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Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers



Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers

Philippe Besnier, Bernard Démoulin

ISBN: 978-1-118-60215-7 February 2013 Wiley-ISTE 432 Pages

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Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.
In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration procedures. Comparisons with other testing systems (TEM cells, anechoic chambers) are also discussed.

Preface xiii

Foreword xv

Introduction xix

Chapter 1. Position of the Reverberation Chambers in Common Electromagnetic Tests 1

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Electromagnetic fields and plane waves 2

1.3. Electromagnetic tests in confined areas 13

1.4. Discussion 26

1.5. Bibliography 28

Chapter 2. Main Physical Features of Electromagnetic Cavities 29

2.1. Introduction 29

2.2. Reduction of the modes in a 1D cavity 30

2.3. Physical features of an empty rectangular cavity 44

2.4. The 3D cavity operating in stirred modes 69

2.5. Discussion 77

2.6. Bibliography 80

Chapter 3. Statistical Behavior of Stirred Waves in an Oversized Cavity 83

3.1. Introduction 83

3.2. Descriptions of the ideal random electromagnetic field 84

3.3. Simulation of the properties of an ideal random field 93

3.4. Contribution of the statistical tests 104

3.5. Balance of power in a reverberation chamber 121

3.6. Discussion 130

3.7. Bibliography 132

Chapter 4. Impact of the Physical and Technological Parameters of a Reverberation Chamber 135

4.1. Introduction 135

4.2. Main parameters for reverberation chamber design 136

4.3. The usual techniques of mode stirring 153

4.4. The characterization of reverberation chambers 164

4.5. Discussion 188

4.6. Bibliography 190

Chapter 5. Radiated Immunity Tests in a Reverberation Chamber 193

5.1. Introduction 193

5.2. The calibration process 194

5.3. Examples of calibration results 206

5.4. Implementing of the immunity test for a piece of equipment 210

5.5. Immunity test in reverberation and anechoic chambers 220

5.6. Rectangular components of the electric field and the total electric field 226

5.7. Discussion 228

5.8. Bibliography 230

Chapter 6. Emissivity Tests in Reverberation Chambers 233

6.1. Introduction 233

6.2. A few notions on electromagnetic radiation and antennas 234

6.3. Measurement of the total radiated power in free space 249

6.4. Measurement of the unintentional emission of a device under test 252

6.5. Measurement examples of the total radiated power 262

6.6. Total radiated power and radiated emissivity 269

6.7. Measurement of the efficiency and of the diversity gain of the antennas 272

6.8. Discussion 275

6.9. Bibliography 276

Chapter 7. Measurement of the Shielding Effectiveness 279

7.1. Introduction 279

7.2. Definitions of the shielding effectiveness 280

7.3. Measurement of the effectiveness of shielded cables and connectors in reverberation chambers 287

7.4. Measurement of the attenuation of the shielded enclosures 302

7.5. Measurement of the shielding effectiveness of the materials 307

7.6. Discussion 316

7.7. Bibliography 318

Chapter 8. Mode Stirring Reverberation Chamber: A Research Tool 321

8.1. Introduction 321

8.2. A non-ideal random electromagnetic field 324

8.3. Studying the correlation of a set of measurements 336

8.4. Quantization of the scattered and coherent fields in a reverberation chamber 349

8.5. Discussion 356

8.6. Bibliography 358


Appendix 1. Notion of Probability 363

A1.1. The random variable concept 363

A1.2. Probability concept from intuition 363

A1.3. Probability density function (pdf) 364

A1.4. Computation of moments 365

A1.5. Centered and normalized variables 366

A1.6. Computation of the variance and standard deviation 367

A1.7. Probability distributions 367

A1.8. The cumulative distribution function (cdf) 369

A1.9. The ergodism notion 369

A1.10. Features of the random stationary variables 372

A1.11. The characteristic function 373

A1.12. Summary of the main probability distributions 375

A1.13. Tables of numerical values of the normal distribution integrals 378

A1.14. Bibliography 379

Appendix 2. Formulas of the Quality Factor of a Rectangular Cavity 381

A2.1. Quality factor of the TMm n p mode 381

A2.2. Calculation of the average Q quality factor 382

A2.3. Bibliography 384

Appendix 3. Total Field and Total Power Variables 385

A3.1. Total field variables 385

A3.2. χ2 variable attached to the total field 386

A3.3. Total field probability density function 386

A3.4. Calculation of the mean of the total field 387

A3.5. The pdf of the total power 388

A3.6. Calculation of the mean total powers 389

Appendix 4. Calculation of the Variances of υφ, υη, υθ 391

A4.1. Variance of the υφ and υη variables 391

A4.2. Variance of the υθ variable 392

Appendix 5. Electric Dipole Formulas 395

A5.1. Complete formulas of the electric dipole 395

A5.2. Near-field formulas of the electric dipole 397

A5.3. Far-field formulas of the electric dipole 397

A5.4. Bibliography 398

Index 399

"The book is recommended both as a reference for researchers and professionals working with reverberation chambers, and as a textbook for a course on reverberation chambers." (Radio Science Bulletin, 1 December 2011)