Skip to main content

Electric Power Principles: Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use, 2nd Edition




Electric Power Principles: Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use, 2nd Edition

James L. Kirtley

ISBN: 978-1-119-58517-6 March 2020 430 Pages

Editions Next
Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description.


A revised and updated text that explores the fundamentals of the physics of electric power handling systems

The revised and updated second edition of Electric Power Principles: Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use offers an innovative and comprehensive approach to the fundamentals of electric power. The author – a noted expert on the topic – provides a thorough grounding in electric power systems, with an informative discussion on per-unit normalisations, symmetrical components and iterative load flow calculations. The text covers the most important topics within the power system, such as protection and DC transmission, and examines both traditional power plants and those used for extracting sustainable energy from wind and sunlight.

The text explores the principles of electromechanical energy conversion and magnetic circuits and synchronous machines – the most important generators of electric power. The book also contains information on power electronics, induction and direct current motors. This new second edition includes:

  • A new chapter on energy storage, including battery modeling and how energy storage and associated power electronics can be used to modify system dynamics
  • Information on voltage stability and bifurcation
  • The addition of Newton’s Method for load flow calculations
  • Material on the grounding transformer connections added to the section on three phase transformer
  • An example of the unified power flow controller for voltage support

Written for students studying electric power systems and electrical engineering, the updated second edition of Electric Power Principles: Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use is the classroom-tested text that offers an understanding of the basics of the physics of electric power handling systems.


Chapter 1: Electric Power Systems

1.1 Electric Utility Systems

1.2 Energy and Power

1.2.1 Basics and Units

1.3 Sources of Electric Power

1.3.1 Heat Engines

1.3.2 Power Plants Environmental Impact of Burning Fossil Fuels

1.3.3 Nuclear Power Plants

1.3.4 Hydroelectric Power

1.3.5 Wind Turbines

1.3.6 Solar Power Generation

1.4 Electric Power Plants and Generation

1.5 Problems

Chapter 2: AC Voltage, Current and Power

2.1 Sources and Power

2.1.1 Voltage and Current Sources

2.1.2 Power

2.1.3 Sinusoidal Steady State

2.1.4 Phasor Notation

2.1.5 Real and Reactive Power Root Mean Square Amplitude

2.2 Resistors, Inductors and Capacitors

2.2.1 Reactive Power and Voltage Example

2.2.2 Reactive Power Voltage Support

2.3 Voltage Stability and Bifurcation

2.3.1 Voltage Calculation

2.3.2 Voltage Solution and Effect of Reactive Power

2.4 Problems

Chapter 3: Transmission Lines

3.1 Modeling: Telegrapher’s Equations

3.1.1 Traveling Waves

3.1.2 Characteristic Impedance

3.1.3 Power

3.1.4 Line Terminations and Reflections Examples Lightning Inductive Termination

3.1.5 Sinusoidal Steady State

3.2 Problems

Chapter 4: Polyphase Systems

4.1 Three Phase Systems

4.2 Line-Line Voltages

4.2.1 Example: Wye and Delta Connected Loads

4.2.2 Example: Use of Wye-Delta for Unbalanced Loads

4.3 Problems

Chapter 5: Electrical and Magnetic Circuits

5.1 Electric Circuits

5.1.1 Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)

5.1.2 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

5.1.3 Constitutive Relationship: Ohm’s Law

5.2 Magnetic Circuit Analogies

5.2.1 Analogy to KCL

5.2.2 Analogy to KVL: Magnetomotive Force

5.2.3 Analogy to Ohm’s Law: Reluctance

5.2.4 Simple Case

5.2.5 Flux Confinement

5.2.6 Example: C-Core

5.2.7 Example: Core with Different Gaps

5.3 Problems

Chapter 6: Transformers

6.1 Single-phase Transformers

6.1.1 Ideal Transformer

6.1.2 Deviations from Ideal Transformer

6.1.3 Autotransformers

6.2 Three-Phase Transformers

6.2.1 Example

6.2.2 Another Example: Grounding, or ‘Zig-Zag’ transformer

6.3 Problems

Chapter 7: Polyphase Lines and Single-Phase Equivalents

7.1 Polyphase Transmission and Distribution Lines

7.1.1 Example

7.2 Introduction to Per-Unit Systems

7.2.1 Normalization of Voltage And Current

7.2.2 Three-Phase Systems

7.2.3 Networks with Transformers

7.2.4 Transforming From One Base to Another

7.2.5 Example: Fault Study One-Line Diagram of the Situation

7.3 Appendix: Inductances of Transmission Lines

7.3.1 Single Wire

7.3.2 Mutual Inductance

7.3.3 Bundles of Conductors

7.3.4 Transposed Lines

7.4 Problems

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Forces and Loss Mechanisms

8.1 Energy Conversion Process

8.1.1 Principal of Virtual Work Example: Lifting Magnet

8.1.2 Coenergy Example: Coenergy Force Problem Electric Machine Model

8.2 Continuum Energy Flow

8.2.1 Material Motion

8.2.2 Additional Issues in Energy Methods Coenergy in Continuous Media Permanent Magnets Energy in the Flux-Current Plane

8.2.3 Electric Machine Description

8.2.4 Field Description of Electromagnetic Force: The Maxwell Stress Tensor

8.2.5 Tying the MST and Poynting Approaches Together Simple Description of a Linear Induction Motor

8.3 Surface Impedance of Uniform Conductors

8.3.1 Linear Case

8.3.2 Iron

8.3.3 Magnetization

8.3.4 Saturation and Hysteresis

8.3.5 Conduction, Eddy Currents and Laminations Complete Penetration Case

8.3.6 Eddy Currents in Saturating Iron

8.4 Semi-Empirical Method of Handling Iron Loss

8.5 Problems

Chapter 9: Synchronous Machines

9.1 Round Rotor Machines: Basics

9.1.1 Operation with a Balanced Current Source

9.1.2 Operation with a Voltage Source

9.2 Reconciliation of Models

9.2.1 Torque Angles

9.3 Per-Unit Systems

9.4 Normal Operation

9.4.1 Capability Diagram

9.4.2 Vee Curve

9.5 Salient Pole Machines: Two-Reaction Theory

9.6 Synchronous Machine Dynamics

9.7 Synchronous Machine Dynamic Model

9.7.1 Electromagnetic Model

9.7.2 Park’s Equations

9.7.3 Power and Torque

9.7.4 Per-Unit Normalization

9.7.5 Equivalent Circuits

9.7.6 Transient Reactances and Time Constants

9.8 Statement of Simulation Model

9.8.1 Example: Transient Stability

9.8.2 Equal Area Transient Stability Criterion

9.9 Appendix: Transient Stability Code

9.10 Appendix: Winding Inductance Calculation

9.10.1 Pitch Factor

9.10.1 Breadth Factor

9.11 Problems

Chapter 10: System Analysis and Protection

10.1 The Symmetrical Component Transformation

10.2 Sequence Impedances

10.2.1 Balanced Transmission Lines

10.2.2 Balanced Load

10.2.3 Possibly Unbalanced Loads

10.2.4 Unbalanced Sources

10.2.5 Rotating Machines

10.2.6 Transformers Example: Rotation of Symmetrical Component Currents Example: Reconstruction of Currents

10.3 Fault Analysis

10.3.1 Single Line-neutral Fault

10.3.2 Double Line-Neutral Fault

10.3.3 Line-Line Fault

10.3.4 Example of Fault Calculations Symmetrical Fault Single Line-Neutral Fault Double Line-Neutral Fault Line-Line Fault Conversion to Amperes

10.4 System Protection

10.4.1 Fuses

10.5 Switches

10.6 Coordination

10.6.1 Ground Overcurrent

10.7 Impedance Relays

10.7.1 Directional Elements

10.8 Differential Relays

10.8.1 Ground Fault Protection for Personnel

10.9 Zones of System Protection

10.10 Problems

Chapter 11: Load Flow

11.1 Two Ports and Lines

11.1.1 Power Circles

11.2 Load Flow in a Network

11.3 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Technique

11.4 Bus Types

11.5 Bus Admittance

11.5.1 Bus Incidence

11.5.2 Example Network

11.5.3 Alternative Assembly of Bus Admittance

11.6 Newton-Raphson Method for Load Flow

11.6.1 Generator Buses

11.6.2 Decoupling

11.6.3 Example Calculations

11.7 Problems

11.8 Appendix: Matlab Scripts to Implement Load Flow Techniques

Chapter 12: Power Electronics and Converters in Power Systems

12.1 Switching Devices

12.1.1 Diode

12.1.2 Thyristor

12.1.3 Bipolar Transistors

12.2 Rectifier Circuits

12.2.1 Full-Wave Rectifier Full-Wave Bridge with Resistive Load Phase Control Rectifier Phase Control into an Inductive Load AC Phase Control Rectifiers for DC Power Supplies

12.3 DC-DC Converters

12.3.1 Pulse Width Modulation

12.3.2 Boost Converter Continuous Conduction Discontinuous Conduction Unity Power Factor Supplies

12.4 Canonical Cell

12.4.1 Bidirectional Converter

12.4.2 H-Bridge

12.5 Three-Phase Bridge Circuits

12.5.1 Rectifier Operation

12.5.2 Phase Control

12.5.3 Commutation Overlap

12.5.4 AC Side Current Harmonics Power Supply Rectifiers PWM Capable Switch Bridge

12.6 Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

12.7 High Voltage DC Transmission

12.7.1 Basic Operation of a Converter Bridge Turn-On Switch

12.7.2 Inverter Terminal

12.8 Achieving High Voltage

12.9 Problems

Chapter 13: System Dynamics and Energy Storage

13.1 Load Frequency Relationship

13.2 Energy Balance

13.2.1 Natural Response

13.2.2 Feedback Control

13.2.3 Droop Control

13.2.4 Isochronous Control

13.3 Synchronized Areas

13.3.1 Area Control Error

13.3.2 Synchronizing Dynamics

13.3.3 Feedback Control to Drive ACE to Zero

13.4 Inverter Connection

13.4.1 Overview of Connection

13.4.2 Filters

13.4.3 Measurement

13.4.4 Phase Locked Loop

13.4.5 Control Loops

13.4.6 Grid Following (Slave) Inverter

13.4.7 Grid Forming Inverter

13.4.8 Droop Controlled Inverter

13.5 Energy Storage

13.5.1 Time Scales

13.5.2 Batteries Simplest Battery Model Diffusion Model Model including State of Charge

13.6 Problems

Chapter 14: Induction Machines

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Induction Machine Transformer Model

14.2.1 Operation: Energy Balance Simplified Torque Estimation Torque Summary

14.2.2 Example of Operation

14.2.3 Motor Performance Requirements Effect of Rotor Resistance

14.3 Squirrel Cage Machines

14.4 Single-Phase Induction Motors

14.4.1 Rotating Fields

14.4.2 Power Conversion in the Single-Phase Induction Machine

14.4.3 Starting of Single-Phase Induction Motors Shaded Pole Motors Split Phase Motors

14.4.4 Split Phase Operation Example Motor

14.5 Induction Generators

14.6 Induction Motor Control

14.6.1 Volts/Hz Control

14.6.2 Field Oriented Control

14.6.3 Elementary Model

14.6.4 Simulation Model

14.6.5 Control Model

14.6.6 Field-Oriented Strategy

14.7 Doubly Fed Induction Machines

14.7.1 Steady State Operation

14.8 Appendix 1: Squirrel-Cage Machine Model

14.8.1 Rotor Currents and Induced Flux

14.8.2 Squirrel-Cage Currents

14.9 Appendix 2: Single-Phase Squirrel-Cage Model

14.10 Appendix 3: Induction Machine Winding Schemes

14.10.1 Winding Factor for Concentric Windings

14.11 Problems

Chapter 15: DC (Commutator Machines)

15.1 Geometry

15.2 Torque Production

15.3 Back Voltage

15.4 Operation

15.4.1 Shunt Operation

15.4.2 Separately Excited Armature Voltage Control Field Weakening Control Dynamic Braking

15.4.3 Machine Capability

15.5 Series Connection

15.6 Universal Motors

15.7 Commutator

15.7.1 Commutation Interpoles

15.7.2 Compensation

15.8 Compound Wound DC Machines

15.9 Problems

Chapter 16: Permanent Magnets in Electric Machines

16.1 Permanent Magnets

16.1.1 Permanent Magnets in Magnetic Circuits

16.1.2 Load Line Analysis Very Hard Magnets Surface Magnet Analysis Amperian Currents

16.2 Commutator Machines

16.2.1 Voltage

16.2.2 Armature Resistance

16.3 Brushless PM Machines

16.4 Motor Morphologies

16.4.1 Surface Magnet Machines

16.4.2 Interior Magnet, Flux Concentrating Machines

16.4.3 Operation Voltage and Current: Round Rotor

16.4.4 A Little Two-Reaction Theory

16.4.5 Finding Torque Capability Optimal Currents Rating

16.5 Problems