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Encyclopedia of Biocolloid and Biointerface Science

Encyclopedia of Biocolloid and Biointerface Science

Hiroyuki Ohshima (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-07569-1

Sep 2016

576 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

This two-volume encyclopedia covers the field of biocolloids and biointerfaces, one of the emerging and increasingly prominent studied areas of physical chemistry. The progress and development of biotechnology, biomaterials, and nanobiosciences makes it especially timely to publish an encyclopedia of biocolloid and biointerface science. This will be the first encyclopedia in this field.  Arrranged in an A to Z manner, fundamentals, applications, and measurement techniques will be addressed. Sample topics include concentrated soft particles, intercellular interactions, rheology, biofilms liposomes, membrane transport, smart gels, polyer nanotubes, water in nanospace, bioadhesion, and electrokinetic measurements, among others.

List of Contributors xxi

Preface xxvii

I Insulin

46 Insulin Fibrillation and Role of Peptides and Small Molecules in its Inhibition Process 575
Victor Banerjee and K.P. Das

46.1 Introduction, 575

46.2 Prevention of Insulin Fibrillation, 580

46.3 Summary and Conclusion, 588

Interfacial Water

47 Interfacial Water Between Charge-Neutralized Polymer and Liquid Water 592
Hiromi Kitano and Makoto Gemmei-Ide

47.1 Introduction, 592

47.2 Polymer Film Systems, 592

47.3 Zwitterionic Polymer Brush System, 595

47.4 Amphoteric Polymer Brush System, 596

47.5 Conclusion, 596

L Langmuir Monolayer Interaction

48 Langmuir Monolayer Interaction of Perfluorooctylated Long-Chain Alcohols With Biomembrane Constituents 597
Hiromichi Nakahara and Osamu Shibata

48.1 Introduction, 597

48.2 Thermal Properties of F8HmOH, 597

48.3 Langmuir Monolayer Behavior of F8HmOH, 598

48.4 Binary Monolayers of DPPC and F8HmOH, 599

48.5 Miscibility of F8HmOH With Lipids, 605

48.6 Conclusions and Perspectives, 606

Latex

49 Affinity Latex 609
Haruma Kawaguchi

49.1 Introduction, 609

49.2 Immunolatex, 610

49.3 Materials Composing Affinity Latex, 610

49.4 Comparison Between Affinity Column Chromatography and Affinity Latex, 611

49.5 Features of Affinity Latex, 611

49.6 Novel Affinity Latex, 613

49.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects, 613

50 Latex Diagnosis 614
Haruma Kawaguchi

50.1 Introduction, 614

50.2 Materials Composing Immunolatex, 614

50.3 Design of Immnolatex, 614

50.4 Measurement of Agglutination, 616

50.5 Latex Diagnostics Independent from Agglutination, 617

50.6 Multiplex Assay Using Affinity Latex, 618

50.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects, 618

Light Scattering

51 Light Scattering and Electrophoretic Light Scattering of Biopolymers 619
Etsuo Kokufuta

51.1 Introduction, 619

51.2 Static Light Scattering, 619

51.3 Dynamic Light Scattering, 620

51.4 Electrophoretic Light Scattering, 623

51.5 Discussion and Conclusion, 624

Line Tension

52 Impact of Line Tension on Colloidal Systems 628
Hiroki Matsubara, Takanori Takiue, and Makoto Aratono

52.1 Introduction, 628

52.2 Domains in Langmuir Monolayers, 628

52.3 Modification of Domain Line Tension, 630

52.4 Vesicles, 631

52.5 Line Tension at Wetting Transitions, 633

52.6 Particles at Liquid Surfaces, 636

52.7 Foam Films, 637

52.8 Summary, 639

Lipid

53 Liquid Structures and Properties of Lipids 642
Makio Iwahashi

53.1 Introduction, 642

53.2 Comparison of Alcohols with Their Corresponding Fatty Acids in Their Aggregated Structures and Properties, 642

53.3 Aggregation Number of Alcohol and Stability of Fatty Acid Dimer, 645

53.4 Intra- or Intermolecular Movements of Lipids, 647

53.5 Liquid Structures of Fatty Acids, 650

53.6 Effect of Cholesterol and Other Additives on the Cluster Structure and Properties of Oleic Acid, 652

53.7 Aggregated Structures and Properties of Acylglycerols, 655

53.8 New Application of Fatty-Acid Esters, 656

Lipid Bilayer Membrane

54 Birefringence in Lipid Bilayer Membranes 661
Kiyoshi Mishima

54.1 Introduction, 661

54.2 Birefringence in Uniaxial Crystals, 661

54.3 Birefringence in Lipid Bilayers, 663

54.4 Interference with Birefringent Materials, 664

54.5 Birefringence Techniques for Analyzing Lipid Bilayer Membranes, 666

Lipid Monolayer

55 Surface States of Lipid Monolayers Containing Gangliosides 674
Shoko Yokoyama

55.1 Introduction, 674

55.2 Experimental Materials, 674

55.3 Measurement of Surface Pressure, 674

55.4 Preparation of LB Film, 675

55.5 AFM Observation, 675

55.6 Results and Discussion, 675

55.7 Conclusion, 683

Liponano-capsule

56 Liponanocapsule: A Nanocapsule Built From a Liposomal Template 684
Yuuka Fukui and Keiji Fujimoto

56.1 Introduction, 684

56.2 Multilayer Coating to Produce Liponanocapsule, 685

56.3 Release Behavior of Liponanocapsules, 685

56.4 Interaction of Liponano Capsules with Cells, 686

56.5 Assembly of Liponanocapsules to Create Freestanding Bioscaffold, 686

56.6 Coating with Minerals to Prepare Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Liponanocapsule, 687

56.7 Conclusions, 688

M Magnetic Suspension

57 Physical Phenomena of Magnetic Suspensions for Application to Bioengineering 690
Akira Satoh

57.1 Introduction, 690

57.2 Simulation Methods for Colloidal Suspensions, 691

57.3 Surface Modification, 693

57.4 Sedimentation, 699

57.5 Conclusion, 701

Membrane Electrode

58 Ion-Sensing Membrane Electrodes in Study of Surfactant–Biopolymer Interaction 704
Sudeshna M. Chatterjea, Koustubh Panda, and Satya P. Moulik

58.1 Introduction, 704

58.2 Development of Surfactant Ion-Selective Electrodes (SISEs), 705

58.3 Study of Surfactant Biopolymer Systems Using SISEs, 710

58.4 Conclusion, 714

Membrane Potential

59 Membrane Potential as a Function of Dielectric Constant 721
Akihiko Tanioka and Hidetoshi Matsumoto

59.1 Introduction, 721

59.2 Theoretical Background, 722

59.3 Materials and Experimental Procedures, 726

59.4 Results and Discussion, 728

Micellar Protein Alpha-crystalline

60 Biophysical Studies of a Micellar Protein α-Crystallin by Fluorescence Methods 737
Aritra Chowdhury, Rajat Banerjee, and K.P. Das

60.1 α-Crystallin, 737

60.2 A Brief Introduction to Fluorescence in Proteins, 737

60.3 Challenges in Determining α-Crystallin Structure and Preliminary Structural Models Based on Micellar Architecture, 738

60.4 Hydrophobicity of α-Crystallin and Its Chaperone Function, 738

60.5 Effect of Temperature on Chaperone Function of α-Crystallin, 740

60.6 Identification of Chaperone Sites of α-Crystallin Using Hydrophobic Fluorophores, 741

60.7 Substrate Conformation Recognized by α-Crystallin: Comparison with Other Chaperones, 741

60.8 Subunit Exchange of α-Crystallin and Its Diverse Role, 743

60.9 Oligomeric Assembly and Unfolding of α-Crystallin, 746

60.10 Summary and Conclusions, 750

Muscle Contraction

61 Modeling Muscle Contraction Mechanism in Accordance with Sliding-Filament Theory 753
Toshio Mitsui and Hiroyuki Ohshima

61.1 Introduction, 753

61.2 Muscle Structures and the Sliding-Filament Theory, 753

61.3 Thermodynamic Relationship that any Models Based on Sliding-Filament Theory Should Fulfill, 754

61.4 Difficulties of the Power Stroke Model, 757

61.5 Requirements for any Models Based on Sliding-Filament Theory, 758

61.6 Construction of a New Model, 758

61.7 Characteristics of the Model That are Helpful for Numerical Calculations, 763

61.8 Comparison of Calculation Results with Experimental Data, 764

61.9 Summary and Discussion, 768

N Nanocarrier

62 Nanocarriers of Functional Materials From Amino Acid Surfactants 771
Geetha Baskar, S. Angayarkanny, and Asit Baran Mandal

62.1 Introduction, 771

62.2 Self-Assembly and Aggregated Structures, 772

62.3 Polymeric Amphiphiles, 774

62.4 Amino Acid Surfactants, 775

62.5 Polymeric Nanocarriers in Pharmaceutical and Other Applications, 778

62.6 Summary, 780

Nanocolloid

63 Syntheses of Metallic Nanocolloids and the Quenching Abilities of Reactive Oxygen Species 784
Yukihide Shiraishi and Naoki Toshima

63.1 Introduction, 784

63.2 Monometallic Nanocolloids, 785

63.3 Bimetallic Nanocolloids, 787

Nanocomposite

64 Silver and Gold Nanocomposites: Amino Acid Sidechain Effect on Morphology 790
Zoya Zaheer and Rafiuddin

64.1 Introduction, 790

64.2 Role of Sidechain, 791

64.3 Mechanism in the Formation of Silver Nanoparticles, 792

Nanogel

65 Nanogel, an Internally Networked Poly(Amino Acid) Nanoparticle for pH-Responsive Delivery 799
Jong-Duk Kim and Chan Woo Park

65.1 Introduction, 799

65.2 Preparation of Poly(Amino Acid) Nanogels, 801

65.3 Structure and Characteristics of Nanogel, 805

65.4 pH-Responsive Nanogels, 808

65.5 Conclusions, 810

Nanoparticle

66 Strategies of Metal Nanoparticles for Nanobiology 812
Daisuke Matsukuma and Hidenori Otsuka

66.1 Introduction, 812

66.2 Metal Nanoparticles, 812

66.3 Bioconjugation of Metal Nanoparticles for Nanobiology, 814

66.4 Surface Modification of Metal Nanoparticles by Functional Polymers, 815

66.5 Reducing Polymers Act as Dispersants for Nanoparticles, 817

66.6 Conclusion, 818

O On-chip Electrophoresis

67 On-Chip Electrophoresis for Evaluating Zeta-Potential of Nanoliposomes 821
Takanori Akagi and Takanori Ichiki

67.1 Introduction, 821

67.2 Nanoliposome Preparation, 821

67.3 Zeta-Potential Measurement System, 822

67.4 Calculation of Zeta-Potential of Liposomes, 822

67.5 Capillary Electrophoresis of Liposomes, 823

67.6 Conclusion, 824

P Phase Separation

68 Phase Separation in Phospholipid Bilayers Induced by Cholesterol 825
Nobutake Tamai, Masaki Goto, and Hitoshi Matsuki

68.1 Introduction, 825

68.2 Historical Background, 826

68.3 Solid–Liquid Phase Diagrams of Binary Mixtures, 827

68.4 Phase Transitions of CnPC–Cholesterol Binary Bilayers, 829

68.5 Phase Diagrams of CnPC–Cholesterol Binary Bilayers, 833

68.6 Acyl Chain Length Dependence of Characteristic Cholesterol Compositions, 836

68.7 Summary, 838

69 Phase Separation Phenomena in Drug Systems 841
Andleeb Z. Naqvi and Kabir-ud-Din

69.1 Introduction, 841

69.2 Drug-DDS Interactions: Effect of Temperature on Solution, 842

Phosphatidylcholine

70 Bilayer Imaging of Phosphatidylcholines by High-Pressure Fluorometry 860
Masaki Goto, Nobutake Tamai, and Hitoshi Matsuki

70.1 Introduction, 860

70.2 Prodan Fluorescence Spectra, 860

70.3 Factors Affecting the Packing State in the PC Bilayer, 862

70.4 Packing State in the Lc Phase, 866

70.5 Conclusions, 868

Plant-responding Mechanism

71 Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Mechanisms Involved in Plant Response to Salt Stress 870
Xiaoli Tang, Xingmin Mu, Hongbo Shao, Hongyan Wang, and Marian Brestic

71.1 Introduction, 870

71.2 Growth and Photosynthesis, 871

71.3 Osmotic Stress Effects and Tolerance, 872

71.4 Ion Toxicity and Ion Homeostasis, 872

71.5 Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Responses, 875

71.6 Phytohormone in Salt Stress, 876

71.7 Conclusions, 876

Pulmonary Surfactant

72 Interfacial Phenomena of Pulmonary Surfactant Preparations 885
Hiromichi Nakahara, Sannamu Lee, and Osamu Shibata

72.1 Introduction, 885

72.2 Isotherm Behavior of the Lipids and Peptide, 886

72.3 Interaction Between the Lipids and Peptide, 888

72.4 Hysteresis in π−A and ΔV−A Isotherms, 890

72.5 Morphological Phase Behavior, 891

72.6 Polarized ATR-FTIR Spectra, 894

72.7 PM-IRRAS Spectra at the Air–Water Interface, 895

72.8 Conclusions, 901

73 Using Thin Liquid Film for Study of Pulmonary Surfactants 905
Dotchi Exerowa, Roumen Todorov, and Dimo Platikanov

73.1 Introduction, 905

73.2 Experimental Technique, 905

73.3 Physicochemical Properties Studied by the Thin Liquid Film Method, 907

73.4 Pulmonary Surfactants, 909

73.5 Method for Lung Maturity Assessment, 909

73.6 Foam Films from Pulmonary Surfactant and Its Components, 910

73.7 Thin Liquid Wetting Films from Pulmonary Surfactant Solutions, 912

73.8 Conclusion, 913

R Receptor-ligand Interaction

74 Probing Receptor–Ligand Interactions on a Single Molecule Level Using Optical Tweezers 915
Tim Stangner, Carolin Wagner, Christof Gutsche, Konstanze Stangner, David Singer, Stefano Angioletti-Uberti, and Friedrich Kremer

74.1 Introduction, 915

74.2 Methodology, 916

74.3 Theoretical Description of Receptor–Ligand Interactions, 921

74.4 Case Studies, 923

74.5 Conclusion, 929

S Soft Particle

75 AC Electrokinetics of Concentrated Suspensions of Soft and Hairy Nanoparticles: Model and Experiments 933
Silvia Ahualli, Ángel V. Delgado, Félix Carrique, and Marýa Luisa Jiménez

75.1 Introduction, 933

75.2 Basic Equations, 934

75.3 Some Predictions, 938

75.4 Experimental Verification, 941

75.5 Conclusion, 943

76 Electrophoretic Behavior of pH-Regulated Soft Biocolloids 946
Li-Hsien Yeh and Jyh-Ping Hsu

76.1 Introduction, 946

76.2 Theoretical Model, 947

76.3 Electrophoresis of a pH-Regulated Soft Biocolloid, 950

76.4 Summary, 956

76.5 Notations, 957

Greek Letters, 958

Superscripts, 959

Subscripts, 959

Prefix, 959

77 Electrophoretic Mobility of Soft Particles 961
Kimiko Makino and Hiroyuki Ohshima

77.1 Introduction, 961

77.2 Electrophoretic Mobility of Hard Particles, 961

77.3 Electrophoretic Mobility of Soft Particles, 962

77.4 Analysis of Electrophoretic Mobility of Soft Particles, 965

77.5 Electrophoresis of Nonuniformly Charged Soft Particles, 967

78 Potential Distribution Around a Hard Particle and a Soft Particle 970
Hiroyuki Ohshima

78.1 Introduction, 970

78.2 Hard Particles, 970

78.3 Soft Particles, 974

78.4 Discrete-Charge Effect, 975

Soil

79 Soil Interfacial Electrical Phenomena 979
Munehide Ishiguro

79.1 Introduction, 979

79.2 Ion Transport in Soils, 979

79.3 Soil Dispersion and Flocculation, 983

79.4 Influence of Dispersion on Soil Permeability, 985

79.5 Surfactant Adsorption, 988

79.6 Ion Exclusion and Salt Sieving, 991

Solid-water Interface

80 Pharmaceutical Solid–Water Interface Phenomena Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy 994
Yusuke Hattori and Makoto Otsuka

80.1 Introduction, 994

80.2 Exploration of Interface Phenomena Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, 995

80.3 Conclusion, 1001

Stability

81 Colloid Stability of Biocolloidal Dispersions 1004
Tharwat Tadros

81.1 Introduction, 1004

81.2 Kinetic Stability of Biocolloidal Dispersion Systems and General Stabilization Mechanisms, 1004

81.3 Nanoemulsions, 1007

81.4 Nanobiodegradable Dispersions, 1010

81.5 Liposomes and Vesicles in Pharmaceuticals, 1011

82 Stability Ratio and Early-Stage Aggregation Kinetics of Colloidal Dispersions 1014
Hiroyuki Ohshima

82.1 Introduction, 1014

82.2 DLVO Theory of Colloid Stability and the Stability Ratio, 1014

82.3 Approximate Analytic Expressions for the Stability Ratio W, 1016

82.4 Rate Equations for Early-Stage Aggregation Kinetics of Colloidal Particles, 1017

82.5 Approximate Solution to the Rate Equation, 1018

Surfactant

83 Catanionic Surfactants: Novel Surrogates of Phospholipids 1020
Kausik Manna and Amiya Kumar Panda

83.1 Introduction, 1020

83.2 Classifications, 1021

83.3 Preparation and Isolation, 1029

83.4 Characterization of Isolated IPA, 1029

83.5 Properties, 1031

83.6 Catanionic Micelles, 1036

83.7 Catanionic Vesicles: Catanosomes, 1037

83.8 Applications of IPA/Catanionic Surfactants, 1039

83.9 Challenges and Future Perspectives, 1041

84 Phase Behavior of Natural-Sourced Surfactant Systems 1044
Kenji Aramaki

84.1 Introduction, 1044

84.2 Sugar-Based Surfactants, 1044

84.3 Glycerol-Based Surfactants, 1046

85 Surfactants and Biosurfactants 1051
Youichi Takata

85.1 Introduction, 1051

85.2 General Surfactants, 1051

85.3 Biosurfactants, 1054

Surface Active Drug

86 Effect of Additives on Self-Association and Clouding Phenomena of Various Surface-Active Drugs 1056
Md. Sayem Alam and Asit Baran Mandal

86.1 Introduction, 1056

86.2 Surface Properties, Self-Association, and Mixed Micellization of Surface-Active Drugs with and Without Additives, 1059

86.3 Effect of Additives on Clouding Behavior of Amphiphilic Drug Solutions, 1062

86.4 Thermodynamics at CP, 1065

86.5 Conclusions, 1067

T Thermodynamic Analysis of Partial Molar Volume

87 Thermodynamic Analysis of Partial Molar Volume in Biocolloidal Systems 1071
Michio Yamanaka, Hideyuki Maekawa, Tamaki Yasui, and Hitoshi Matsuki

87.1 Introduction, 1071

87.2 Definition of Partial Molar Volume and Elementary Thermodynamic Equations of the Volume Behavior of Solutions, 1072

87.3 Partial Molar Volumes in a Protein–Ligand System, 1073

87.4 Partial Molar Volume in Mixed Membrane Systems, 1079

V Van der Waals Interaction

88 Van Der Waals Interaction Between Colloidal Particles 1087
Hiroyuki Ohshima

88.1 Introduction, 1087

88.2 Van Der Waals Interaction Between Two Molecules, 1087

88.3 Van Der Waals Interaction Between Two Colloidal Particles, 1088

88.4 Various Geometries, 1088

W Wormlike Micelle

89 Wormlike Micelles with Nonionic Surfactants 1095
Rekha Goswami Shrestha, Kenji Aramaki, Hideki Sakai, and Masahiko Abe

89.1 Introduction, 1095

89.2 Wormlike Micelles in Nonionic Surfactants, 1097

89.3 Conclusion, 1102

Index 1105