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Emerging Technologies for Health and Medicine: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Robotics, Industry 4.0

Emerging Technologies for Health and Medicine: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Robotics, Industry 4.0

Dac-Nhuong Le, Chung Van Le, Jolanda G. Tromp, Gia Nhu Nguyen

ISBN: 978-1-119-50985-1

Oct 2018

318 pages

$180.99

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Description

With the current advances in technology innovation, the field of medicine and healthcare is rapidly expanding and, as a result, many different areas of human health diagnostics, treatment and care are emerging. Wireless technology is getting faster and 5G mobile

technology allows the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) to greatly improve patient care and more effectively prevent illness from developing. This book provides an overview and review of the current and anticipated changes in medicine and healthcare due to new technologies and faster communication between users and devices.

This groundbreaking book presents state-of-the-art chapters on many subjects including:

  • A review of the implications of VR and AR healthcare applications
  • A review of current augmenting dental care
  • An overview of typical human-computer interaction (HCI) that can help inform the development of user interface designs and novel ways to evaluate human behavior to responses in virtual reality (VR) and other new technologies 
  • A review of telemedicine technologies
  • Building empathy in young children using augmented reality
  • AI technologies for mobile health of stroke monitoring & rehabilitation robotics control
  • Mobile doctor brain AI App
  • An artificial intelligence mobile cloud computing tool
  • Development of a robotic teaching aid for disabled children
  • Training system design of lower limb rehabilitation robot based on virtual reality

 

List of Figures xiii

List of Tables xv

Foreword xix

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgments xxix

Acronyms xxxi

Part I Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality Technologies and Applications for Health And Medicine

1 Reviews of the Implications of VR/AR Health Care Applications 3
Muhammad Sharif, Ghulam Jillani Ansari, Mussarat Yasmin, Steven Lawrence Fernandes

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 5

1.2.1 Virtual Realty 5

1.2.2 Augmented Reality or Mixed Reality 6

1.2.3 Line of Difference between VR/AR 6

1.2.4 Formats and Design Elements of VR/AR Technology 7

1.2.5 Presence, Reality and Realism 8

1.3 Features of VR/AR Technology in Health Care 9

1.3.1 Implications of VR/AR Technology in Health Care Services and Applications 9

1.3.2 Health Care Services 9

1.3.3 Health Care Applications 11

1.4 Future Assessments in VR/AR Technology 14

1.5 Key Challenges for Adopting VR/AR Technology 14

1.6 Conclusion 15

References 15

2 Using 3D Simulation in Medical Education: A Comparative Test of Teaching Anatomy using VR 21
Chung Van Le, J.G. Tromp, Vikram Puri

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 Literature Review of Training with Medical VR 23

2.3 Methodology of this Study 24

2.4 Results 26

2.5 Discussion 29

References 30

3 Building Empathy in Young Children using Augmented Reality: A Case Study in Malaysia 35
N.Zamin, F.A.Khairuddin, D.R.A.Rambli, E.N.M.Ibrahim,  M.S.A.Soobni

3.1 Introduction  36

3.2 Motivations 36

3.3 Literature Review 36

3.4 Proposed Approach 38

3.5 Results and Discussions 38

3.6 Conclusions 41

References 41

4 Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Mock Interview Training 43
J. Garcia, J. Tromp, H. Seaton

4.1 Introduction 44

4.2 Virtual Reality Training Literature Review 44

4.3 Methodology 45

4.3.1 Participants 45

4.3.2 Materials 46

4.3.3 Procedure 47

4.4 Results 47

4.5 Disscussion 48

4.6 Conclusions 49

References 50

5 Augmenting Dental Care: A Current Perspective 52
Anand Nayyar, Gia Nhu Nguyen

5.1 Introduction 51

5.1.1 Origin of Augmented Reality 52

5.1.2 History of Augmented Reality 53

5.2 Augmented Reality Technology in Medical Technology 53

5.3 Existing Technologies in Medical/Healthcare Technology 55

5.4 Augmenting Dental Care-AR Technologies assisting Dentists for Dental Care 55

5.4.1 Augmented Reality Technologies in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 56

5.4.2 Augmented Reality Technologies in  Dental Implant Surgery 58

5.4.3 Augmented Reality Technologies in Orthognathic Surgery 59

5.4.4 Augmented Reality Apps in Dental Applications 61

5.5 Augmented Reality in Dental Education 61

5.6 Augmented Reality based Education Technologies for Dentistry 62

5.6.1 DentSim 62

5.6.2 The Virtual Dental Patient: System for Virtual Teeth Drilling 63

5.6.3 Mobile AR Systems for Dental Morphology Learning 64

5.6.4 Periosim 64

5.7 Conclusion 65

References 65

6 Review of Virtual Reality Evaluation Methods and Psychophysiological Measurement Tools 69
M.A. Munoz, J.G. Tromp, Cai Zhushun

6.1 Science Can Help Inform Virtual Reality Development 70

6.1.1 Objectives of Evaluations 71

6.1.2 Test Often and Test Early 73

6.1.3 Testing Options in the Early Pre-Prototype Phase 77

6.2 Virtual Reality Can Help Inform Psychology and Science 78

6.3 Types of Psychophysiological Measures and Tools 79

6.3.1 Electrodermal Activity 79

6.3.2 Cardiovascular activity 79

6.3.3 Muscular Activity: Facial Expressions 80

6.3.4 Electrical brain activity: Electroencephalography 81

6.4 Outcome of the Evaluation 82

6.5 Conclusions 83

References 83

Part II Artificial Intelligence Technologies and Applications for Health and Medicine

7 AI Technologies for Mobile Health of Stroke Monitoring & Rehabilitation Robotics Control 89
B.M. Elbagoury, M.B.H.B. Shalhoub, M.I. Roushdy, Thomas Schrader

7.1 Introduction 90

7.2 Research Chapter Objectives 92

7.3 Literature Review 92

7.3.1 Pervasive Computing and Mobile Health Technologies 92

7.3.2 Rehabilitation Robotics for Stroke Patients 93

7.4 Description of the Research Telemedicine Platform 94

7.4.1 A State of the Art Telemedicine Robot Rehabilitation System 94

7.4.2 Wireless telemedicine module with robot 96

7.4.3 Wireless intelligence sensor network extract user’s biofeedback signal 96

7.5 A proposed intelligent adaptive behavior control to rehabilitation robotics 96

7.6 Materials and Methods 98

7.7 Conclusion Summary: Artificial Intelligence Technologies 98

References 100

8 Artificial Intelligence for Smart Cancer Diagnosis 103
M.H.B. Shalhoub, Naif M. Hassan Bin Shalhoub, Bassant M. Elbagoury, Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem

8.1 Introduction 104

8.2 Background and Related work 105

8.2.1 De-noising methods 105

8.2.2 Image Segmentation Overview 106

8.3 Proposed System Architecture 107

8.4 Telemedicine System Modules 109

8.4.1 Image Compression 109

8.4.2 Image Enhancement and Region of Interest Segmentation 110

8.5 Results and discussion 113

8.6 Conclusion and Future Work 114

References 114

9 Mobile Doctor Brain AI App: Artificial Intelligence for IoT HealthCare 117
Bassant M.Elbagoury, Ahmed A.Bakr, Mohamed Roushdy,

9.4 Proposed Artificial Intelligence Techniques for New AI IoT Health-Care Solutions for Stroke Monitoring 122

9.4.1 Support vector machine (SVM) 122

9.4.2 Case-based Reasoning 125

9.4.3 Particle Swarm Intelligence and ARX Model for Stroke Motion Estimation and Optimization 126

9.5 Conclusion 126

References 126

10 An Artificial Intelligence Mobile Cloud Computing Tool 129
M. Hassan Bin Shalhoub, Mohammed H. Bin Shalhoub, Mariam Marzouq Al-Otaibi, Bassant M. Elbagoury

10.1 Introduction 130

10.2 Background and State-of-the-Art 130

10.3 Development and Proposing a New Intelligent case-based Reasoning Decision Engine for Cacer Diagnosis 131

10.4 Experimental Results of The Proposed System 132

10.5 Conclusion 133

References 133

11 Advanced Intelligent Robot Control Interfaces for The VR Simulation 137
Gal IonelAlexandru, Vladareanu Luige and Shuang Cang

11.1 Introduction 138

11.2 Proposed Mechanical Structure 138

11.3 Unit 3D Integration 139

11.4 Results 148

11.5 Conclusion 150

References 150

12 Analysis of Telemedicine Technologies 153
Vikram Puri, Jolanda G Tromp, Noell C.L. Leroy, Chung Le Van, Nhu Gia Nguyen

12.1 Introduction 154

12.2 Literature Review 154

12.3 Architecture of Telemedicine Technologies 155

12.4 Enabling Technologies for Telemedicine 156

12.4.1 Telehealth for Congestive Heart Failure 156

12.4.2 Telemedicine for the Veterans 157

12.4.3 Tele-ICU (Intensive Care Unit) 157

12.4.4 Helping Patients Adhere to Medication Regimes 158

12.4.5 eReferral - reduces consultation time 158

12.5 Conclusion 159

References 159

Part III Robotics Technologies and Applications for Health and Medicine

13 Critical Position using Environment Model Applied onWalking Robots 165
M. Migdalovici, L. Vladareanu, N. Pop, H. Yu, M. Iliescu, V. Vladareanu, D. Baran, G. Vladeanu

13.1 Introduction 166

13.2 On the Environment’s Mathematical Model 166

13.3 Physical and Mathematical Models of The Walking Robot Leg 169

13.4 On Critical Positions of 3D Walking Robots 171

13.5 Mathematical model of beam without damping 173

13.6 Mathematical Model of Beam with Viscous Damping 175

13.7 Conclusion 175

References 176

14 The Walking Robot Equilibrium Recovery Applied on The NAO Robot 179
N. Pop, L. Vladareanu, H.Wang, M. Ungureanu, M. Migdalovici, V. Vladareanu, Y. Feng, M. Lin, E. P. Mastan and I. El Emary

14.1 Introduction 180

14.2 The Choice of the Model 180

14.3 Mathematical Modeling of Twolink Biped Walking Robot 181

14.4 Linear Control Design 182

14.4.1 Linear Quadratic Regulator 183

14.4.2 Numerical Results using MATLAB 184

14.5 Results and Discussion 187

14.6 Conclusions 188

References 188

15 Development of A Robotic Teaching Aid for Disabled Children in Malaysia 191
N.Zamin, N.I. Arshad, N. Rafiey and A.S. Hashim

15.1 Introduction 192

15.2 Case Study - Autism 192

15.3 Movitations 192

15.4 Proposed Approach 193

15.5 Results and Discussions 195

15.6 Robotic Intervention Enhance Autistic Students’ Engagement, Interaction and Focus 197

15.7 Conclusion 200

References 200

16 Training System Design of Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot based on Virtual Reality 203
H. Wang, M. Lin, Z. Jin, X. Wang, J. Niu, H. Yu, L. Zhang, L. Vladareanu

16.1 Introduction 204

16.2 Application Device 204

16.2.1 Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot 204

16.2.2 Necessary Sensor Element 205

16.3 Trajectory Planning and Smooth Motion 206

16.3.1 Design of Training Velocity and Acceleration with Linear Path 206

16.3.2 Design of Training Velocity and Acceleration with Circle Path 208

16.3.3 Design of Training Velocity and Acceleration with Arbitrary Trajectory 209

16.3.4 The Analysis of Ambiguous Points 209

16.3.5 The Simulation of Training Velocity and Acceleration in the Planning Trajectory 209

16.4 Virtual Reality Training System 212

16.4.1 Design of Intention Judgment of Patients 213

16.4.2 Design of Adapting Training Posture Function 215

16.4.3 Interaction Control Strategy 215

16.5 Virtual Reality Software Design 216

16.5.1 Virtual Scene Build 216

16.5.2 Game Function Design 217

16.6 Virtual Reality Training Experiment 219

16.6.1 Model Synchronization Test 219

16.6.2 Feedback Terrains Test 219

16.7 Conclusion 220

References 220

Part IV Internet of Things Technologies and Applications for Health And Medicine

17 Automation of Appliances Using Electroencephalography 225
Shivam Kolhe, Dhaval Khemani, Chintan Bhatt, and Nilesh Dubey

17.1 Introduction 226

17.2 Background, History and Future Aspects 226

17.3 Brain with Its Main Parts and Their Functions 227

17.3.1 Central Nervous System 228

17.3.2 Peripheral Nervous System 229

17.3.3 How are The Brain Signals Generated 230

17.3.4 What is Neuron Synapse? 232

17.4 Working of BCI 233

17.4.1 Types of Waves Generated and Detected by Brain 234

17.4.2 How to Perform Electroencephalogram 236

17.4.3 How to Take Measurements of the Head 237

17.4.4 How are EEG Signals Recorded 238

17.4.5 Methods to Display EEG on Screen 239

17.4.6 Eye Blink EEG Patterns 240

17.5 BCI Classes 241

17.5.1 Applications of BCI 242

17.5.2 Challenges BCI is facing 242

17.6 Conclusion 243

References 243

18 Designing a Beautiful Life for Indian Blind Peoples: A Smart Stick 245
Aatrey Vyas, Dhaval Bhimani, Smit Patel, Hardik Mandora, Chintan Bhatt

18.1 Introduction 246

18.2 Internet of Things 246

18.3 Background 247

18.4 Purpose Approach 248

18.4.1 Ultrasonic Sensor 248

18.4.2 NodeMCU 249

18.4.3 Global positioning system (GPS) 249

18.4.4 Buzzer 250

18.4.5 Flow Diagram 251

18.5 Implementation 251

18.6 Advantages and Disadvantages 256

18.7 Conclusion 257

References 258

19 Smart Home: Personal Assistant And Baby Monitoring System 259
Shivam Kolhe, Sonia Nagpal, Priya Makwana, Chintan Bhatt

19.1 Introduction 260

19.2 Background 261

19.3 Proposed Design and Implementation 261

19.3.1 Smart Home Personal Assistant 262

19.3.2 Baby Monitoring System 265

19.4 Online Energy Meter 268

19.5 Sensors used and Their Working 269

19.5.1 Temperature Sensor 269

19.5.2 Soil Moisture Sensor 270

19.5.3 PIR (Passive InfraRed) Sensor 272

19.6 Conclusion 283

References 284