Energy and environmental issues have caused a marked increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources since the beginning of the 21st Century. The concept of sustainable development and concern for future generations challenge us every day to produce new technologies for energy production, and new patterns of use for these energies. Their rapid emergence can make the understanding and therefore the perception of these new technologies difficult. This book aims to contribute to a better understanding of the new electricity generation technologies by addressing a diverse audience. It presents the issues, sources and means of conversion into electricity using a general approach and develops scientific concepts to understand their main technical characteristics.
Systems of electricity generation from renewable energy resources of small to medium powers are presented. The basic electrical concepts necessary for understanding the operating characteristics of these energy converters are introduced, and the constraints and problems of integration in the electrical networks of those means of production are discussed. Several exercises are provided to the reader for evaluation purposes.
1. Decentralized Electricity Production from Renewable Energy, Benoît Robyns.
2. Solar Photovoltaic Power, Arnaud Davigny.
3. Wind Power, Bruno Francois and Benoît Robyns.
4. Terrestrial and Marine Hydroelectricity: Waves and Tides, Benoît Robyns and Antoine Henneton.
5. Thermal Power Generation, Jonathan Sprooten.
6. Integration of the Decentralized Production into the Electrical Network, Benoît Robyns.
Chapter 1. Decentralized Electricity Production from Renewable Energy 1
1.1. Decentralized production 1
1.2. The issue of renewable energies 2
1.3. Renewable energy sources 9
1.4. Production of electricity from renewable energies 14
1.5. Bibliography 17
Chapter 2. Solar Photovoltaic Power 19
2.1. Introduction 19
2.2. Characteristics of the primary resource 21
2.3. Photovoltaic conversion 25
2.4. Maximum electric power extraction 49
2.5. Power converters 53
2.6. Adjustment of the active and reactive power 64
2.7. Solar power stations 65
2.8. Exercises 67
2.9. Bibliography 72
Chapter 3. Wind Power 75
Bruno FRANCOIS and Benoît ROBYNS
3.1. Characteristic of the primary resource 75
3.2. Kinetic wind energy 82
3.3. Wind turbines 83
3.4. Power limitation by varying the power coefficient 95
3.5. Mechanical couplings between the turbine and the electric generator 99
3.6. Generalities on induction and mechanical electric conversion 101
3.7. “Fixed speed” wind turbines based on induction machines 103
3.8. Variable speed wind turbine 112
3.9. Wind turbine farms 135
3.10. Exercises 137
3.11. Bibliography 146
Chapter 4. Terrestrial and Marine Hydroelectricity: Waves and Tides 149
Benoît ROBYNS and Antoine HENNETON
4.1. Run-of-the-river hydraulics 149
4.2. Hydraulic power of the sea 172
4.3. Bibliography 227
Chapter 5. Thermal Power Generation 233
5.1. Introduction 233
5.2. Geothermal power 233
5.3. Thermodynamic solar power generation 252
5.4. Cogeneration by biomass 264
5.5. Bibliography 268
Chapter 6. Integration of the Decentralized Production into the Electrical Network 271
6.1. From a centralized network to a decentralized network 271
6.2. Connection voltage 279
6.3. Connection constraints 279
6.4. Limitations of the penetration level 287
6.5. Perspectives for better integration into the networks 290
6.6. Bibliography 300
List of Authors 305