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Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science



Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science

Brian S. Everitt (Editor), David Howell (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-86080-9 May 2005 2352 Pages

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The Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science encompasses the refined statistical concepts and techniques that are essential to the advancement in psychology and its ever-widening fields of application. 
  • Providing comprehensive accounts drawn from the huge expansion of statistical methodologies in the behavioral sciences, highlighting new techniques and developments from the past decade.
  • Up-to-date coverage of developing fields including neuroscience, behavioral genetics, decision learning and cognitive science.
  • Containing over 600 articles and over 400 contributions from eminent psychologists and statisticians world-wide.
  • Emphasis on practical, non-technical methods with wide ranging application.
  • Extensively cross-referenced to ensure fast and accurate access to available information

Representing an invaluable addition to both the psychological and statistical literature, the Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science forms an essential reference work for researchers, educators and students in the fields of applied psychology, sociology, market research, consumer behavior, management science, decision making and human resource management. 

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A Priori v Post Hoc Testing.

ACE Model.

Adaptive Random Assignment.

Adaptive Sampling.

Additive Constant Problem.

Additive Genetic Variance.

Additive Models.

Additive Tree.

Additivity Tests.

Adoption Studies.

Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

Akaike's Criterion.

Allelic Association.

All-X Models.

All-Y Models.

Alternating Treatment Designs.

Analysis of Covariance.

Analysis of Covariance: Nonparametric.

Analysis of Variance.

Analysis of Variance and Multiple Regression Approaches.

Analysis of Variance: Cell Means Approach.

Analysis of Variance: Classification.

Ansari-Bradley Test.

Arbuthnot, John.

Area Sampling.

Arithmetic Mean.

Ascertainment Corrections.

Assortative Mating.

Asymptotic Relative Efficiency.

Attitude Scaling.


Average Deviation.

Axes in Multivariate Analysis.


Balanced Incomplete Block Designs.

Bar Chart.

Battery Reduction.

Bayes, Thomas.

Bayesian Belief Networks.

Bayesian Item Response Theory Estimation.

Bayesian Methods for Categorical Data.

Bayesian Statistics.

Bernoulli Family.

Binomial Confidence Interval.

Binomial Distribution: Estimating and Testing parameters.

Binomial Effect Size Display.

Binomial Test.


Block Random Assignment.


Bootstrap Inference.

Box Plots.

Bradley-Terry Model.

Breslow-Day Statistic.

Brown, William.

Bubble Plot.

Burt, Cyril Lodowic.

Bush, Robert R.

Calculating Covariance.

Campbell, Donald T.

Canonical Correlation Analysis.

Carroll-Arabie Taxonomy.

Carryover and Sequence Effects.

Case Studies.

Case-Cohort Studies.

Case-Control Studies.

Catalogue of Parametric Tests.

Catalogue of Probability Density Functions.

Catastrophe Theory.

Categorizing Data.

Cattell, Raymond Bernard.

Censored Observations.


Centering in Multivariate Linear Models.

Central Limit Theory.

Children of Twins Design.

Chi-Square Decomposition.

Cholesky Decomposition.

Classical Statistical   Inference: Practice versus Presentation.

Classical Statistical Inference Extended: Split-Tailed Tests.

Classical Test Models.

Classical Test Score Equating.

Classification and Regression Trees.

Clinical Psychology.

Clinical Trials and Intervention Studies.

Cluster Analysis: Overview.

Clustered Data.

Cochran, William Gemmell.

Cochran's C Test.

Coefficient of Variation.

Cohen, Jacob.

Cohort Sequential Design.

Cohort Studies.



Combinatorics for Categorical Variables.

Common Pathway Model.

Community Intervention Studies.


Compensatory Equalization.

Compensatory Rivalry.

Completely Randomized Design.

Computational Models.

Computer-Adaptive Testing.

Computer-Based Test Designs.

Computer-Based Testing.

Concordance Rates.

Conditional Independence.

Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement.

Confidence Intervals.

Confidence Intervals: Nonparametric.

Configural Frequency Analysis.

Confounding in the Analysis of Variance.

Confounding Variable.

Contingency Tables.

Coombs, Clyde Hamilton.


Correlation and Covariance Matrices.

Correlation Issues in Genetics Research.

Correlation Studies.

Correspondence Analysis.

Co-Twin Control Methods.

Counter Null Value of an Effect Size.


Counterfactual Reasoning.


Covariance Matrices: Testing Equality of.

Covariance Structure Models.


Cox, Gertrude Mary.

Cramer-Von Mises Test.

Criterion-Referenced Assessment.

Critical Region.

Cross Sectional Design.

Cross-Classified and Multiple Membership Models.

Cross-Lagged Panel Design.

Crossover Design.


Cultural Transmission.

Data Mining.

de Finetti, Bruno.

de Moivre, Abraham.

Decision Making Strategies.

Deductive Reasoning and Statistical Inference.

DeFries-Fulker Analysis.

Demand Characteristics.

Deming, Edwards William.

Design Effects.

Development of Statistical Theory in the 20th Century.

Differential Item Functioning.

Direct and Indirect Effects.

Direct Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

Directed Alternatives in Testing.

Direction of Causation Models.

Discriminant Analysis.

Distribution Free Inference, an Overview.


Dot chart.

Dropouts in Longitudinal Data.

Dropouts in Longitudinal Studies: Methods of Analysis.

Dummy Variables.


Ecological Fallacy.

Educational Psychology: Measuring Change Over Time.

Effect Size Measures.


Empirical Quantile-Quantile Plots.


Equivalence Trials.

Error Rates.


ETA and ETA Squared.

Ethics in Research.

Evaluation Research.

Event History Analysis.

Exact Methods for Categorical Data.

Expectancy Effect.


Experimental Design.

Exploratory Data Analysis.

External Validity.

Facet Theory.

Face-to-Face Surveys.

Factor Analysis of Personality Measures.

Factor Analysis: Confirmatory.

Factor Analysis: Exploratory.

Factor Analysis: Multiple Groups.

Factor Analysis: Multitrait-Multimethod.

Factor Score Estimation.

Factorial Designs.

Family History Versus Family Study Methods in Genetics.

Family Study and Relative Risk.

Fechner, Gustav T.

Field Experiment.

Finite Mixture Distributions.

Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer.

Fisherian Tradition in Behavioral Genetics.

Fixed and Random Effects.

Fixed Effect Models.

Focus Group Techniques.

Free Response Data Scoring.

Friedman's Test.

Functional Data Analysis.

Fuzzy Cluster Analysis.

Galton, Francis.

Game Theory.

Gauss, Johann Carl Friedrich.

Gene-Environment Correlation.

Gene-Environment Interaction.


Generalizability Theory: Basics.

Generalizability Theory: Estimation.

Generalizability Theory: Overview.

Generalized Additive Model.

Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

Generalized Linear Mixed Models.

Generalized Linear Models (GLM).


Geometric Mean.

Goodness of Fit.

Goodness of Fit for Categorical Variables.

Gosset, William Sealy.

Graphical Chain Models.

Graphical Methods Pre-twentieth Century.

Graphical Presentation of Longitudinal Data.

Growth Curve Modeling.

Guttman, Louise (Eliyahu).

Harmonic Mean.

Hawthorne Effect.


Heritability: Overview.

Heteroscedasticity and Complex Variation.


Heuristics: Fast and Frugal.

Hierarchical Clustering.

Hierarchical Item Response Theory Modeling.

Hierarchical Models.

High-Dimensional Regression.

Hill's Criteria of Causation.


Historical Controls.

History of Analysis of Variance.

History of Behavioral Statistics.

History of Correlational Measurement.

History of Discrimination and Clustering.

History of Factor Analysis: British Perspective.

History of Factor Analysis: Statistical Perspective.

History of Intelligence Measurement.

History of Mathematical Learning Theory.

History of Multivariate Analysis of Variance.

History of Path Analysis.

History of Psychometrics.

History of Surveys of Sexual Behavior.

History of the Control Group.

Hodges-Lehman Estimator.

Horseshoe Pattern.

Hotelling, Howard.

Hull, Clark L.


Inbred Strain Study.


Incomplete Contingency Tables.

Incompleteness of Probability Models.

Independence: Chi-square and likelihood Ratio Tests.

Independent Components Analysis.

Independent Pathway Model.

Index Plots.

Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

Influential Observations.

Information Matrix.

Information Theory.

Instrumental Variable.


Interaction Effects.

Interaction Plot.

Internal Consistency.

Internal Validity.

Internet Research Methods.

Interquartile Range.

Interrupted Time Series Design.

Intervention Analysis.

Intraclass Correlation.

Intrinsic Linearity.

Introduction to Probability.

INUS Conditions.

Item Analysis.

Item Bias Detection: Classical Approaches.

Item Bias Detection: Modern Approaches.

Item Exposure Detection.

Item Response Theory (IRT) Models for Dichotomous Data.

Item Response Theory Models for Rating Scale Data.

Item Response Theory: Cognitive Models.

Item Response Theory Models for Polytomous Response Data.


Jonckheere-Terpstra Test.

Kendall, Maurice George.

Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance.

Kendall's Tau - t.

Kernel Smoothing.

K-Means Analysis.

Kolmogorov, Andrey Nikolaevich.

Kolmogorov-Smirnov Tests.

Kruskal-Wallis Test.


Laplace, Pierre Simon (Marquis de).

Latent Class Analysis.

Latent Transition Models.

Latent Variable.

Latin Squares Designs.

Laws of Large Numbers.

Least Squares Estimation.

Leverage Plot.

Liability Threshold Models.

Linear Model.

Linear Models: Permutation Methods.

Linear Multilevel Models.

Linkage Analysis.

Logistic Regression.

Log-linear Models.

Log-linear Rasch Models for Stability and Change.

Longitudinal Data Analysis.

Longitudinal Designs in Genetic Research.

Lord, Frederic Mather.

Lord's Paradox.


M Estimators of Location.

Mahalanobis Distance.

Mahalanobis, Prasanta Chandra.

Mail Surveys.

Mallows Cp Statistic.

Mantel-Haenszel Methods.

Marginal Independence.

Marginal Models for Clustered Data.

Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Bayesian Statistics.

Markov Chain Monte-Carlo Item Response Theory Estimation.

Markov Chains.

Markov, Andrei Andreevich..



Mathematical Psychology.

Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

Maximum Likelihood Item Response Theory Estimation.

Maxwell, Albert Ernest.

Measurement: Overview.

Measures of Association.


Median Absolute Deviation.

Median Test.


Mendelian Genetics Rediscovered.

Mendelian Inheritance and Segregation Analysis.



Mid-p Values.

Minimum Spanning Tree.

Misclassification Rates.

Missing Data.

Model Based Cluster Analysis.

Model Evaluation.

Model Fit: Assessment of.

Model Identifiability.

Model Selection.

Models for Matched Pairs.



Monotonic Regression.

Monte Carlo Goodness of Fit Tests.

Monte Carlo Simulation.

Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models.

Multidimensional Scaling.

Multidimensional Unfolding.

Multigraph Modeling.

Multilevel and SEM Approaches to Growth Curve Modeling.

Multiple Baseline Designs.

Multiple Comparison Procedures.

Multiple Comparison Tests: Nonparametric and Resampling Approaches.

Multiple Imputation.

Multiple Informants.

Multiple Linear Regression.

Multiple Testing.

Multi-trait Multi-method Analyses.

Multivariate Analysis of Variance.

Multivariate Analysis:   Bayesian.

Multivariate Analysis: Overview.

Multivariate Genetic Analysis.

Multivariate Multiple Regression.

Multivariate Normality Tests.

Multivariate Outliers.

Neural Networks.


New Item Types and Scoring.

Neyman, Jerzy.

Neyman-Pearson Inference.

Nightingale, Florence.

Nonequivalent Control Group Design.

Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models.

Nonlinear Models.

Nonparametric Correlation (rs).

Nonparametric Correlation (tau).

Nonparametric Item Response Theory Models.

Nonparametric Regression.

Nonrandom Samples.

Nonresponse in Sample Surveys.

Nonshared Environment.

Normal Scores & Expected Order Statistics.

Nuisance Variables.

Number Needed to Treat.

Number of Clusters.

Number of Matches and Magnitude of Correlation.

Observational Study.

Odds and Odds Ratios.

One Way Designs:Nonparametric and Resampling Approaches.

Optimal Design for Categorical Variables.

Optimal Scaling.

Optimization Methods.

Ordinal Regression Models.

Outlier Detection.


Overlapping Clusters.

P Values.

Page's 0rdered Alternatives Test.

Paired Observations, Distribution Free Methods.

Panel Study.


Parsimony/Occham's Razor.

Partial Correlation Coefficients.

Partial Least Squares.

Path Analysis and Path Diagrams.

Pattern Recognition.

Pearson Product Moment Correlation.

Pearson, Egon Sharpe.

Pearson, Karl.


Permutation Based Inference.

Person Misfit.

Pie Chart.

Pitman Test.

Placebo Effect.

Point Biserial Correlation.

Polychoric Correlation.

Polynomial Model.

Population Stratification.


Power Analysis for Categorical Methods.

Power and Sample Size in Multilevel Linear Models.

Prediction Analysis of Cross-Classifications.


Principal Component Analysis.

Principal Components and Extensions.

Probability Plots.

Probability: Foundations of.


Procrustes Analysis.

Projection Pursuit.

Propensity Score.

Proscriptive and Retrospective Studies.

Proximity Measures.

Psychophysical Scaling.

Qualitative Research.


Quantitative Methods in Personality Research.


Quasi-Experimental Designs.


Quasi-Symmetry in Contingency Tables.

Quetelet, Adolphe.


R & Q Analysis.

R Squared, Adjusted R Squared.

Random Effects and Fixed Effects Fallacy.

Random Effects in Multivariate Linear Models: Prediction.

Random Forests.

Random Walks.


Randomization Based Tests.

Randomized Block Design: Nonparametric Analyses.

Randomized Block Designs.

Randomized Response Technique.


Rank Based Inference.

Rasch Modeling.

Rasch Models for Ordered Response Categories.

Rater Agreement.

Rater Agreement - Kappa.

Rater Agreement - Weighted Kappa.

Rater Bias Models.


Receiver Operating Characteristics Curves.

Recursive Models.

Regression Artifacts.

Regression Discontinuity Design.

Regression Model Coding for the Analysis of Variance.

Regression Models.

Regression to the Mean.

Relative Risk.

Reliability: Definitions and Estimation.

Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance.

Replicability of Results.

Reproduced Matrix.

Resentful Demoralization.

Residual Plot.


Residuals in Structural Equation, Factor Analysis, and Path Analysis Models.

Resistant Line Fit.

Retrospective Studies.

Reversal Design.

Risk Perception.

Robust Statistics for Multivariate Methods.

Robust Testing Procedures.

Robustness of Standard Tests.

Runs Test.

Sample Size and Power Calculation.

Sampling Distributions.

Sampling Issues in Categorical Data.

Saturated Model.

Savage, Leonard Jimmie.

Scales of Measurement.

Scaling Asymmetric Matrices.

Scaling of Preferential Choice.

Scatterplot Matrices.

Scatterplot Smoothers.


Scheffe, Henry.

Second order Factor Analysis: Confirmatory.

Selection Study (Mouse Genetics).

Sensitivity Analysis.

Sensitivity Analysis in Observational Studies.

Sequential Decision Making.

Sequential Testing.

Setting Performance Standards - Issues, Methods.

Sex-Limitation Models.

Shannon, Claude.

Shared Environment.

Shepard Diagram.

Sibling Interaction Effects.

Sign Test.

Signal Detection Theory.

Signed Ranks Test.

Simple Random Assignment.

Simple Random Sampling.

Simple V Composite Tests.

Simulation Methods for Categorical Variables.

Simultaneous Confidence Interval.

Single and Double-Blind Procedures.

Single-Case Designs.


Slicing Inverse Regression.

Snedecor, George Waddell.

Social Interaction Models.

Social Networks.

Social Psychology.

Social Validity.

Software for Behavioral Genetics.

Software for Statistical Analyses.

Spearman, Charles Edward.

Spearman's Rho.

Sphericity Test.

Standard Deviation.

Standard Error.

Standardized Regression Coefficients.

Stanine Scores.

Star and Profile Plots.

State Dependence.

Statistical Models.

Statistical Models for Causation: A Critical Review.

Stem and Leaf Plot.

Stephenson, William.

Stevens, S S.


Structural Equation Modeling and Test Validation.

Structural Equation Modeling: Categorical Variables.

Structural Equation Modeling: Checking Substantive Plausibility.

Structural Equation Modeling: Mixture Models.

Structural Equation Modeling: Multilevel.

Structural Equation Modeling: Nontraditional Alternatives.

Structural Equation Modeling: Overview.

Structural Equation Modeling: Software.

Structural Equation Modeling:Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

Structural Equation Modeling:Nonstandard Cases.

Structural Zeros.

Subjective Probability and Human Judgement.

Summary Measure Analysis of Longitudinal Data.

Survey Questionnaire Design.

Survey Sampling Procedures.

Survival Analysis.

Symmetry Plot.

Symmetry: Distribution Free Tests for.

Tau-Equivalent and Congeneric Measurements.

Teaching Statistics to Psychologists.

Teaching Statistics: Sources.

Telephone Surveys.

Test Bias Detection.

Test Construction.

Test Construction: Automated.

Test Dimensionality: Assessment of.

Test Translation.

Tetrachoric Correlation.

Theil Slope Estimate.

Thomson, Godfrey Hilton.

Three dimensional (3D) Scatterplots.

Three-Mode Component and Scaling Methods.

Thurstone, Louis Leon.

Time Series Analysis.

Tolerance and Variance Inflation Factor.


Tree Models.

Trellis Graphics.

Trend Tests for Counts and Proportions.

Trimmed Means.


Tukey Quick Test.

Tukey, John   Wilder.

Tversky, Amos.

Twin Designs.

Twins Reared Apart Design.

Two by Two Contingency Tables.

Two-mode Clustering.

Two-way Factorial: Distribution-Free Methods.

Type I, Type II and Type III Sums of Squares.

Ultrametric Inequality.

Ultrametric Trees.

Unidimensional Scaling.

Urban, F M.

Utility Theory.

Validity Theory and Applications.

Variable Selection.


Variance Components.

Walsh Averages.

Wiener, Norbert.

Wilcoxon, Frank.

Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test.

Winsorized Robust Measures.

Within Case Designs: Distribution Free Methods.

Yates' Correction.

Yates, Frank.

Yule, George Udny.


I congratulate the editors for a job well done. The coverage is thorough and accurate, and the levels are well matched to the anticipated readers.  (Journal of the American Statistical Association)

"…valuable for researcher[s], educators, and students in…neuroscience, behavior genetics, and the cognitive well as for those in the fields of sociology, management sciences, market research, and human resources." (American Reference Books Annual, March 2007)

"All libraries catering for post-16-year-olds should encourage their readers to work through these elementary texts." (Reference Reviews, 2006)