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Efficient Carbon Capture for Coal Power Plants

Efficient Carbon Capture for Coal Power Plants

Detlef Stolten (Editor), Viktor Scherer (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-33002-7

Jul 2011

640 pages

Select type: Hardcover

In Stock

$187.00

Description

Carbon Capture and Storage is a key technology for a sustainable and low carbon economy. This book unites top academic and industry researchers in search for commercial concepts for CCS at coal power ploants. This reference focuses on power plant technology and ways to improve efficiency.
It details the three principal ways of capturing the CO2 produced in power plants: oxyfuel combustion, postcombustion and precombustion, with the main part concentrating on the different approaches to removing carbon dioxide. Wtih an eye on safety, the authors explain how the three parts of the CCS chain work - capture, transport and storage - and how they can be performed safely.
The result is specific insights for process engineers, chemists, physicists and materials engineers in their relevant fields, as well as a sufficiently broad scope to be able to understand the opportunities and implications of the other disciples.
Preface XIII

List of Contributors XV

Part 1 Introduction and Overview

1 The Case for Carbon Capture and Storage 3
Klaus S. Lackner

Abstract 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Dilution versus Treatment 4

1.3 Carbon Reservoirs 5

1.4 Excess Carbon 5

1.5 The Scale of Carbon Capture and Storage 6

1.6 Storage Capacity Requirements 7

1.7 Conclusion 8

References 9

2 Advanced Power Plant Technology 11
Hartmut Spliethoff

Abstract 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 History of the Development of Power Plants –

Correlation Between Unit Size, Availability, and Efficiency 12

2.3 Possibilities for Efficiency Increases in the Development of a Steam Power Plant 15

References 40

3 Capture Options for Coal Power Plants 45
Ernst Riensche, Jewgeni Nazarko, Sebastian Schiebahn, Michael Weber, Li Zhao, and Detlef Stolten

Abstract 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Requirements on CO2 Capture and Compression 47

3.3 CO2 Capture Routes 53

3.4 Gas Separation Tasks and Methods 54

3.5 Plant Concepts for Carbon Capture 65

3.6 Carbon Dioxide Compression 74

3.7 Conclusion 75

Acknowledgments 75

References 76

4 Life Cycle Assessment for Power Plants with CCS 83
Peter Viebahn

Abstract 83

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Life Cycle Assessment as an Assessment Method 84

4.3 Review of Life Cycle Assessments Along the Whole CCS Chain 85

4.4 Results 99

4.5 Constraints of LCA Regarding an Assessment of CCS 102

4.6 Comparison of Electricity from CCS and from Renewable Energies 104

4.7 Conclusion on Needs for Action 105

Acknowledgment 107

References 107

Part 2 CO2 Scrubbing

5 Physics and Chemistry of Absorption for CO2 Capture to Coal Power Plants 113
Paul Feron and Graeme Puxty

Abstract 113

5.1 Gas Separation for CO2 Capture 113

5.2 Process Engineering and Performance 120

5.3 Physical Absorption 124

5.4 Chemical Absorption 131

5.5 Physical Properties 145

5.6 Outlook 146

Acknowledgments 147

Symbols and Nomenclature 147

References 149

Materials for CO2Scrubbing

6 Chemical Absorption Materials for CO2 Capture 155
Kaj Thomsen

Abstract 155

6.1 Introduction 155

6.2 Alkanolamines 157

6.3 Sodium and Potassium Carbonates 160

6.4 Ammonia 162

6.5 Amino Acid Salts 167

6.6 Ionic Liquids 168

6.7 Conclusion 168

References 169

7 Physical Absorption Materials for CO2 Capture 175
Sebastian Schiebahn, Li Zhao and Marcus Grünewald

Abstract 175

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 Pre-Combustion Capture in IGCC 176

7.3 Physical Absorption Materials and Processes 179

7.4 Conclusions and Outlook 195

References 196

Processes for CO2 Scrubbing

8 CO2 Removal in Coal Power Plants via Post-Combustion with Absorbents 201
Hans Fahlenkamp, Bernhard Epp, Stefan Telge, Christina Stankewitz, and Martin Dittmar

Abstract 201

8.1 Tail-End CO2 Capture 202

8.2 Demonstration Plants and Pilot Plants 216

8.3 Conclusion 236

Symbols and Abbreviations 237

References 238

9 CO2 Removal in Coal Power Plants via Pre-Combustion with Physical Absorption 241
Stéphane Walspurger, Eric van Dijk, and Ruud van den Brink

Abstract 241

9.1 Introduction 242

9.2 The Sorption-Enhanced Water Gas Shift Process 250

9.3 Sorption Processes and Material Development for SEWGS 256

9.4 Conclusion and Outlook 263

Acknowledgments 264

References 264

Part 3 CO2 Removal with Cryogenic Air Separation

10 CO2 Capture via the Oxyfuel Process with Cryogenic Air Separation 271
Alfons Kather and Mathias Klostermann

Abstract 271

10.1 Introduction 271

10.2 Flue Gas Recycle 273

10.3 Combustion 276

10.4 CO2 Purification and Capture 278

10.5 Efficiency 284

10.6 Current Developments 291

References 292

Part 4 Separation with Membranes

11 Physics of Membrane Separation of CO2 297
Matthias Wessling

Abstract 297

11.1 Introduction 297

11.2 Macroscopic Mass Transport 300

11.3 Permeation Through Materials 302

11.4 Membrane Geometries and Morphologies 309

11.5 Fluid Dynamics and Modules 310

11.6 Process Design 313

11.7 Conclusion 315

References 316

Materials for Membrane Separation of CO2

12 Inorganic Membranes for CO2 Separation 319
Wilhelm A. Meulenberg, Ingolf Voigt, Ralf Kriegel, Stefan Baumann, Mariya Ivanova, and Tim van Gestel

Abstract 319

12.1 Introduction 320

12.2 Membranes for Gas Separation 321

12.3 Conclusion and Outlook 343

References 344

13 Polymer Membranes for CO2 Separation 351
Sander R. Reijerkerk, Kitty Nijmeijer, Jens Potreck, Katja Simons, and Matthias Wessling

Abstract 351

13.1 Introduction 352

13.2 Polymer Membranes for CO2 Capture 354

13.3 Theoretical Gas and Vapor Transport Through Dense Polymer Membranes 360

13.4 Gas and Vapor Transport Through Dense Polymer Membranes for Flue Gas Treatment 364

13.5 Conclusion 374

References 376

Processes for Membrane Separation of CO2

14 CO2 Separation via the Post-Combustion Process with Membranes in Coal Power Plants 381
Peter Michael Follmann, Christoph Bayer, Matthias Wessling, and Thomas Melin

Abstract 381

14.1 Introduction 381

14.2 Process Boundary Conditions 382

14.3 Membranes and Membrane Modeling 386

14.4 Membrane Processes 391

14.5 Economics of Membrane Processes for CO2 Capture 399

14.6 Summary and Conclusions 400

Acknowledgment 400

References 401

15 CO2 Separation via the Oxyfuel Process with O2-Transport Membranes in Coal Power Plants 405
Franz Beggel, Nicolas Nauels, and Michael Modigell

Abstract 405

15.1 Introduction 405

15.2 MIEC Membrane Operating Concepts 406

15.3 Hard Coal Membrane-Based Oxyfuel Process 408

15.4 Literature Review of Membrane-Based Oxyfuel Processes 416

15.5 Towards Realization – Module Design 421

15.6 Conclusion 427

References 428

16 CO2 Separation via Pre-Combustion Utilizing Membranes in Coal Power Plants 431
Viktor Scherer and Johannes Franz

Abstract 431

16.1 Introduction 431

16.2 Process Conditions, Membrane Characteristics,

Classification Numbers, Permeation Laws, and Water Gas Shift 432

16.3 Pre-Combustion Concepts with Scrubbing Technologies 444

16.4 Pre-Combustion Concepts with CO2-Selective Membranes 445

16.5 Pre-Combustion Concepts with H2-Selective Membranes 453

16.6 Conclusion 466

References 468

Part 5 Chemical Looping for CO2 Separation

17 Chemical Looping Materials for CO2 Separation 475
Anders Lyngfelt and Tobias Mattisson

Abstract 475

17.1 Introduction 475

17.2 Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels 478

17.3 Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) 478

17.4 Chemical Looping Reforming 479

17.5 Chemical Looping Gasification of Solid Fuels 480

17.6 Oxygen Carrier Development 481

17.7 Reactor Design and Operational Experience in Chemical Looping Combustors 493

17.8 Reactivity and Solids Inventory 495

17.9 Conclusion 495

References 496

18 Chemical Looping in Power Plants 505
Bernd Epple and Jochen Ströhle

Abstract 505

18.1 Introduction 505

18.2 Chemical Looping Combustion 506

18.3 Carbonate Looping Process 514

18.4 Conclusion 520

References 522

Part 6 Transportation and Storage of CO2

19 CO2 Compression 527
Mark A. Gray

Abstract 527

19.1 CO2 Compression and Storage – Magnitude of the Issue 527

19.2 CO2 Compression Energy Consumption – Heat Integration 528

19.3 Heat Recovery Opportunities 532

19.4 CO2 Purity and Pipeline Transport Issues 533

19.5 CO2 Storage Development – Prudent Practices 534

19.6 Public Policy and Long-Term Liability 537

19.7 Conclusion 539

References 540

20 CO2 Transport – The Missing Link for CCS 541
Chris A. Hendriks, Erika de Visser, and Joris Koornneef

Abstract 541

20.1 Introduction 541

20.2 Experience with CO2 Transport 542

20.3 CO2 Transport by Pipeline 544

20.4 CO2 Transport by Ship 552

20.5 Ships Compared with Pipelines 557

20.6 CO2 Infrastructure Networks 558

20.7 Regulation and Investment Decisions 561

20.8 Strategic Planning for Pipelines 565

References 568

21 Storage of Fossil Carbon 573
Klaus S. Lackner

Abstract 573

21.1 Introduction 573

21.2 Summary of Storage Options 574

21.3 Current Activities 578

21.4 Utilization Versus Disposal 581

21.5 Different Forms of Stored Carbon 584

21.6 Storage Lifetime 591

21.7 Storage Capacity Requirements 592

21.8 Closing Natural Carbon Cycles 593

21.9 The Role of Alkalinity 593

21.10 Storage Safety 594

21.11 Storage Accountability 595

21.12 Conclusion 596

References 598

Index 601

"The result is specific insights for process engineers, chemists, physicists and materials engineers in their relevant fields, as well as a sufficiently broad scope to be able to understand the opportunities and implications of the other disciples." (ETDE Energy database, 1 July 2011)