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Electrical Railway Transportation Systems

Electrical Railway Transportation Systems

Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, Dario Zaninelli

ISBN: 978-1-119-38682-7

Apr 2018, Wiley-IEEE Press

622 pages

Description

Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock

This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways.

Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for the electrification of railway lines, long-distance lines, and high-speed lines. In addition, this resource:

  • Analyzes multiple railway systems from a theoretical and realizable vantage point, with particular regard to functionality, electromagnetic compatibility, and interferences with other electrical systems
  • Studies electric traction railway vehicles, presenting various types of drives and auxiliary devices currently in circulation
  • Discusses solutions employed to ensure interoperability of vehicles that run along lines powered by different systems (e.g., DC and AC, at different frequencies)
Electrical Railway Transportation Systems is an ideal text for graduate students studying the subject as well as for industry professionals working in the field.

Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1. Introduction to Railway Systems 1

1.1 Traction Electrification Systems 1

1.2 Types of Electric Power Supply in Railway Lines 12

1.3 Track and Train Wheel 13

2. Basic Notions for the Study of Electric Traction Systems 17

2.1 The Park Transform 17

2.2 Graetz Diode Bridge Rectifiers 42

2.3 Thyristor Rectifiers 50

2.4 Forced Switching Converters 57

3. DC Railway Electrification Systems 99

3.1 Connection of Electrical Substations 100

3.2 Structure of Traction Power Substation 103

3.3 Braking Energy Recovery Systems for DC Railway Applications 133

3.4 Contact Lines 139

3.5 Probabilistic Methods for Rating the TPSS 166

4. AC Systems at Mains Frequency 177

4.1 Configuration of the Power Supply System 178

4.2 Substation Diagram 185

4.3 25 kV Contact Line Power Supply 186

4.5 Mathematical–Physical Study of the Functioning 209

4.6 Creating Autotransformer Systems 224

5. Single-Phase Networks at Railway Frequency 255

5.1 Centralized Distribution 255

5.2 The Distributed Conversion System 258

6. Electromagnetic Compatibility 263

6.1 Interference Phenomena 265

6.2 Stray Currents 287

7. Elements of Transport Technology 297

7.1 Introduction 297

7.2 The Mechanical Aspects of Electric Traction Vehicles 297

7.3 Rail Vehicles with Bogie Structures 299

7.4 Rolling Stock Wheel Arrangements 301

7.5 Classification of Rolling Stock 302

7.6 The Wheel–Ground Kinematic Pair 306

7.7 Vehicular Motion 307

7.8 The Adhesion Factor 308

7.9 The Adhesion Conditions of Individual Railcars and Trains 310

7.10 The Adhesion Coefficient 312

7.11 Practical Values for the Adhesion Coefficient 313

7.12 Resistance to Motion 314

7.13 Air Resistance 317

7.14 Resistance to Forward Motion 318

7.15 Incidental Resistances 321

7.16 Overall Resistances 324

7.17 Tractive Effort Diagram of Traction Vehicles 324

7.18 Determining the Mechanical Characteristic 327

7.19 Variations in Wheelset Load 330

7.20 The Traction Diagram 333

7.21 Start-up 335

7.22 The Deceleration and Braking Phase 338

7.23 Average and Commercial Speeds 339

7.24 Braking Systems 341

7.25 Operational Speed Limits 343

7.26 Motion Transmission 348

7.27 Performance Required from a Traction Drive 350

7.28 Introduction to Traction Drives 354

8. DC Motor Drives 359

8.1 Construction Features 359

8.2 Nominal Data 360

8.3 Motor Schematics 361

8.4 Magnetic Circuit 362

8.5 No-Load Operation 364

8.6 No-Load Losses 365

8.7 Load Operation 368

8.8 Voltage Drops and Starting Conditions 372

8.9 Speed Characteristic 373

8.10 Power Losses and Efficiency 374

8.11 Tractive Effort Diagram 376

8.12 Speed Regulation 378

8.13 Voltage Regulation 379

8.14 Field Regulation 381

8.15 Forward/Reverse Drive 387

8.16 Speed Control 390

8.17 Rheostatic Regulation 391

8.18 Automatic Starting Conditions 396

8.19 Series–Parallel Connection of the Motors 396

8.20 Series–Parallel Transition 398

8.21 Energy Loss in the Starting Rheostat 402

8.22 Electronic DC Motor Drives 405

9. AC Motor Drives 423

9.1 Drives with Induction Motors 423

9.2 Drives with Permanent Magnet Motors 453

10. Current Collecting Systems, Protection Systems, and Auxiliary Services onboard Vehicles 505

10.1 Current Collecting System 505

10.2 Onboard Protection Systems 514

10.3 Electrical Power Systems Auxiliary Services 515

10.4 Batteries 517

10.5 Compressed Air Production 526

10.6 The Braking System 527

11. Multisystem Rolling Stocks 539

11.1 Transformer 540

11.2 Four-Quadrant Converter 544

11.3 Reconfiguration of the Traction Circuit During the Power Supply Systems Changeover 564

12. Self-Propelled Vehicles 571

12.1 Diesel–Electric Traction 571

12.2 Fuel Cell Trains 585

Index 591