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Educational Psychology: Reflection for Action, 3rd Edition



Educational Psychology: Reflection for Action, 3rd Edition

Angela M. O'Donnell, Johnmarshall Reeve, Jeffrey K. Smith

ISBN: 978-1-118-12915-9 December 2011 672 Pages

WileyPLUS improves outcomes with robust practice problems and feedback, fosters engagement with course content and educational videos, and gives students the flexibility to increase confidence as they learn and prepare outside of class.
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Teachers help students learn, develop, and realize their potential. To become successful in their craft, teachers need to learn how to establish high-quality relationships with their students, and they need to learn how to implement instructional strategies that promote students' learning, development, and potential. To prepare pre-service teachers for the profession, the study of educational psychology can help them to better understand their students and better understand their process of teaching. Such is the twofold purpose of Educational Psychology – to help pre-service teachers understand their future students better and to help them understand all aspects of the teaching-learning situation. The pursuit of these two purposes leads to the ultimate goal of this text – namely, to help pre-service teachers become increasingly able to promote student learning, development, and potential when it becomes their turn to step into the classroom and take full-time responsibility for their own classes.

Related Resources

1 Introducing Educational Psychology and Reflective Teaching xxxiv

Educational Psychology 2

Theories and Research 6

Narrowing the Gap between Theory and Practice 17

Reflective Teaching 19

2 Teachers and Teaching 28

The Teaching Life 30

What Is Teaching? 31

Teacher Development 33

Teaching Efficacy 41

Planning 48

General Approaches to Teaching 57

3 Cognitive Development 66

Brain Development 68

Cognitive Development 72

Sociocognitive Development 85

Language Development 93

4 Social Development 108

Relationships 111

Psychosocial Development 119

Moral Development 127

Social Competence 132

Aggression 136

5 Behavioral Learning Theory 150

Explaining Learning 152

Principles of Behavioral Learning Theory 155

Reinforcement 156

Punishment 160

Behavioral Learning Theory and Diverse Learners 164

Applied Behavior Analysis 165

Behavioral Learning Theory and Special Needs Students 167

Managing Behavior 167

Influences of Behavioral Learning Theory on Instruction 177

6 Managing Learning in Classrooms 186

Designing the Physical Environment 188

Designing the Social Environment: Norms and Rules 195

Managing Day-to-Day Classroom Instruction 206

Dealing with Behavior Problems 211

7 Cognitive Learning Theory 222

Cognitive Theories of Learning 224

The Information-Processing Model 225

Memory Systems 230

Encoding, Retrieval, and Forgetting 238

Categorization 244

8 Social Learning Theory, Complex Cognition, and Social Constructivism 254

Social Learning Theory 256

Complex Cognition 262

Complex Cognition and Social Constructivism 268

Instruction Influenced by Social-Constructivist and Sociocultural Theory 279

9 Learning from Peers 290

Perspectives on Peer Learning 292

Tutoring 304

Learning in Heterogeneous Groups 311

Collaboration and Technology 314

Influences on Effectiveness in Heterogeneous Groups 316

Learning from Peers: Practices for Learning 321

10 Motivation and Engagement 332

Engagement 334

Motivation 341

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 342

Psychological Needs 348

Curiosity, Interest, and Positive Affect 356

Engagement-Draining Motivational Deficits 360

11 Motivation to Learn 372

Motivation Is Rooted in Constructive Thinking 375

Self-Efficacy 376

Variability in the Classroom 414

Intelligence 415

Talent 423

Extremes of Intelligence 427

Differences in Ability and Instruction 429

Learners with Special Needs 430

Prevalent Student Needs and Challenges 435

Mastery Beliefs 381

Goals 387

Self-Regulation 397

Self-Concept 401

12 Individual Differences and Special Needs 412

13 Issues in Diversity 450

Diverse Learners 452

English Language Learners 460

Multicultural Education: An Overview 461

Implementing a Multicultural Approach to Teaching 465

Becoming a Teacher of Diverse Children 469

14 Assessment for Learning 482

Assessments in Everyday Life 484

Assessment for Learning: Roles, Goals, and Audiences 486

Principles of Assessment and Grading 489

Options for Assessment 491

Developing and Using Assessments 502

Interpreting Classroom Assessments 509

Developing a Grading System 513

Communicating with Parents 517

15 Standardized and Standards-Based Assessments 526

The Nature and Development of Standardized Assessment 528

Technical Issues in Assessment 534

Interpreting Standardized Assessments 547

Controversies in Assessment 555

Appendix: Looking at the Praxis II™ Principles of Learning and Teaching Assessment and the INTASC Principles 564

Glossary 574

References 582

Name Index 619

Subject Index 629

  • New Chapter 13, Issues of Diversity, as well as diversity coverage integrated throughout the book where appropriate
  • New Organization:  the chapter on Individual Differences and Special needs has been fully revised and has been moved from Chapter 5  to Chapter 12, so it can be taught alongside the new content on diversity
  • Updated examples throughout to reflect current research and standards in education

  • Chapter Openers: Cases of classroom situations and challenges that teachers encounter allow students to engage in reflection for action.
  • Guiding Questions: Encourage reflection by tying teaching issues to theories and research.
  • Taking It to the Classroom: Guidelines that help pre-service teachers link theory and practice.
  • Reflection for Action Questions: Relate content back to chapter-opener cases.
  • Reflection for Action Activities: Encourage drawing upon theory and research to provide answers to teaching questions.
  • What Kids Say and Do: Samples of children's work and conversations link theory and practice.
  • Uncommon Sense boxes present myths/misconceptions not supported by research.
  • Analyzing a Lesson Plan: This feature asks students to evaluate both elementary and secondary lesson plans in the context of the chapter topic.
  • Mindful Habits of Effective Teachers: Tips that exemplify habits of successful teachers.