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Energy Conservation in Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Facilities

Energy Conservation in Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Facilities

Hossam A. Gabbar (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-42210-5

Jun 2018, Wiley-IEEE Press

352 pages

$116.99

Description

An authoritative and comprehensive guide to managing energy conservation in infrastructures

Energy Conservation in Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Facilities offers an essential guide to the business models and engineering design frameworks for the implementation of energy conservation in infrastructures. The presented models of both physical and technological systems can be applied to a wide range of structures such as homes, hotels, public facilities, industrial facilities, transportation, and water/energy supply systems. The authors—noted experts in the field—explore the key performance indicators that are used to evaluate energy conservation strategies and the energy supply scenarios as part of the design and operation of energy systems in infrastructures.

The text is based on a systems approach that demonstrates the effective management of building energy knowledge and supports the simulation, evaluation, and optimization of several building energy conservation scenarios. In addition, the authors explore new methods of developing energy semantic network (ESN) superstructures, energy conservation optimization techniques, and risk-based life cycle assessments. This important text:

  • Defines the most effective ways to model the infrastructure of physical and technological systems

  • Includes information on the most widely used techniques in the validation and calibration of building energy simulation
  • Offers a discussion of the sources, quantification, and reduction of uncertainty
  • Presents a number of efficient energy conservation strategies in infrastructure systems, including HVAC, lighting, appliances, transportation, and industrial facilities
  • Describes illustrative case studies to demonstrate the proposed energy conservation framework, practices, methods, engineering designs, control, and technologies

Written for students studying energy conservation as well as engineers designing the next generation of buildings, Energy Conservation in Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Facilities offers a wide-ranging guide to the effective management of energy conservation in infrastructures.

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PREFACE XV

AUTHORS’ BIOGRAPHY XVII

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS XXI

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS XXIII

PART I ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

1 ENERGY IN INFRASTRUCTURES 3
Hossam A. Gabbar

1.1 Infrastructure Systems / 3

1.1.1 Infrastructure Classifications / 4

1.1.2 Infrastructure Systems / 4

1.2 Energy Systems in Residential Facilities / 5

1.3 Energy Systems in Commercial Facilities / 8

1.4 Energy Systems in Industrial Facilities / 8

1.5 Energy Systems in Transportation Infrastructures / 8

1.6 Energy Production and Supply Infrastructures / 11

1.7 Conclusion / 12

References / 13

2 BUILDING ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (BEMS) / 15
Khairy Sayed and Hossam A. Gabbar

2.1 Introduction / 15

2.2 BEMS (BMS) Control Systems Overview / 22

2.3 Benefits of Building Energy Management Systems / 24

2.4 BMS Architectures / 26

2.4.1 Plain Support for Energy Awareness / 26

2.4.2 Integration of Actuators and Environmental Sensors / 27

2.5 Energy Systems Monitoring / 29

2.5.1 Indirect Monitoring / 29

2.5.2 Direct Monitoring / 30

2.5.3 Hybrid Monitoring / 30

2.5.4 Comparison of Different Energy Monitoring Systems / 31

2.5.5 Devices for Energy Sensing / 31

2.5.6 Integrated Control of Active and Passive Heating, Cooling, Lighting, Shading, and Ventilation Systems / 32

2.5.7 Electricity Network Architectures / 33

2.6 Energy Savings from Building Energy Management Systems / 35

2.6.1 Energy Savings Opportunities / 36

2.6.2 The Intelligent Building Approach / 43

2.6.3 Energy Monitoring, Profiling, and Modeling / 44

2.7 Smart Homes / 45

2.7.1 Economic Feasibility and Likelihood of Widespread Adoption / 47

2.7.2 Smart Home Energy Management / 47

2.7.3 Assets and Controls / 48

2.8 Energy Saving in Smart Home / 51

2.8.1 Heating and Cooling / 51

2.8.2 Lights / 52

2.8.3 Automatic Timers / 52

2.8.4 Motion Sensors / 52

2.8.5 Light Dimmer / 52

2.8.6 Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs / 52

2.9 Managing Energy Smart Homes According to Energy Prices / 53

2.10 Smart Energy Monitoring Systems to Help in Controlling Electricity Bill / 56

2.11 Advancing Building Energy Management System to Enable Smart Grid Interoperation / 57

2.11.1 Smart Grid and Customer Interoperation / 58

2.11.2 Customer Interoperation and Energy Service / 59

2.12 Communication for BEMS / 60

2.12.1 Building Automation System / 61

2.12.2 Busses and Protocols / 62

2.13 Data Management for Building / 68

2.13.1 Main Functions of the Building Management System / 68

2.13.2 Planning of a Building Management System / 69

2.14 Power Management / 70

2.14.1 Levels of the Power Management System / 72

2.14.2 Switching Status Acquisition and Measurements in the Power Distribution / 72

2.14.3 Switchgear and Communications / 73

2.14.4 Power Management Module / 79

Abbreviations / 79

References / 80

3 SIMULATION-BASED ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS 85
Farayi Musharavati, Shaligram Pokharel, and Hossam A. Gabbar

3.1 Introduction / 85

3.2 Simulation of Building Energy Performance / 87

3.3 Case Study I: Building Energy Simulation in Residential Buildings / 89

3.3.1 HEED / 89

3.3.2 Case Study Description / 89

3.4 Case Study II: Building Energy Simulation in Commercial Buildings (Shopping Mall) / 96

3.4.1 eQUEST / 97

3.4.2 Case Study Description / 97

3.4.3 Mall Occupancy / 98

3.4.4 Mall Lighting / 98

3.4.5 Mall Ventilation / 98

3.4.6 Mall Climate Control / 99

References / 106

PART II ENERGY SYSTEMS

4 FAST CHARGING SYSTEMS 111
Hossam A. Gabbar and Ahmed M. Othman

4.1 Introduction / 111

4.2 Fast Charging versus Other Charging Approaches / 112

4.3 Fast Charging: Technologies and Trends / 114

4.3.1 Flywheel Technology / 115

4.3.2 Advantages of Flywheel / 115

4.3.3 Scalable Flywheel Technology / 116

4.4 Flywheel-Based Fast Charging System 116

4.4.1 Fast Charging Stations: Design Criteria / 116

4.4.2 Fast Charging Stations: Covering Factor / 116

4.4.3 Mobility Behavior / 117

4.4.4 Mobility Integrated Study / 117

4.5 FFCS Design / 118

4.5.1 FFCS: Multilevel Circuit Design / 119

4.5.2 Control of Flywheel by Hysteresis Controller / 119

4.6 Proposed System Design / 120

4.7 ROI and Benefits of FFCS / 121

4.8 Conclusions 122 Further Readings / 122

5 MICROINVERTER SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION IN INFRASTRUCTURES 125
Hossam A. Gabbar, Jason Runge, and Khairy Sayed

5.1 Introduction / 125

5.1.1 Global PV Trends / 126

5.1.2 Solar PV in Canada / 126

5.1.3 Problem Statement / 127

5.2 Background / 128

5.2.1 History of the Inverter / 128

5.2.2 Inverter Classification Based on Power Rating / 129

5.2.3 Inverter Market History / 129

5.2.4 Inverter Overview / 131

5.2.5 Grid Synchronization / 133

5.2.6 Key Performance Indicators / 134

5.3 Inverter Design / 136

5.3.1 Circuit Block Overview / 136

5.3.2 Solar Panel Used / 137

5.3.3 DC–DC Converter Subcircuit Design / 138

5.3.4 DC Link /140

5.3.5 Inverter Topology Subcircuit Design / 142

5.3.6 SPWM Design / 142

5.3.7 Filter Subcircuit Design / 143

5.3.8 Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Loop Design / 147

5.3.9 Grid Synchronization – PLL Control Design / 149

5.3.10 300 W PSIM Circuit Design / 150

5.3.11 600 W Inverter Circuit Design / 151

5.3.12 Dual-Mode Inverter Design / 153

5.4 Simulation Results / 155

5.4.1 300 W Microinverter / 156

5.4.2 600 W Inverter / 157

5.4.3 Dual-Mode Inverter / 158

5.4.4 KPI Analysis / 163

5.5 Microinverter System Evaluation / 164

5.5.1 Key Performance Indicators / 164

5.5.2 Per Unit Key Performance Indication / 166

5.5.3 Resiliency Evaluation Methodology / 169

5.6 Case 0: Microinverter System / 170

5.7 Resiliency Controller Design / 171

5.7.1 Requirements / 172

5.7.2 Circuit Design / 172

5.8 Resiliency Case Study Design / 173

5.8.1 Need / 173

5.8.2 Assumptions / 174

5.8.3 Case 1: Two 300 W Inverters Paired Inside Single Inverter Unit / 174

5.8.4 Case 2: Extra 300 W Microinverter in Parallel to Microinverters / 179

5.8.5 Case 3: Backup 600 W Inverter Inside Paired Microinverters / 185

5.8.6 Case 4: Adjustable (300–600 W) Inverters Paired / 189

5.9 Results / 195

5.9.1 Summary of KPU / 195

5.9.2 Calculating and Mapping of PU-KPI / 197

5.10 Conclusion / 197

References / 198

PART III ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES

6 INTEGRATED PLANNING AND OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF RESILIENT MEG FOR OPTIMAL DERS SIZING AND ENHANCED DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE 205
Hossam A. Gabbar, Ahmed M. Othman, and Aboelsood Zidan

6.1 Introduction / 205

6.2 MEG Design with ESCL Demonstrations / 207

6.2.1 The Planning Stage / 208

6.2.2 The Operational Stage / 211

6.3 Enhanced Dynamic PID Control / 213

6.4 Backtracking Search Algorithm / 214

6.5 Case Study and Simulation Results / 217

6.6 Conclusions / 223

References / 223

7 PERSPECTIVES OF DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT UNDER SMART GRID CONCEPT 225
Onur Elma and Hossam A. Gabbar

7.1 Introduction / 225

7.2 Description of the Demand-Side Management / 227

7.2.1 The Benefits of the DSM / 230

7.3 Demand Response / 231

7.3.1 Demand Response Programs / 232

7.3.2 Examples of Demand Response Applications / 232

7.3.3 Information about Demand Response Standards / 235

7.4 Smart Metering / 236

7.5 Dynamic Pricing / 239

7.6 Residential Demand Control: Home Energy Management / 239

7.7 Conclusion / 243

References / 245

8 RESILIENT BATTERY MANAGEMENT FOR BUILDINGS 249
Hossam A. Gabbar and Ahmed M. Othman

8.1 Introduction / 249

8.2 Explorer of Smart Building Energy Automation (SBEA) / 250

8.3 SBEA Scopes and Specifications / 251

8.4 SBEA Structure / 253

8.4.1 Connection Structure / 253

8.4.2 Technical Specifications / 253

8.5 SBEA Control Strategy / 253

8.6 Communications and Data Analytics / 255

8.7 Technical Specifications / 256

8.8 Smart Building Energy Automation: SBEA / 258

8.8.1 Module Description / 258

8.8.2 Standards / 260

8.9 Saving with Solar and Battery Integration / 260

8.9.1 Residential Demands / 260

8.9.2 Commercial Demands / 261

8.10 SBEA Main Objectives / 261

8.11 SBEA Functions / 261

8.12 Current Control Module: SBEA / 262

8.13 Protection PCM Modules / 262

8.14 Management Control / 263

8.15 Battery Management and Control Variables 264 Further Readings / 266

9 CONTROL ARCHITECTURE OF RESILIENT INTERCONNECTED MICROGRIDS (RIMGS) FOR RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURES 267
Hossam A. Gabbar, Ahmed M. Othman, and Kartikey Singh

9.1 Introduction / 267

9.2 Problem Statement / 269

9.3 ESCL MG Prototype / 271

9.4 Microgrid Supervisory Controller / 271

9.5 Control Strategy / 274

9.6 Scenarios with Simulations and Results / 275

9.7 Cost and Benefits  / 279

9.8 Conclusions / 284

References / 284

10 NOVEL LIFETIME EXTENSION TECHNOLOGY FOR CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS USING SDN AND NFV 287
Jun Wu and Shibo Luo

10.1 Introduction / 287

10.2 Background and Preliminaries / 289

10.2.1 Topology Control and Sleep-Mode Techniques / 289

10.2.2 Game Theory / 289

10.3 Proposed Mechanism / 289

10.3.1 Assumptions / 289

10.3.2 Methodology for NLES / 291

10.3.3 The Proposed Framework 292

10.3.4 Workflow at Run-Time of the Proposed Mechanism / 294

10.3.5 Messages Exchange Protocol between the Controller and Sensors / 295

10.4 Game Theoretic Topology Decision Approach / 296

10.4.1 Problem Formulation / 296

10.4.2 Existence of NE / 297

10.4.3 Game Procedure / 298

10.5 Evaluation and Analysis / 299

10.5.1 Algorithms Evaluation Setup / 299

10.5.2 Algorithms Evaluation Results / 300

10.5.3 Analysis of the Advantages for Traffic Volume Using SDN and NFV in CPS / 301

10.6 Conclusions and Future Work 302 Acknowledgment / 303

References / 303

11 ENERGY AUDIT IN INFRASTRUCTURES 305
Shaligram Pokharel, Farayi Musharavati, and Hossam A. Gabbar

11.1 Introduction / 305

11.2 Types of Energy Audits / 307

11.3 Building Details for Energy Audits / 307

11.4 Basics for Lighting Audits / 308

11.5 Types of Lamps / 308

11.6 Luminaires / 309

11.7 Room Index / 311

11.8 Evaluating the Number of Lamps Required for an Activity / 311

11.9 Economics of Audit in Lighting / 312

Acknowledgment / 314

Index / 315