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Electric Vehicle Machines and Drives: Design, Analysis and Application

Electric Vehicle Machines and Drives: Design, Analysis and Application

K. T. Chau

ISBN: 978-1-118-75255-5

May 2015, Wiley-IEEE Press

375 pages

Description

A timely comprehensive reference consolidates the research and development of electric vehicle machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsions

• Focuses on electric vehicle machines and drives
• Covers the major technologies in the area including fundamental concepts and applications
• Emphasis the design criteria, performance analyses and application examples or potentials of various motor drives and machine systems 
• Accompanying website includes the simulation models and outcomes as supplementary material

Related Resources

Preface xiii

Organization of This Book xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Author xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 What Is an Electric Vehicle? 1

1.2 Overview of EV Challenges 3

1.2.1 Pure Electric Vehicle 4

1.2.2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle 4

1.2.3 Gridable Hybrid Electric Vehicle 5

1.2.4 Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicle 5

1.3 Overview of EV Technologies 6

1.3.1 Motor Drive Technology 6

1.3.2 Energy Source Technology 9

1.3.3 Battery Charging Technology 11

1.3.4 Vehicle-to-Grid Technology 14

References 16

2 DC Motor Drives 19

2.1 System Configurations 19

2.2 DC Machines 20

2.2.1 Structure of DC Machines 20

2.2.2 Principle of DC Machines 22

2.2.3 Modeling of DC Machines 22

2.3 DC-DC Converters 24

2.3.1 DC-DC Converter Topologies 24

2.3.2 Soft-Switching DC-DC Converter Topologies 27

2.4 DC Motor Control 28

2.4.1 Speed Control 29

2.4.2 Regenerative Braking 31

2.5 Design Criteria of DC Motor Drives for EVs 33

2.6 Design Example for EVs 34

2.7 Application Examples of DC Motor Drives in EVs 35

2.8 Fading Technology for EVs? 38

References 38

3 Induction Motor Drives 39

3.1 System Configurations 39

3.2 Induction Machines 40

3.2.1 Structure of Induction Machines 41

3.2.2 Principle of Induction Machines 42

3.2.3 Modeling of Induction Machines 44

3.3 Inverters for Induction Motors 46

3.3.1 PWM Switching Inverters 47

3.3.2 Soft-Switching Inverters 50

3.4 Induction Motor Control 51

3.4.1 Variable-Voltage Variable-Frequency Control 51

3.4.2 Field-Oriented Control 53

3.4.3 Direct Torque Control 57

3.5 Design Criteria of Induction Motor Drives for EVs 61

3.6 Design Example of Induction Motor Drives for EVs 64

3.7 Application Examples of Induction Motor Drives in EVs 67

3.8 Matured Technology for EVs? 67

References 68

4 Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor Drives 69

4.1 PM Materials 69

4.2 System Configurations 70

4.3 PM Brushless Machines 72

4.3.1 Structure of PM Brushless Machines 72

4.3.2 Principle of PM Brushless Machines 75

4.3.3 Modeling of PM Brushless Machines 78

4.4 Inverters for PM Brushless Motors 82

4.4.1 Inverter Requirements 82

4.4.2 Switching Schemes for Brushless AC Operation 83

4.4.3 Switching Schemes for Brushless DC Operation 84

4.5 PM Brushless Motor Control 87

4.5.1 PM Synchronous Motor Control 87

4.5.2 PM Brushless DC Motor Control 91

4.6 Design Criteria of PM Brushless Motor Drives for EVs 93

4.7 Design Examples of PM Brushless Motor Drives for EVs 96

4.7.1 Planetary-Geared PM Synchronous Motor Drive 96

4.7.2 Outer-Rotor PM Brushless DC Motor Drive 100

4.8 Application Examples of PM Brushless Motor Drives in EVs 103

4.9 Preferred Technology for EVs? 104

References 106

5 Switched Reluctance Motor Drives 108

5.1 System Configurations 108

5.2 SR Machines 110

5.2.1 Structure of SR Machines 110

5.2.2 Principle of SR Machines 112

5.2.3 Modeling of SR Machines 115

5.3 SR Converters 117

5.3.1 SR Converter Topologies 118

5.3.2 Soft-Switching SR Converter Topologies 119

5.3.3 Comparison of SR Converters for EVs 123

5.4 SR Motor Control 124

5.4.1 Speed Control 124

5.4.2 Torque-Ripple Minimization Control 126

5.4.3 Position Sensorless Control 128

5.5 Design Criteria of SR Motor Drives for EVs 131

5.5.1 Machine Initialization 132

5.5.2 Suppression of Acoustic Noise 136

5.6 Examples of SR Motor Drives for EVs 137

5.6.1 Planetary-Geared SR Motor Drive 137

5.6.2 Outer-Rotor In-Wheel SR Motor Drive 141

5.7 Application Examples of SR Motor Drives in EVs 144

5.8 Maturing Technology for EVs? 144

References 145

6 Stator-Permanent Magnet Motor Drives 147

6.1 Stator-PM versus Rotor-PM 147

6.2 System Configurations 148

6.3 Doubly-Salient PM Motor Drives 149

6.4 Flux-Reversal PM Motor Drives 157

6.5 Flux-Switching PM Motor Drives 160

6.6 Hybrid-Excited PM Motor Drives 161

6.7 Flux-Mnemonic PM Motor Drives 165

6.8 Design Criteria of Stator-PM Motor Drives for EVs 173

6.9 Design Examples of Stator-PM Motor Drives for EVs 177

6.9.1 Outer-Rotor Hybrid-Excited DSPM Motor Drive 177

6.9.2 Outer-Rotor Flux-Mnemonic DSPM Motor Drive 181

6.10 Potential Applications of Stator-PM Motor Drives in EVs 192

References 194

7 Magnetic-Geared Motor Drives 195

7.1 System Configurations 195

7.2 Magnetic Gears 197

7.2.1 Converted Magnetic Gears 198

7.2.2 Field-Modulated Magnetic Gears 200

7.3 MG Machines 203

7.3.1 Principle of MG Machines 205

7.3.2 Modeling of MG Machines 211

7.4 Inverters for MG Motors 211

7.5 MG Motor Control 212

7.6 Design Criteria of MG Motor Drives for EVs 213

7.7 Design Examples of MG Motor Drives for EVs 215

7.7.1 MG PM Brushless DC In-Wheel Motor Drive 215

7.7.2 MG PM Brushless AC In-Wheel Motor Drive 218

7.8 Potential Applications of MG Motor Drives in EVs 224

References 225

8 Vernier Permanent Magnet Motor Drives 227

8.1 System Configurations 227

8.2 Vernier PM Machines 228

8.2.1 Vernier PM versus Magnetic-Geared PM 228

8.2.2 Structure of Vernier PM Machines 229

8.2.3 Principle of Vernier PM Machines 234

8.2.4 Modeling of Vernier PM Machines 237

8.3 Inverters for Vernier PM Motors 238

8.4 Vernier PM Motor Control 239

8.5 Design Criteria of Vernier PM Motor Drives for EVs 240

8.6 Design Examples of Vernier PM Motor Drives for EVs 242

8.6.1 Outer-Rotor Vernier PM Motor Drive 242

8.6.2 Outer-Rotor Flux-Controllable Vernier PM Motor Drive 245

8.7 Potential Applications of Vernier PM Motor Drives in EVs 251

References 251

9 Advanced Magnetless Motor Drives 253

9.1 What Is Advanced Magnetless? 253

9.2 System Configurations 254

9.3 Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives 255

9.4 Doubly-Salient DC Motor Drives 257

9.5 Flux-Switching DC Motor Drives 260

9.6 Vernier Reluctance Motor Drives 264

9.7 Doubly-Fed Vernier Reluctance Motor Drives 266

9.8 Axial-Flux Magnetless Motor Drives 269

9.9 Design Criteria of Advanced Magnetless Motor Drives for EVs 272

9.10 Design Examples of Advanced Magnetless Motor Drives for EVs 272

9.10.1 Multi-tooth Doubly-Salient DC Motor Drive 272

9.10.2 Multi-tooth Flux-Switching DC Motor Drive 274

9.10.3 Axial-Flux Doubly-Salient DC Motor Drive 276

9.10.4 Axial-Flux Flux-Switching DC Motor Drive 283

9.11 Potential Applications of Advanced Magnetless Motor Drives in EVs 288

References 289

10 Integrated-Starter-Generator Systems 291

10.1 Classification of HEVs 291

10.2 ISG System Configurations 295

10.3 ISG Machines 296

10.4 ISG Operations 298

10.4.1 Cranking 298

10.4.2 Electricity Generation 298

10.4.3 Idle Stop-Start 298

10.4.4 Regenerative Braking 299

10.4.5 Power Assistance 300

10.5 Design Criteria of ISG Systems 300

10.6 Design Examples of ISG Systems 301

10.6.1 Double-Stator PM Synchronous Machine-Based ISG System 301

10.6.2 Hybrid-Excited Doubly-Salient PM Machine-Based ISG System 303

10.7 Application Examples of ISG Systems in HEVs 312

10.8 Matured Technology for HEVs? 313

References 313

11 Planetary-Geared Electric Variable Transmission Systems 315

11.1 System Configurations 315

11.2 Planetary Gears 316

11.3 Input-Split PG EVT Systems 319

11.3.1 Toyota Hybrid System 319

11.3.2 Ford Hybrid System 324

11.4 Compound-Split PG EVT Systems 326

11.4.1 GM Two-Mode Hybrid System 327

11.4.2 Renault Hybrid System 331

11.4.3 Timken Hybrid System 332

11.5 Design Criteria of PG EVT Systems 333

11.6 Design Example of PG EVT Systems 334

11.6.1 PM Synchronous PG EVT System Configuration 334

11.6.2 PM Synchronous Machine Design 335

11.6.3 PM Synchronous Machine Analysis 336

11.7 Application Examples of PG EVT Systems in HEVs 339

11.8 Matured Technology for HEVs? 341

References 342

12 Double-Rotor Electric Variable Transmission Systems 343

12.1 System Configurations 343

12.2 Double-Rotor Machines 345

12.2.1 Multi-port Machine Concept 345

12.2.2 DR Machine Structure 346

12.3 Basic Double-Rotor EVT Systems 347

12.3.1 DR EVT Structure 347

12.3.2 DR EVT Modeling 349

12.3.3 DR EVT Operation 350

12.4 Advanced Double-Rotor EVT Systems 351

12.4.1 PM DR EVT System 353

12.4.2 SR DR EVT System 354

12.4.3 Axial-Flux DR EVT System 356

12.4.4 Advanced Magnetless DR EVT System 357

12.5 Design Criteria of DR EVT Systems 359

12.6 Design Example of DR EVT Systems 359

12.6.1 DSDC DR EVT System Configuration 360

12.6.2 DSDC DR Machine Design 360

12.6.3 DSDC DR Machine Analysis 360

12.7 Potential Applications of DR EVT Systems in HEVs 364

References 365

13 Magnetic-Geared Electric Variable Transmission Systems 367

13.1 System Configurations 367

13.2 Multi-port Magnetic Gears 369

13.2.1 Magnetic Planetary Gears 369

13.2.2 Magnetic Concentric Gears 371

13.3 Magnetic Planetary-Geared EVT System 373

13.4 Magnetic Concentric-Geared EVT System 375

13.5 Design Criteria of MG EVT Systems 380

13.6 Design Example of MG EVT Systems 382

13.6.1 MCG EVT System Configuration 382

13.6.2 Integrated MCG Machine Design 384

13.6.3 Integrated MCG Machine Analysis 386

13.7 Potential Applications of MG EVT Systems in HEVs 392

References 392

Index 393