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Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance

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Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance

Lisa A. Beltz

ISBN: 978-1-118-00159-2 March 2011 Jossey-Bass 752 Pages

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Description

Emerging Infectious Diseases offers an introduction to emerging and reemerging infectious disease, focusing on significant illnesses found in various regions of the world. Many of these diseases strike tropical regions or developing countries with particular virulence, others are found in temperate or developed areas, and still other microbes and infections are more indiscriminate.

This volume includes information on the underlying mechanisms of microbial emergence, the technology used to detect them, and the strategies available to contain them. The author describes the diseases and their causative agents that are major factors in the health of populations the world over.

The book contains up-to-date selections from infectious disease journals as well as information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, MedLine Plus, and the American Society for Microbiology.

Perfect for students or those new to the field, the book contains Summary Overviews (thumbnail sketches of the basic information about the microbe and the associated disease under examination), Review Questions (testing students' knowledge of the material), and Topics for Further Discussion (encouraging a wider conversation on the implications of the disease and challenging students to think creatively to develop new solutions).

This important volume provides broad coverage of a variety of emerging infectious diseases, of which most are directly important to health practitioners in the United States.

Related Resources

Tables and Figures vii

Preface xv

The Author xvii

Acknowledgments xviii

Part 1: Introduction to Emerging Infectious Diseases

Chapter 1: Infectious Diseases Past and Present 3

Major Concepts 4 • History of Infectious Diseases 5 • The Role of Infectious Diseases in the World Today 8 • The Links Between Infectious Diseases, Poverty, and Civil Unrest 10 • Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases 12 • Factors Contributing to the Emergence of New Infectious Diseases and the Spread and Evolution of Older Diseases 15 • Timeline 18

Chapter 2: Of Microbes and Men 27

Major Concepts 28 • Introduction 30 • Infectious Agents: The Enemy Combatants 30 • Genetic Information and the Making of Proteins: Preparing the Armament 36 • The Immune Response: Humans Fight Back, Part One 40 • Antimicrobial Agents: Humans Fight Back, Part Two 46

Part 2: Bacterial Infections

Chapter 3: Lyme Disease 55

Major Concepts 56 • Introduction 58 • History 60 • The Disease 61 • The Causative Agent 63 • The Immune Response 66 • Diagnosis 67 • Treatment 68 • Prevention 69 • Surveillance 71

Chapter 4: Human Ehrlichiosis 75

Major Concepts 76 • Introduction 77 • History 78 • The Diseases 79 • The Causative Agents 88 • The Immune Response 89 • Diagnosis 90 • Treatment 91 • Prevention 92 • Surveillance 92

Chapter 5: Bartonella Infections 97

Major Concepts 98 • Introduction 99 • History 99 • The Diseases 101 • The Causative Agents 106 • The Immune Response 109 • Diagnosis 110 • Treatment 111 • Prevention 111 • Surveillance 112

Chapter 6: Group A Streptococci 117

Major Concepts 118 • Introduction 119 • History 120 • The Diseases 121 • The Causative Agents 127 • The Immune Response 131 • Diagnosis 132 • Treatment 133 • Prevention 134 • Surveillance 135

Chapter 7: Escherichia coli O157:H7 139

Major Concepts 140 • Introduction 141 • History 142 • The Diseases 143 • The Causative Agents 145 • The Immune Response 151 • Diagnosis 152 • Treatment 153 • Prevention 153 • Surveillance 155

Chapter 8: Helicobacter pylori, Ulcers, and Cancer 161

Major Concepts 162 • Introduction 163 • History 164 • The Diseases 165 • The Causative Agent 168 • The Immune Response 171 • Diagnosis 172 • Treatment 173 • Prevention 174 • Surveillance 175

Chapter 9: Legionnaires’ Disease and Pontiac Fever 181

Major Concepts 182 • Introduction 183 • History 184 • The Diseases 185 • The Causative Agent 186 • The Immune Response 191 • Diagnosis 194 • Treatment 197 • Prevention 197 • Surveillance 199

Chapter 10: Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Multidrug Resistance 205

Major Concepts 206 • Introduction 207 • History 208 • The Disease 209 • The Causative Agents 212 • The Immune Response 213 • Detection and Diagnosis 214 • Treatment and Drug Resistance 216 • Prevention 219 • Surveillance 220

Chapter 11: Emerging Bacterial Drug Resistance 225

Major Concepts 226 • Introduction 227 • History 228 • The Diseases, Causative Agents, and Treatment Options 229 • Mechanisms of Resistance 235 • Diagnosis 239 • Prevention 240 • Surveillance 240

Part 3: Viral Infections

Chapter 12: Marburg and Ebola Hemorrhagic Fevers 247

Major Concepts 248 • Introduction 249 • History 250 • The Diseases 254 • The Causative Agents 257 • The Immune Response 262 • Diagnosis 263 • Treatment 264 • Prevention 264 • Surveillance 267

Chapter 13: American Hemorrhagic Fevers 273

Major Concepts 274 • Introduction 275 • History 277 • The Diseases 278 • The Causative Agents 282 • The Immune Response 285 • Diagnosis 286 • Treatment 287 • Prevention 287 • Surveillance 288

Chapter 14: Lassa Hemorrhagic Fever 293

Major Concepts 294 • Introduction 295 • History 296 • The Disease 298 • The Causative Agent 300 • The Immune Response 303 • Diagnosis 304 • Treatment 304 • Prevention 306 • Surveillance 308

Chapter 15: Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever 313

Major Concepts 314 • Introduction 315 • History 316 • The Diseases 318 • The Causative Agent 321 • The Immune Response 324 • Diagnosis 327 • Treatment 327 • Prevention 328 • Surveillance 329

Chapter 16: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 335

Major Concepts 336 • Introduction 338 • History 339 • The Diseases 341 • The Causative Agent 344 • The Immune Response 350 • Diagnosis and Detection 355 • Treatment 355 • Prevention 357 • Surveillance 358

Chapter 17: Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi’s Sarcoma 365

Major Concepts 366 • Introduction 367 • History 368 • The Diseases 368 • The Causative Agent 373 • The Immune Response 378 • Diagnosis 379 • Treatment 380 • Prevention 383 • Surveillance 383

Chapter 18: Hepatitis C 389

Major Concepts 390 • Introduction 391 • History 392 • The Diseases 392 • The Causative Agent 397 • The Immune Response 399 • Diagnosis 401 • Treatment 402 • Prevention 403 • Surveillance 404

Chapter 19: Epidemic and Pandemic Influenza 409

Major Concepts 410 • Introduction 411 • History 412 • The Disease 414 • The Causative Agent 415 • The Immune Response 421 • Diagnosis 421 • Treatment 422 • Prevention 422 • Surveillance 425

Chapter 20: Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome 431

Major Concepts 432 • Introduction 433 • History 435 • The Diseases 435 • The Causative Agents 439 • The Immune Response 444 • Diagnosis 445 • Treatment 446 • Prevention 447 • Surveillance 450

Chapter 21: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 455

Major Concepts 456 • Introduction 457 • History 457 • The Disease 460 • The Causative Agent 461 • The Immune Response 464 • Diagnosis 465 • Treatment 466 • Prevention 467 • Surveillance 469

Chapter 22: West Nile Disease in the United States 475

Major Concepts 476 • Introduction 477 • History 477 • The Diseases 481 • The Causative Agent 484 • The Immune Response 487 • Diagnosis 488 • Treatment 489 • Prevention 490 • Surveillance 493

Chapter 23: Monkeypox 499

Major Concepts 500 • Introduction 501 • History 502 • The Disease 505 • The Causative Agent 508 • The Immune Response 511 • Diagnosis 513 • Treatment 514 • Prevention 514 • Surveillance 516

Part 4: Parasitic Infections

Chapter 24: Malaria: Reemergence and Recent Successes 523

Major Concepts 524 • Introduction 526 • History 526 • The Disease 528 • The Causative Agents 529 • The Immune Response 533 • Diagnosis 535 • Treatment and Drug Resistance 535 • Prevention: Failures and Successes 537 • Surveillance 541

Chapter 25: Babesiosis 547

Major Concepts 548 • Introduction 549 • History 549 • The Disease 550• The Causative Agent 553 • The Immune Response 557 • Diagnosis 558 • Treatment 558 • Prevention 560 • Surveillance 560

Chapter 26: Cryptosporidiosis 565

Major Concepts 566 • Introduction 567 • History 568 • The Disease 569 • The Causative Agents 570 • The Immune Response 576 • Diagnosis 577 • Treatment 578 • Prevention 580 • Surveillance 581

Chapter 27: Chagas’ Disease and Its Emergence in the United States 585

Major Concepts 586 • Introduction 587 • History 587 • The Disease 588 • The Causative Agent 591 • The Immune Response 595 • Diagnosis 598 • Treatment 599 • Prevention 600 • Surveillance 601

Part 5: Infectious Proteins

Chapter 28: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Other Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies 609

Major Concepts 610 • Introduction 611 • History 612 • The Diseases 613 • The Causative Agents 621 • The Immune Response 625 • Diagnosis 626 • Treatment 627 • Prevention 628 • Surveillance 628

Part 6: Special Issues in Infectious Diseases

Chapter 29: The Emerging Importance of Infectious Diseases in the Immunosuppressed 635

Major Concepts 636 • Introduction 637 • Immunosuppressed Populations 637 • Selected Causes of Immunosuppression 638 • Infectious Diseases of the Immunosuppressed 642

Chapter 30: The Emerging Threat of Bioweapons 667

Major Concepts 668 • Introduction 669 • History 670 • Bioterrorism Agents and Diseases 671 • The Threat of Agroterrorism 692 • Preparation for Biological Attacks 693 • Protective Vaccines 694

Glossary 701

Index 723