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Emerging Natural Hydrocolloids: Rheology and Functions

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Emerging Natural Hydrocolloids: Rheology and Functions

Seyed M.A. Razavi (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-41866-5 April 2019 672 Pages

Description

The first guide devoted to the functions, structures, and applications of natural hydrocolloids

In today’s health-conscious climate, the demand for natural food products is growing all the time. Natural hydrocolloids, therefore, have never been more popular. With their thickening, stabilizing, gelling, fat replacing, and binding qualities, these naturally occurring, plant-based polymers can fulfil many of the same functions as commercial ingredients like xanthan, guar, gum Arabic, pectin, and starch. Moreover, certain health benefits have been linked with their often biological active compounds and high-fiber compositions, including potential prebiotic effects and the reduction of blood cholesterol levels.

Application of these novel hydrocolloids is, however, still underexplored. Emerging Natural Hydrocolloids aims to remedy this by providing a thorough overview of their structure–function relationships, rheological aspects, and potential utility in mainly the food and pharmaceutical industries. This accessible, quick-reference guide features:  

  • A comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the most significant research currently available on natural hydrocolloids
  • Examinations of the major functions and rheological aspects of novel hydrocolloids
  • Information on the potential applications of biopolymers within both foods and pharmaceutical systems
  • Collaborations from an international team of food scientists

Emerging Natural Hydrocolloids: Rheology and Functions offers scientists, engineers, technologists, and researchers alike a unique and in-depth account of the uncharted world of novel hydrocolloids, their uses, properties, and potential benefits.

About the Editor xxi

List of Contributors xxiii

Preface xxvii

1 Introduction to Emerging Natural Hydrocolloids 1
Seyed M.A. Razavi

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 World Market of Hydrocolloids 2

1.3 Hydrocolloids Classification 4

1.4 Functions of Hydrocolloids 8

1.5 Overview of the Chapters 13

1.6 Conclusion 24

References 25

2 Dilute Solution Properties of Emerging Hydrocolloids 53
Ali R. Yousefi and Seyed M.A. Razavi

2.1 Introduction 53

2.2 Partial Specific Volume 54

2.3 Hydrogel Content 55

2.4 Molecular Weight 57

2.5 Intrinsic Viscosity 59

2.6 Coil Overlap Parameter and Molecular Conformation 65

2.7 Chain Flexibility Parameter 67

2.8 Stiffness Parameter 68

2.9 Coil Radius and Volume 69

2.10 Voluminosity and Shape Factor 70

2.11 Hydration Parameter 71

2.12 Conclusion and Future Trends 72

References 73

3 Steady Shear Rheological Properties of Emerging Hydrocolloids 81
Fataneh Behrouzian and Seyed M.A. Razavi

3.1 Introduction 81

3.2 Time-Independent Rheological Properties 83

3.3 Time-Dependent Rheological Properties 87

3.4 Yield Stress 92

3.5 Cluster Analysis 94

3.6 Conclusion and Future Trend 97

References 97

4 Transient and Dynamic Rheological Properties of Emerging Hydrocolloids 101
Ali Alghooneh and Seyed M.A. Razavi

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Viscoelastic Characteristics 103

4.3 Cluster Analysis 125

4.4 Conclusion and Future Trends 129

References 131

5 Hydrocolloids Interaction Elaboration Based on Rheological Properties 135
Ali Alghooneh, Fataneh Behrouzian, and Seyed M.A. Razavi

5.1 Introduction 135

5.2 Dilute Regime 136

5.3 Concentrated Regime 137

5.4 Thermodynamic 151

5.5 Miscibility 152

5.6 Conclusions and Future Trends 154

References 154

6 Sage(Salvia macrosiphon) Seed Gum 159
Seyed M.A. Razavi, Ali Alghooneh, and Fataneh Behrouzian

6.1 Introduction 159

6.2 Salvia macrosiphon Seed Mucilage 160

6.3 Rheological Properties 163

6.4 Textural Properties 177

6.5 Applications 177

6.6 Summary 179

References 179

7 Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) Seed Gum 183
Asad Mohammad Amini

7.1 Introduction 183

7.2 Extraction and Purification 184

7.3 Physicochemical and Structural Properties 185

7.4 Rheological Properties 187

7.5 Functional Properties 194

7.6 Conclusions and Future Trends 199

References 200

8 Qodume Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum) Seed Gum 205
Arash Koocheki and Mohammad Ali Hesarinejad

8.1 Introduction 205

8.2 Gum Extraction Optimization 205

8.3 Physicochemical Properties 207

8.4 Rheological Properties 209

8.5 Biological Activity 212

8.6 Applications 213

8.7 Conclusion and Future Trends 219

References 219

9 Espina Corona (Gleditsia amorphoides) Seed Gum 225
María J. Spotti, Martina Perduca, Paula Loyeau, Amelia Rubiolo, and Carlos Carrara

9.1 Introduction 225

9.2 Purification and Composition 226

9.3 Flow Behavior 227

9.4 Viscoelasticity 231

9.5 Applications of ECG in Colloidal Systems 233

9.6 Conclusions and Future Trends 244

References 245

10 Qodume Shahri (Lepidium perfoliatum) Seed Gum 251
Arash Koocheki and Mohammad A. Hesarinejad

10.1 Introduction 251

10.2 Gum Extraction Optimization 252

10.3 Chemical Compositions 253

10.4 Functional Properties 253

10.5 Rheological Properties 253

10.6 Applications 259

10.7 Conclusions and Future Trends 267

References 268

11 Persian Gum (Amygdalus scoparia Spach) 273
Soleiman Abbasi

11.1 Botanical Aspects and Importance 273

11.2 General Specifications 275

11.3 Production, Collection, and Processing 277

11.4 Physicochemical Properties 278

11.5 Structural Characteristics 279

11.6 Rheological Properties 284

11.7 Interaction with Other Macromolecules 286

11.8 Surface Activity and Emulsifying Properties 290

11.9 Thermal Characteristics 291

11.10 Potential Applications 291

11.11 Concluding Remarks 292

References 293

12 Gum Tragacanth (Astragalus gummifer Labillardiere) 299
Zahra Emam-Djomeh, Morteza Fathi, and Gholamreza Askari

12.1 Introduction 299

12.2 Structure 300

12.3 Thermal Properties 306

12.4 Functional Properties 306

12.5 Biological Activity 312

12.6 Antibacterial Activity 312

12.7 Effect of Pre-treatment on GT: Physicochemical Properties 313

12.8 Food Applications 314

12.9 Conclusions and Future Trends 319

References 320

13 Cashew Tree (Anarcadium occidentale L.) Exudate Gum 327
Esther Gyedu-Akoto, FrankM. Amoah, and Ibok Oduro

13.1 Introduction 327

13.2 Cashew Tree Gum 328

13.3 Application of Cashew Gum in Foods 336

13.4 Application of Cashew Gum in the Pharmaceutical Industry 339

13.5 Conclusion 342

13.6 Future Trends 342

References 343

14 Brea Tree (Cercidium praecox) Exudate Gum 347
María A. Bertuzzi and Aníbal M. Slavutsky

14.1 Introduction 347

14.2 Physicochemical Characteristics 349

14.3 Functional Properties 352

14.4 Applications 358

14.5 Conclusions 364

14.6 Future Trends 365

Acknowledgments 365

References 366

15 Chubak (Acanthophyllum glandulosum) Root Gum 371
Hojjat Karazhiyan

15.1 Introduction 371

15.2 Chubak Root Extract (CRE) 372

15.3 Applications of CRE in Foods 374

15.4 Conclusions and Future Trends 388

References 389

16 Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) Flower Gum 397
Seyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi, Seyed M.A. Razavi, and Arash Koocheki

16.1 Introduction 397

16.2 Extraction Optimization using RSM 398

16.3 Chemical Compositions 407

16.4 FT-IR 408

16.5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 409

16.6 DPPH Radical-Scavenging Activity 409

16.7 Steady Shear Rheological Properties 411

16.8 Intrinsic Viscosity 416

16.9 Conclusions and Future Trends 417

References 418

17 Opuntia ficus-indica Mucilage 425
Elnaz Salehi, Zahra Emam-Djomeh, Morteza Fathi, and Gholamreza Askari

17.1 Introduction 425

17.2 Opuntia ficus-indica Plant Parts 428

17.3 Opuntia ficus-indica Mucilage 431

17.4 Food Applications 441

17.5 Conclusion and Future Trends 443

References 444

18 Emerging Technologies for Isolation of Natural Hydrocolloids from Mucilaginous Seeds 451
Asgar Farahnaky, Mahsa Majzoobi, and Shaahin Bakhshizadeh-Shirazi

18.1 Introduction 451

18.2 Mucilaginous Seeds 451

18.3 Mucilage Isolation using Conventional Methods 452

18.4 Emerging Mucilage Isolation Technologies 461

18.5 Conclusions and Future Trends 469

References 469

19 Purification and Fractionation of Novel Natural Hydrocolloids 473
Somayeh Razmkhah

19.1 Introduction 473

19.2 Purification of New Natural Hydrocolloids 474

19.3 Fractionation of New Natural Hydrocolloids 482

19.4 Conclusions and Future Trends 494

References 496

20 Improving Texture of Foods using Emerging Hydrocolloids 499
Ali Rafe

20.1 Introduction 499

20.2 Influence of Hydrocolloids on Food Structure 499

20.3 Textural Attributes 502

20.4 Tribology (Body–Texture Interaction) 506

20.5 Consumer Perceptions of Food Hydrocolloids 510

20.6 Fractal Analysis 511

20.7 Microstructure of BSG 515

20.8 Conclusions and Future Trends 517

References 518

21 New Hydrocolloids in Ice Cream 525
Fatemeh Javidi and Seyed M.A. Razavi

21.1 Introduction 525

21.2 New Sources of Hydrocolloids in Ice Cream 526

21.3 Functions of New Hydrocolloids in Ice Cream 530

21.4 Conclusions 541

21.5 Future Trends 542

References 543

22 Novel Hydrocolloids for Future Progress in Nanotechnology 549
Sara Naji-Tabasi

22.1 Introduction 549

22.2 Importance of Finding New Material Sources in Nanotechnology 550

22.3 Nanomaterials 550

22.4 Conclusions and Future Trends 563

References 564

23 Edible/Biodegradable Films and Coatings from Natural Hydrocolloids 571
Younes Zahedi

23.1 Introduction 571

23.2 Film Preparation 572

23.3 Film Characteristics 573

23.4 Applications 593

23.5 Conclusions and Future Trends 594

References 595

24 Health Aspects of Novel Hydrocolloids 601
Jafar M.Milani and Abdolkhalegh Golkar

24.1 Introduction 601

24.2 Health Benefits of Hydrocolloids 602

24.3 Conclusions and Recommendations 614

References 615

Index 623