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Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems, 2nd Edition

Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems, 2nd Edition

Dr Jamileh M. Lakkis (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-94689-3

Mar 2016, Wiley-Blackwell

408 pages


The emergence of the discipline of encapsulation and controlled release has had a great impact on the food and dietary supplements sectors; principally around fortifying food systems with nutrients and health-promoting ingredients. The successful incorporation of these actives in food formulations depends on preserving their stability and bioavailability as well as masking undesirable flavors throughout processing, shelf life and consumption.

This second edition of Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems serves as an improvement and a complement companion to the first. However, it differentiates itself in two main aspects. Firstly, it introduces the reader to novel encapsulation and controlled release technologies which have not yet been addressed by any existing book on this matter, and secondly, it offers an in-depth discussion on the impact of encapsulation and controlled release technologies on the bioavailability of health ingredients and other actives. In common with the first edition the book includes chapters written by distinguished authors and researchers in their respective areas of specialization.

This book is designed as a reference for scientists and formulators in the food, nutraceuticals and consumer products industries who are looking to formulate new or existing products using microencapsulated ingredients. It is also a post-graduate text designed to provide students with an introduction to encapsulation and controlled release along with detailed coverage of various encapsulation technologies and their adaptability to specific applications.

List of contributors, xiii

Foreword, xvii

Preface to second edition, xix

Preface to first edition, xxi

1 Introduction, 1
Jamileh M. Lakkis

Wall-forming materials, 2

Core materials, 2

Release triggers, 2

Payload, 2

Current approaches to encapsulation and controlled release, 3

Entrapment in carbohydrate matrices, 3

Complexation into cyclodextrins, 6

Encapsulation in microporous matrices: physical adsorption, 6

Encapsulation in fats and waxes, 7

Encapsulation in emulsions and micellar systems, 7

Encapsulation in coacervated polymers, 8

Encapsulation using supercritical fluids, 9

Encapsulation into hydrogel matrices, 9

Encapsulation using flow-focusing technology, 10

Overview of controlled-release systems, 11

Matrix systems, 11

Reservoir systems, 12

Combination systems, 12

Release mechanisms, 13

References, 13

2 Encapsulation of edible active compounds using supercritical fluids, 16
Salima Varona, Ángel Martín and María José Cocero

Supercritical fluid technology, 16

Properties of supercritical fluids, 16

Implementation of processes using SCFs: Basic considerations, 17

Current industrial applications, 18

Particle formation processes, 19

SCFs as solvents, 19

SCFs as antisolvents, 20

SCFs as solutes, 22

SCFs as propellants, 22

Products, 24

Single compound products, 24

Co-precipitation and encapsulation processes: Carrier materials, 25

Encapsulation of solid active compounds, 26

Encapsulation of liquid active compounds, 27

Case study: Encapsulation of lavandin essential oil, 29

Encapsulation in water-soluble carriers, 30

Encapsulation in water-insoluble carriers, 32

Impregnation, 33

Comparison with alternative encapsulation technologies, 34

References, 36

3 Encapsulation by complex coacervation, 41
Curt Thies

Introductory comments, 41

Complex coacervation background and terminology, 42

Biopolymers and complex coacervation, 43

Biopolymer structure and properties, 43

Milk and vegetable protein denaturation, 48

Reproducibility issues, 49

Concluding biopolymer comments, 51

Stabilization and solidification of complex coacervate capsule shells, 52

Overview, 52

mTGase treatment of complex coacervate capsule shells, 53

Overview of current encapsulation protocols, 59

Concluding comments, 71

References, 71

4 Lyophilized liposomes for food applications: Fundamentals, processes, and potential applications, 78
Taise Toniazzo and Samantha C. Pinho

Introduction, 78

Liposomes: Structure, production methods, and applications in foods, 79

Formulation factors affecting liposome integrity after lyophilization, 84

Influence of the lyophilization process parameters and technological factors on the lyophilized product, 89

Concluding remarks and future perspectives, 90

References, 91

5 Microencapsulation of probiotics, 97
Thierry F. Vandamme, Gildas K. Gbassi, Trinh Lan Nguyen and Xiang Li

Introduction to probiotics, 97

Definitions, applications, and advantages of probiotics, 97

Introduction to microencapsulation, 99

Definition, 99

Purpose of microencapsulation, 100

Structural details of microcapsules, 100

Materials used in the microencapsulation of probiotics, 102

Factors affecting the microencapsulation effectiveness of probiotics, 114

Methods used in microencapsulating probiotics, 115

Extrusion technique for microencapsulation, 115

Emulsion technique, 115

Use of drying technology for microencapsulating Probiotics, 117

Interfacial polymerization and coacervation, 119

Co-crystallization method, 120

Molecular inclusion, 120

Centrifugal extrusion technique, 120

Conclusion and prospects, 121

References, 121

6 Emulsions as delivery systems in foods, 129
Ingrid A.M. Appelqvist, Matt Golding, Rob Vreeker and Nicolaas Jan Zuidam

Introduction, 129

Stabilization and destabilization of emulsion systems, 130

Emulsion stabilization, 130

Formulation design for food emulsions, 135

Release triggers for emulsions, 142

Delivery of water-soluble food actives via emulsions, 143

Water-in-oil emulsions for controlling water-soluble actives, 143

Effect of O/W emulsions on taste release and perception, 143

Double emulsions for controlling water-soluble actives, 145

Delivery of hydrophobic food actives via O/W emulsions, 149

Lipophilic health ingredients in O/W emulsions, 149

Aroma release from O/W emulsions, 149

Structured emulsions in hydrogels for controlled release of aromas, 153

Delivery of dietary fats as O/W emulsions and their protection against oxidation, 155

Future trends, 159

Nature-made emulsions, 159

Monodispersed emulsions, 163

References, 164

7 Improved solubilization and bioavailability of nutraceuticals in nanosized self-assembled liquid vehicles, 173
Nissim Garti, Eli Pinthus, Abraham Aserin and Aviram Spernath

Introduction, 173

U-Type microemulsions, swollen micelles, and progressive and full dilution, 177

Solubilization of nonsoluble nutraceuticals, 179

Lycopene, 180

Phytosterols, 185

Lutein and lutein ester, 187

Oxidative stability, 191

Bioavailability, 192

CoQ10 and Improved Bioavailability, 192

Water binding, 195

Conclusions, 197

References, 198

8 Encapsulation and controlled release in bakery applications, 204
Jamileh M. Lakkis

Introduction, 204

Encapsulation technologies for bakery applications, 205

Hot melt particle coating technology, 205

Spray congealing/chilling, 207

High pressure congealing (beta process), 209

Film-forming materials, 210

Waxes, 210

Resins, 212

Glycol polymers, 212

Fats and glycerides, 212

Lauric acid group, 212

Palmitic acid group, 213

Oleic/linoleic acid group, 213

Characteristics of wax and fat coating materials, 213

Ideal properties of encapsulated particles for bakery applications, 216

Good barrier properties, 216

Mechanical strength, 216

Surface morphology, 217

Adhesion and cohesiveness, 217

Particle size distribution, 217

Film thickness, 217

Melting properties, 217

Applications of encapsulated actives in bakery applications, 218

Leavening systems, 218

Encapsulated sweeteners, 222

Encapsulated antimicrobial agents, 224

Encapsulated minor ingredients, 229

Flavors, 229

Encapsulated nutrients, 229

References, 230

9 Encapsulation and controlled release applications in confectionery and oral care products, 236
Jamileh M. Lakkis

Introduction, 236

Physiology and organization of the oral area, 237

Permeability and barrier functions of the oral cavity, 239

Membranes – physiology and transport routes (Plasma and Epithelial membranes), 239

Plasma membranes, 239

Epithelial membranes, 240

Oral mucosa, 240

Saliva, 242

Keratinization, 242

Polarity, 243

pH, 243

Transport mechanisms across membranes, 244

Delivery sites in the oral cavity, 245

Advantages of the oral route for drug delivery, 247

Disadvantages of oral route delivery, 248

Dosage formulation, 249

Physico-chemical properties of the active and dosage, 249

Confectionery products as delivery systems, 249

Chewing gum as a delivery system, 249

Typical gum composition and manufacture, 250

Chewing gums for delivering flavors and non-medicated actives, 252

Effect of saliva flow rate on flavor release, 254

Effect of non-sugar sweeteners (Polyols), 255

Effect of sensates on flavor release from chewing gum, 256

Chewing gum for delivering cosmetic and medicated actives, 257

Oral and dental health (Antimicrobials, Dental Caries Prevention, Xerostomia), 257

Antimicrobials, 257

Chewing gums for delivering actives for minor pains, diabetes and weight management, 262

Chewing gum for delivering caffeine, 262

Chewing gums for delivering nicotine, 263

Chewing gum for delivering acetyl salicylic acid, 265

Chewing gum for delivering insulin, 265

Lozenges as delivery systems, 266

Lozenges for delivering flavors and sensates, 267

Lozenges for delivering relief from cough and sore throat, 268

Lozenges as delivery systems for oral care, 269

Lozenges for delivering nicotine (Smoking Cessation), 270

Oral thin films, 271

Seamless capsules, 274

References, 276

10 Assessing bioavailability and nutritional value of microencapsulated minerals, 289
Diego Moretti and Michael Zimmermann

Introduction, 289

Assessing bioavailability and nutritional value of minerals for human use, 291

In vitro methods, 293

Animal studies, 295

Studies in human subjects using tracers, 297

Intervention studies in humans, 300

Special considerations in evaluating the bioavailability of encapsulated minerals, 303

Solubility of the coating material in the GI tract, 303

Coating material as a functional ingredient, 303

Outlook and research questions, 304

References, 304

11 Effects of microencapsulation on bioavailability of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, 309
Philip Christophersen, Mingshi Yang and Huiling Mu

Introduction, 309

Chemistry of omega-3 fatty acids, 310

Functional foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, 312

Bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids, 312

Effect of chemical structure, 314

Effect of microencapsulation on bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids, 315

Conclusions, 324

References, 325

12 Innovative applications of micro and nanoencapsulation in food packaging, 333
Murat Ozdemir and Tansel Kemerli

Introduction, 333

Antimicrobial food packaging materials and controlled release applications, 335

Antimicrobials-organic acids, peptides, essential oils, 344

Antimicrobial essential oils, 347

Metals and metal oxides, 348

Insect and rodent repellents, 351

Scented fragrance inserts and aroma-flavor releasing systems, 353

Encapsulated pigments and fillers, 357

Encapsulated inks and time-temperature indicators, 362

Future perspective, 368

References, 369

Index, 379