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Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation

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Efficient Petrochemical Processes: Technology, Design and Operation

Frank (Xin X.) Zhu, James A. Johnson, David W Ablin, Gregory A. Ernst

ISBN: 978-1-119-48786-9 November 2019 432 Pages

Hardcover
Pre-order
$165.00
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Description

This book covers the application of methods and tools for energy optimization and process design. It focuses the application of these methods on petrochemical process units such as the aromatics process unit. The book provides practical methods and tools to industrial practitioners with the focus on improving industrial energy efficiency, reducing capital investment, and optimizing yields via better design, operation, and optimization.
Broken down into six parts the book covers a range of topics including: Aromatics Process Description; Process Design Considerations; Petrochemical Separation Design; Process Integration; Process system optimization; Types of revamps; Equipment assessment; Common operating issues; and Troubleshooting case analysis to name a few.
 

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxi

Part I Market, Design and Technology Overview 1

1 Overview of This Book 3

1.1 Why Petrochemical Products Are Important for the Economy 3

1.2 Overall Petrochemical Configurations 8

1.3 Context of Process Designs and Operation for Petrochemical Production 11

1.4 Who Is This Book Written For? 11

2 Market and Technology Overview 13

2.1 Overview of Aromatic Petrochemicals 13

2.2 Introduction and Market Information 13

2.3 Technologies in Aromatics Synthesis 21

2.4 Alternative Feeds for Aromatics 27

2.5 Technologies in Aromatic Transformation 28

2.6 Technologies in Aromatic Separations 35

2.7 Separations by Molecular Weight 39

2.8 Separations by Isomer Type: para‐Xylene 39

2.9 Separations by Isomer Type: meta‐Xylene 44

2.10 Separations by Isomer Type: ortho‐Xylene and Ethylbenzene 45

2.11 Other Related Aromatics Technologies 46

2.12 Integrated Refining and Petrochemicals 57

References 61

3 Aromatics Process Description 63

3.1 Overall Aromatics Flow Scheme 63

3.2 Adsorptive Separations for para‐Xylene 64

3.3 Technologies for Treating Feeds for Aromatics Production 68

3.4 para‐Xylene Purification and Recovery by Crystallization 68

3.5 Transalkylation Processes 71

3.6 Xylene Isomerization 72

3.7 Adsorptive Separation of Pure meta‐Xylene 76

3.8 para‐Selective Catalytic Technologies for para‐Xylene 78

References 81

Part II Process Design 83

4 Aromatics Process Unit Design 85

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Aromatics Fractionation 85

4.3 Aromatics Extraction 88

4.4 Transalkylation 96

4.5 Xylene Isomerization 101

4.6 para‐Xylene Separation 105

4.7 Process Design Considerations: Design Margin Philosophy 106

4.8 Process Design Considerations: Operational Flexibility 108

4.9 Process Design Considerations: Fractionation Optimization 109

4.10 Safety Considerations 110

4.10.1 Reducing Exposure to Hazardous Materials 110

4.10.2 Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 110

4.10.3 Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Study 110

Further Reading 111

5 Aromatics Process Revamp Design 113

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Stages of Revamp Assessment and Types of Revamp Studies 113

5.3 Revamp Project Approach 115

5.4 Revamp Study Methodology and Strategies 116

5.5 Setting the Design Basis for Revamp Projects 118

5.6 Process Design for Revamp Projects 121

5.7 Revamp Impact on Utilities 123

5.8 Equipment Evaluation for Revamps 124

5.9 Economic Evaluation 147

5.10 Example Revamp Cases 152

Further Reading 154

Part III Process Equipment Assessment 155

6 Distillation Column Assessment 157

6.1 Introduction 157

6.2 Define a Base Case 157

6.3 Calculations for Missing and Incomplete Data 159

6.4 Building Process Simulation 161

6.5 Heat and Material Balance Assessment 162

6.6 Tower Efficiency Assessment 164

6.7 Operating Profile Assessment 166

6.8 Tower Rating Assessment 168

6.9 Guidelines for Existing Columns 169

Nomenclature 170

Greek Letters 170

References 170

7 Heat Exchanger Assessment 171

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Basic Calculations 171

7.3 Understand Performance Criterion: U‐Values 173

7.4 Understand Fouling 176

7.5 Understand Pressure Drop 178

7.6 Effects of Velocity on Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop, and Fouling 178

7.7 Improving Heat Exchanger Performance 185

7.A TEMA Types of Heat Exchangers 186

References 188

8 Fired Heater Assessment 189

8.1 Introduction 189

8.2 Fired Heater Design for High Reliability 189

8.3 Fired Heater Operation for High Reliability 194

8.4 Efficient Fired Heater Operation 197

8.5 Fired Heater Revamp 201

References 202

9 Compressor Assessment 203

9.1 Introduction 203

9.2 Types of Compressors 203

9.3 Impeller Configurations 205

9.4 Type of Blades 207

9.5 How a Compressor Works 207

9.6 Fundamentals of Centrifugal Compressors 208

9.7 Performance Curves 209

9.8 Partial Load Control 210

9.9 Inlet Throttle Valve 212

9.10 Process Context for a Centrifugal Compressor 212

9.11 Compressor Selection 213

References 213

10 Pump Assessment 215

10.1 Introduction 215

10.2 Understanding Pump Head 215

10.3 Define Pump Head: Bernoulli Equation 216

10.4 Calculate Pump Head 218

10.5 Total Head Calculation Examples 219

10.6 Pump System Characteristics: System Curve 221

10.7 Pump Characteristics: Pump Curve 222

10.8 Best Efficiency Point (BEP) 224

10.9 Pump Curves for Different Pump Arrangement 225

10.10 NPSH 226

10.11 Spillback 229

10.12 Reliability Operating Envelope (ROE) 230

10.13 Pump Control 230

10.14 Pump Selection and Sizing 231

Nomenclature 233

Greek Letters 233

References 233

Part IV Energy and Process Integration 235

11 Process Integration for Higher Efficiency and Low Cost 237

11.1 Introduction 237

11.2 Definition of Process Integration 237

11.3 Composite Curves and Heat Integration 238

11.4 Grand Composite Curves (GCC) 244

11.5 Appropriate Placement Principle for Process Changes 244

11.6 Systematic Approach for Process Integration 249

11.7 Applications of the Process Integration Methodology 251

References 261

12 Energy Benchmarking 263

12.1 Introduction 263

12.2 Definition of Energy Intensity for a Process 263

12.3 The Concept of Fuel Equivalent (FE) for Steam and Power 264

12.4 Calculate Energy Intensity for a Process 265

12.5 Fuel Equivalent for Steam and Power 267

12.6 Energy Performance Index (EPI) Method for Energy Benchmarking 271

12.7 Concluding Remarks 272

References 273

13 Key Indicators and Targets 275

13.1 Introduction 275

13.2 Key Indicators Represent Operation Opportunities 275

13.3 Defining Key Indicators 277

13.4 Set Up Targets for Key Indicators 280

13.5 Economic Evaluation for Key Indicators 283

13.6 Application 1: Implementing Key Indicators into an “Energy Dashboard” 285

13.7 Application 2: Implementing Key Indicators to Controllers 287

13.8 It Is Worth the Effort 287

References 288

14 Distillation System Optimization 289

14.1 Introduction 289

14.2 Tower Optimization Basics 289

14.3 Energy Optimization for Distillation System 293

14.4 Overall Process Optimization 296

14.5 Concluding Remarks 302

References 302

15 Fractionation and Separation Theory and Practices 303

15.1 Introduction 303

15.2 Separation Technology Overview 303

15.3 Distillation Basics 305

15.4 Advanced Distillation Topics 311

15.5 Adsorption 316

15.6 Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) 317

15.7 Crystallization 320

15.8 Liquid–Liquid Extraction 320

15.9 Extractive Distillation 321

15.10 Membranes 322

15.11 Selecting a Separation Method 323

References 324

16 Reaction Engineering Overview 325

16.1 Introduction 325

16.2 Reaction Basics 325

16.3 Reaction Kinetic Modeling Basics 326

16.4 Rate Equation Based on Surface Kinetics 328

16.5 Limitations in Catalytic Reaction 330

16.6 Reactor Types 333

16.7 Reactor Design 335

16.8 Hybrid Reaction and Separation 340

16.9 Catalyst Deactivation Root Causes and Modeling 341

References 343

Part V Operational Guidelines and Troubleshooting 345

17 Common Operating Issues 347

17.1 Introduction 347

17.2 Start‐up Considerations 348

17.3 Methyl Group and Phenyl Ring Losses 349

17.4 Limiting Aromatics Losses 350

17.5 Fouling 356

17.6 Aromatics Extraction Unit Solvent Degradation 360

17.7 Selective Adsorption of para‐Xylene by Simulated Moving Bed 363

17.8 Common Issues with Sampling and Laboratory Analysis 371

17.9 Measures of Operating Efficiency in Aromatics Complex Process Units 374

17.10 The Future of Plant Troubleshooting and Optimization 377

References 377

18 Troubleshooting Case Studies 379

18.1 Introduction 379

18.2 Transalkylation Unit: Low Catalyst Activity During Normal Operation 379

18.3 Xylene Isomerization Unit: Low Catalyst Activity Following Start‐up 381

18.4 para‐Xylene Selective Adsorption Unit: Low Recovery After Turnaround 384

18.5 Aromatics Extraction Unit: Low Extract Purity/Recovery 385

18.6 Aromatics Complex: Low para‐Xylene Production 386

18.7 Closing Remarks 388

Reference 389

Index 391