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Energy Efficient Buildings with Solar and Geothermal Resources

Energy Efficient Buildings with Solar and Geothermal Resources

Ursula Eicker

ISBN: 978-1-118-35224-3

Mar 2014

606 pages

In Stock

$123.00

Description

A modern and unique perspective on solar and geothermal technologies for heating and cooling buildings

This book will have a broad appeal reaching practising engineers in the industry as well as students. With introductory sections for each technology described, material includes chapters on: geothermal energy use for the heating and cooling of buildings; a chapter on electrically driven heat pumps/chillers; material on night radiative cooling, photovoltaic thermal collectors, temperature modelling and thin film photovoltaic modelling.  

  • Includes general introductory sections for each technology with market potential and applications
  • Covers an increasingly important component of energy courses
  • Considers a broad range of alternative renewable energy supplies relevant to the building sector, such as geothermal energy with heat pump
  • With a special focus on solar cooling, provides detailed physical models of all technologies and example calculations
  • Unique in covering the fundamentals of meteorological modelling
Preface ix

1 Energy consumption of buildings 1

1.1 Residential buildings 4

1.2 Office and administrative buildings 6

1.3 Air conditioning 9

1.4 Lighting electricity consumption 13

1.5 Influence of the urban form on energy consumption of buildings 15

1.6 Office buildings in an urban context 17

1.7 Residential buildings in an urban context 21

1.8 Site density eff ect 23

1.9 Climate effect 26

1.10 Albedo effects 27

1.11 Thermal properties of the building envelope 28

1.12 Solar gains and glazing 29

1.13 Building typology and urban form 31

1.14 Conclusions 34

References 35

2 Part A: Passive solar 37

2.1 Passive solar use by glazing 39

2.2 Transparent thermal insulation (TTI) 45

2.3 Heat storage by interior building elements 50

Part B: Natural ventilation 67

2.4 Analytical methods for volume-flow calculations 73

2.5 Air flow network simulations 79

2.6 Ventilation potentials 83

2.7 Thermal comfort and energy savings in office rooms with controlled natural ventilation 89

2.8 Weekly simulations with dynamic boundary conditions 92

2.9 Natural single-sided ventilation with sliding windows 93

2.10 Annual simulations 96

Part C: Daylighting of buildings 101

2.11 Luminance and illuminance 110

2.12 Visual performance and quality of lighting 122

2.13 Light measurements 126

2.14 Sky luminous intensity models 127

2.15 Daylight distribution in interior spaces 130

2.16 Calculation of daylight availability in buildings 139

2.17 Standardisation and calculation methods 142

2.18 Determination of needed artificial light sources 146

References 147

3 Solar and geothermal resource 149

3.1 Extra-terrestrial solar irradiance 151

3.2 Sun–Earth geometry 154

3.3 Equator coordinates 155

3.4 Horizon coordinates 158

3.5 Atmospheric transmission and spectral irradiance 162

3.6 Statistical production of hourly irradiance data records 169

3.7 Global irradiance and irradiance on inclined surfaces 177

3.8 Shading 183

3.9 Temperature time series modelling 189

3.10 Geothermal resource 196

References 201

4 Solar thermal heating 203

4.1 Markets and economics 206

4.2 System overview 209

4.3 Systems engineering 217

4.4 Large solar plants for heating drinking water with short-term stores 232

4.5 Solar district heating 239

4.6 Modelling of thermal collectors 244

4.7 Storage modelling 269

4.8 Solar air collectors 277

4.9 Calculation of the available thermal power of solar air collectors 281

4.10 Design of the air circuit 293

References 296

5 Solar cooling 297

5.1 Introduction to the technologies 300

5.2 Technology trends 302

5.3 The absorption cooling process and its components 307

5.4 Components of absorption chillers 311

5.5 Physical principles of the absorption process 313

5.6 Energy balances and performance fi gures of an absorption chiller 324

5.7 Static absorption cooling model 335

5.8 Parameter identifi cation for the static absorption cooling machine model 340

5.9 Open cycle desiccant cooling 343

5.10 Physical and technological bases of sorption-supported air conditioning 347

5.11 The technology of heat recovery 359

5.12 Technology humidifi er 368

5.13 Design limits and climatic boundary conditions 372

5.14 Energy balance of sorption-supported air conditioning 375

5.15 Closed cycle adsorption cooling 380

5.16 Heat rejection and auxiliary electricity consumption 395

References 417

6 Geothermal heating and cooling 419

6.1 Direct geothermal energy use for cooling and preheating of buildings 423

6.2 Indirect geothermal energy use 433

6.3 Geothermal heat exchangers for chiller heat rejection 437

6.4 Modeling of geothermal heat exchangers 439

6.5 Economics of geothermal heat exchangers 451

6.6 Performance summary on geothermal heat exchangers 455

References 458

7 Photovoltaics 459

7.1 Structure of grid-connected systems 461

7.2 Solar cell technologies 463

7.3 Module technology 464

7.4 Building integration and costs 464

7.5 Energy production and the performance ratio of PV systems 466

7.6 Physical fundamentals of solar electricity production 467

7.7 Current-voltage characteristics 471

7.8 PV performance with shading 495

7.9 Simple temperature model for PV modules 498

7.10 Systems engineering 500

References 512

8 Compression chillers and heat pumps 513

8.1 Overview of heat pump and chiller technologies 515

8.2 Energy efficiency of heat pumps and chillers 518

8.3 Heat pump and compression chiller modelling 522

8.4 Case studies for photovoltaic compression versus thermal cooling 535

8.5 Conclusions on case studies for photovoltaic and thermal cooling 553

References 554

9 Thermal analysis of building-integrated solar components 555

9.1 Empirical thermal model of building-integrated photovoltaic 561

9.2 Energy balance and stationary thermal model of ventilated double facades 563

9.3 Heat transfer coeffi cients for the interior and facade air gap 567

9.4 Building-integrated solar components (U and g values) 570

9.5 Warm-air generation by photovoltaic facades 573

9.6 Photovoltaic thermal collectors for heating and cooling generation 576

References 585

Index 587