore, intensive and raft-based shellfish cultivation 72

Case study 4: hypothetical ‘best-case’ offshore aquaculture cultivation 75

The value of a complementary life-cycle approach 75

Conclusion 77

6 Urban Landscapes and Ecosystem Services 83
Jürgen Breuste, Dagmar Haase and Thomas Elmqvist

Abstract 83

Growing urban landscapes 83

The process of urbanization 83

Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystems 86

Urbanization and management of ecosystems – challenges 86

Urban ecosystem services 87

What are urban ecosystem services? 87

Classification of UES 88

Land use – basic information on human influence on ecosystem services 88

Urban green – carrier of UES 89

Types of urban green space 89

Recreation 90

Climate regulation 91

Biodiversity 94

Carbon mitigation 95

Rapid growth of soil sealing – destruction of UES and its avoidance 95

Climate change – challenges for UES 97

Increase in temperature 98

Precipitation 99

Sea level rise 100

UES in urban landscape planning 100

Part C: Measuring and Monitoring Ecosystem Services at Multiple Levels 105

7 Scale-dependent Ecosystem Service 107
Yangjian Zhang, Claus Holzapfel and Xiaoyong Yuan

Abstract 107

Introduction 107

Scale 108

Ecosystem service is scale dependent 108

The ecosystem beneficiary is scale dependent 109

Ecosystem service measurement is scale dependent 109

Ecosystem service management decision making is scale dependent 112

Ecosystem service types 112

Ecosystem service studies need to consider scale 113

Case studies 114

Liberty State Park Interior 115

Qinghai-Tibet plateau 117

Conclusions 118

8 Experimental Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Agriculture 122
Harpinder Sandhu, John Porter and Steve Wratten

Abstract 122

Introduction 122

ES in agroecosystems 123

Provisioning goods and services 124

Supporting services 124

Regulating services 124

Cultural services 124

Field-scale assessment of ES 127

The combined food and energy system 128

New Zealand arable farmland 129

Scenarios of production and ES in agroecosystems 131

The ethnocentric systems 131

The technocentric systems 131

The ecocentric systems 131

The ecotechnocentric systems 132

The sustaincentric systems 132

Conclusions 133

Part D: Designing Ecological Systems to Deliver Ecosystem Services 137

9 Towards Multifunctional Agricultural Landscapes for the Upper Midwest Region of the USA 139
Nicholas Jordan and Keith Douglass Warner

Abstract 139

Introduction 139

Multifunctional agroecosystems 140

Re-designed agricultural landscapes for the Upper Midwest 141

Moving forward on design and implementation of multifunctional landscapes for the Upper Midwest 142

Theory of change: a social–ecological system model for increasing multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes 143

Focal level: enterprise development via ‘virtuous circles’ 143

Subsystem level: collaborative social learning for multifunctional agriculture 147

Supersystem level: re-visioning the social metabolism of American agriculture 148

Applying the theory of change: the Koda Energy fuelshed project 149

Enterprise development 150

Agroecological partnership 152

Re-shaping public opinion and policy 153

Conclusions 153

10 Supply Chain Management and the Delivery of Ecosystems Services in Manufacturing 157
Mary Haropoulou, Clive Smallman and Jack Radford

Abstract 157

Towards the sustainable economic production of goods and services? 158

Ecological economics and supply chain management: a review and synthesis 158

Conventional economic and ecologically economic production 158

Conventional SCM: economic efficiency through distribution network configuration and strategy 160

Green SCM: the economic inefficiency of waste 161

Sustainable SCM: connecting social, economic and ecological performance 162

Enabling ecological economics: SSCM 163

A case in point: ‘what do we do with it now?’ 165

WYM background 166

The economic production of wool yarn 167

Goods 168

Wastes 169

Ecological services and amenities 169

Natural capital 169

Human capital 171

Social capital 173

Manufactured capital 174

Community and individual well-being 175

Discussion 175

Conclusion 176

11 Market-based Instruments and Ecosystem Services: Opportunity and Experience to Date 178
Stuart M. Whitten and Anthea Coggan

Abstract 178

Introduction 179

Market-based instruments: definition and preconditions 180

Types of MBIs 180

Examples of MBIs for ecosystem services 184

Price-based MBIs 184

Quantity-based MBIs 186

Market friction MBIs 188

The brave new world of ecosystem markets 189

Designing effective MBIs 189

Where to next in the brave new world of markets for ecosystem services? 190

Epilogue: Equitable and Sustainable Systems 194
Steve Wratten, Harpinder Sandhu, Ross Cullen and Robert Costanza

Index 196

“In summary, I think that this book is a useful addition to the literature. . . Thus, I would recommend this book to economists, policy makers, land managers and students wanting to get a relatively clear and concise overview on the key aspects of ES.”  (Australian Journal of Agricultural & Resource Economics, 8 January 2014)

“This book is an introductory text that will be useful to students and researchers from a broad range of fields. What I do like and thoroughly enjoyed about this book is that it demonstrates the multiple facets or faces of ecosystem services and the benefits humans derive from them.”  (Restoration Ecology, 1 September 2013)