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Emergency Incident Management Systems: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition




Emergency Incident Management Systems: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition

Mark S. Warnick, Louis N. Molino Sr.

ISBN: 978-1-119-26711-9 February 2020 544 Pages

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The second edition was to be written in order to keep both reader and student current in incident management. This was grounded in the fact that incident management systems are continually developing. These updates are needed to ensure the most recent and relevant information is provided to the reader.

While the overall theme of the book will remain the same of the first edition, research and research-based case studies will be used to support the need for utilizing emergency incident management systems. Contemporary research in the use (and non-use) of an incident management system provides clear and convincing evidence of successes and failures in managing emergencies. This research provides areas where first responders have misunderstood the scope and use of an emergency incident management system and what the outcomes were. Contemporary and historical (research-based) case studies in the United States and around the globe have shown the consequences of not using emergency incident management systems, including some that led to increased suffering and death rates. Research-based case studies from major incidents will be used to show the detrimental effects of not using or misunderstanding these principles. One of the more interesting chapters in the new edition is what incident management is used around the world.

List of plates/figures/maps (include only where adds value to reader or requested by publisher)




About the book

Emergency Incident Management Systems i

Emergency Incident Management Systems: ii

Introduction xix

Chapter 1 1

Introduction 1

The Revolutionary War 3

The Big Burn of 1910 5

The Military Connection 10

The Birth of IMS Method 14

No single person in charge 15

No formal protocols or policies 16

Conflicts and ego’s 17

Integrating multijurisdictional response 17

No collaborative organizational structure 18

Strictly enforced intra-agency command structure 18

Command based on home rule 19

Too many subordinates reporting to a single supervisor 19

Lack of accountability 19

No interagency planning 20

Lack of common terminology 21

A lack of interoperable communications 21

A lack of logistics 21

California’s Solution 22

Creating the Incident Command System 23

Evolution of IMS Methods 24

The “Big Three” of IMS 27

The Melding of the IMS Concepts of Today 27

The National Incident Management System (NIMS) 29

Presidential Directives 31

The NIMS Mandate 33

NIMS Updates/Changes (2008) and Training 35

NIMS Updates (2017) 38

Conclusion 38

Chapter 1 Quiz 40

Chapter 2 42

A Case Study of Incident Management 42

The Lifecycle of an Incident 42

Common Attributes of an Incident 43

The Importance of Knowledge and Experience 44

Case Study: Tokyo vs. Oklahoma City 45

Tokyo Subway Attack 46

Oklahoma City Bombing 50

Comparing and Contrasting these Incidents 61

Command 61

Control 62

Cooperation 64

Collaboration 66

Communications 68

Conclusions 70

Chapter 2 Quiz 72

Chapter 3 75

Incident Management in Other Countries 75

The United Nations 75

Australia 77

Bermuda 78

Burma/Myanmar 79

Bangladesh 79

Cambodia 82

Canada 82

China 83

Germany 83

Haiti 85

India 87

Indonesia 88

Iran 89

Iraq 91

Japan 92

Maldives 93

Malaysia 94

Mexico 94

New Zealand 94

Palestine 96

Philippine Islands 97

Singapore 99

United Kingdom 99

Vietnam 104

Other International Uses 104

Chapter 3 Quiz 106

Chapter 4 108

The Five C’s of Crisis (or incident) Management 108

Command 108

Situational Awareness 110

Control 112

Communications 115

Responder Communication Problems 115

Terminology 115

Interoperability 116

Current Communications Facilitation 116

Integrated Responder Communications 118

Creating a Communications Unit for Responders 119

Radio Networks 119

Stakeholder Communications 120

Government Stakeholders 121

Media Stakeholders 122

Social Media 123

Local Utility Companies 124

Local Businesses 125

Civic Organization and Advocacy Groups 126

Houses of Worship 127

Volunteer Organizations 128

Communications wrap-up 129

Cooperation and Coordination in the State of Illinois 131

Private Sector Cooperation and Coordination 133

Strengthening Intelligence/Information Sharing with Coordination and Cooperation 133

Cooperation and Coordination during an Active Incident 135

Joint Information Center-Cooperation and Coordination 135

Liaison Officer-Cooperation and Coordination 137

Agency Representative(s)-Cooperation and Coordination 138

Chapter 4 quiz 143

Chapter 5 145

The National Incident Management System (NIMS) 145

NIMS method Guiding Principles 146

Flexibility 146

Standardization 146

Unity of Effort 147

Key Terms and Definitions 148

Understanding Comprehensive, Flexible, and Adaptable 149

Comprehensive 150

Flexible 151

Adaptable 152

NIMS Components 153

The Importance of Preparedness with NIMS 154

Cycle of Preparedness as a part of NIMS incident management 154

NIMS Drills and Exercises to Support Preparedness 155

Seminar 156

Tabletop Exercise (TTX) 157

Games 158

Drills 159

Functional Exercises (FE’s) 159

Full-Scale Exercises (FSE’s) 160

NIMS Method of Resource Management Preparedness 163

*Identifying and Typing Resources* 171

*NIMS Method of Resource Management Response and Recovery* 174

*Identify the resource* 175

*Order and acquire the resource* 175

*Mobilize the resource* 175

*Track and report resources* 176

*Demobilize and reimburse the resource* 176

*Restock resource(s) in an incident* 176

*NIMS Multiagency Coordination Systems* 177

*Emergency Operations Centers (EOC)* 177

Conclusion 187

Chapter 5 Quiz 190

Chapter 6 194

An overview of The Incident Command System 194

Taking Control with ICS 195

Common Components of Incident Management Systems 200

The ICS component of NIMS 201

Incident Management System and NIMS Integration 204

Common Terminology 204

Modular organization 206

Integrated communications 207

Consolidated incident action plans 208

Manageable span of control 208

Predesignated incident facilities 209

Comprehensive resource management 209

Conclusion 209

Chapter 6 Quiz 212

Chapter 7 215

Command Staff, General Staff, and their Functions 215

Incident Commander (IC) 215

Unified Command 216

Command Staff 218

Safety Officer (SOFR) Function 220

Public Information Officer (PIO) 220

Liaison Officer (LOFR) 222

Investigations and Intelligence Gathering Officer (IO) alternative placement 223

General Staff 225

Hierarchal Structure (Figure 7.3) 226

Operations Section Chief (OSC) 226

Logistic Section Chief (LSC) 231

Planning Section Chief (PSC) 232

Finance/Administration Section Chief (FSC) 236

Investigations/Intelligence Section Chief (ISC) alternative placement 238

Expanding the Hierarchal Structure 239

Modular Organization Supports ICS Expansion 240

Organizational Flexibility 241

Conclusion 242

Chapter 7 Quiz 244

Chapter 8 247

Expanding the Operations Section 247

Operations Section 247

Operations Branches, Divisions/Groups, Strike Teams/Task Forces 250

Branches 250

Additional Branch Considerations 252

Divisions/Groups 257

Single Resources 259

Strike Team 260

Task Force 261

Conclusion 261

Chapter 8 Quiz 264

Chapter 9 267

Expanding Logistics 267

Logistics Section Expansion 267

Logistics Branch Structure 268

Support Branch 268

Service Branch 275

Chapter 9 Quiz 306

Chapter 10 308

Expanding Planning and Intelligence 308

Planning and Intelligence Modular Expansion 308

Situation Unit 310

Resources Unit 320

The Documentation Unit 326

The Demobilization Unit 332

Two Optional Units 338

Chapter 10 Quiz 341

Chapter 11 344

Expanding Finance and Administration 344

Time Unit 359

Chapter 11 Quiz 363

Chapter 12 366

ICS Investigations and Intelligence (I/I 366

Historical Overview 367

More than Law Enforcement 369

Investigations and Intelligence Gathering (I/I) Information Sharing 371

Placement Consideration of Investigations and Intelligence Gathering (I/I) 373

Investigations and Intelligence Gathering (I/I) as Command Staff 374

Investigations and Intelligence Gathering (I/I) as General Staff 375

Investigations and Intelligence Gathering (I/I) in the Operations Section 400

Investigations and Intelligence Gathering (I/I) in the Planning Section 402

Conclusion 402

Chapter 12 Quiz 405

Chapter 13 408

The Agency Administrator, Common Agency Representatives, and a Basic Overview of the Planning Process 408

The Agency Administrator 408

Agency Administrator Representatives 410

An Overview of the ICS Planning Process 417

Initial Understanding of the Situation 424

Establishing Incident Objectives and Strategies 425

Develop a Plan 426

Prepare and Disseminate the Plan 427

Chapter 13 Quiz 430

Chapter 14 433

Management by Objectives-SMART Goals 433

Underlying Factors for Determining Incident Objectives and Strategies 436

Establishing Immediate Incident Objective Priorities 437

Management by Objectives 445

Writing Goals and Objectives for the Incident Action Plan 447

* Management by Objective for never-ending incidents * 451

The Importance of SMART Objectives in the Planning Process 453

Chapter 14 Quiz 455

Chapter 15 458

The Planning P-In Depth 458

The Beginning of the Incident and Notifications 458

Initial Response and Assessment 459

Incident Briefing-Preparing for a Transfer of Command 464

Delegation of Authority (DOA) 468

Delegation of Authority Briefing 470

Transfer of Command 475

Initial Incident Command/Unified Command Meeting 477

Establish Core Planning Meeting Principles for the Incident 477

Facilitating (Ongoing) Meetings 478

Initial or Ongoing? 482

Incident Command Objective Meeting 483

The Command and General Staff Meeting 484

Preparations for the Ongoing Command and General Staff Meeting 492

The (ongoing) Command Staff and General Staff Meeting 499

The Tactics Meeting 504

Preparing for the Planning Meeting 509

Incident Action Plan Preparation and Approval 511

Printing the Incident Action Plan 515

Chapter 15 Quiz 530

Chapter 16 532

Integrating Incident Management into Hospitals 532

Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS) 532

HICS 536

HICS Does Work for Incident Management 541

Joplin MO Tornado 542

The Fundamental Elements of HICS 546

Chain of Command 549

Command and General Staff 549

HICS Operations Section 550

Staging Manager 551

Medical Care Branch Director 551

Infrastructure Branch Director 553

Security Branch Director 553

Hazmat Branch Director 556

Business Continuity Branch Director 556

Patient Family Assistance Branch Director 558

HICS Planning Section 560

HICS Logistics Section 560

The Planning P/The HICS Planning Process 563

Emergency Operations Plan 566

An All-Hazards Plan 568

Who Should Create the Emergency Operations Plan (EOP)? 569

Patient management 580

Logistics 581

Finance and Emergency Spending Authorizations 583

Resource Management 583

Donations Management (solicited and unsolicited) 584

Infrastructure Management (building, grounds, utilities, damage assessment) 584

Evacuation 585

Safety and Security 586

Coordination with external agencies 588

Conclusion 594

Chapter 16 Quiz 597