This book begins with a historical perspective of electrochemical conversion and storage technologies. It then delivers a section on fundamentals and technologies while the fundamentals presented will allow the reader to understand basics, including electrochemistry, transport phenomena, mechanics of materials, and performance and durability theory. The second part of the book will focus on technologies covering current status and future perspective of select electrochemical technologies. Technologies to be discussed are selected based on their level of maturity, commercialization, potential, and technological promise. This section will close with a discussion of applications, including large-scale energy storage, transportation, stationary power generation and storage, portable power, manufacturing, and environment issues related to sustainability and recycling of electrochemical devices such as batteries.