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Energy Efficient Manufacturing: Theory and Applications

Energy Efficient Manufacturing: Theory and Applications

John W. Sutherland (Editor), David A. Dornfeld (Editor), Barbara S. Linke (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-52137-2

Jul 2018

400 pages

$180.99

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Description

Over the last several years, manufacturers have expressed increasing interest in reducing their energy consumption and have begun to search for opportunities to reduce their energy usage. In this book, the authors explore a variety of opportunities to reduce the energy footprint of manufacturing. These opportunities cover the entire spatial scale of the manufacturing enterprise: from unit process-oriented approaches to enterprise-level strategies. Each chapter examines some aspect of this spatial scale, and discusses and describes the opportunities that exist at that level. Case studies demonstrate how the opportunity may be acted on with practical guidance on how to respond to these opportunities.

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Preface xv

1 Introduction to Energy Efficient Manufacturing 1
Barbara S. Linke and John W. Sutherland

1.1 Energy Use Implications  2

1.2 Drivers and Solutions for Energy Efficiency 3

References 9

2 Operation Planning & Monitoring 11
Y.B. Guo

2.1 Unit Manufacturing Processes  11

2.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Unit Manufacturing Process 13

2.3 Energy Consumption in Unit Manufacturing Process 16

2.3.1 Basic Concepts of Energy, Power, and Work 16

2.3.2 Framework of Energy Consumption 17

2.4 Operation Plan Relevance to Energy Consumption 19

2.5 Energy Accounting in Unit Manufacturing Processes 20

2.6 Processing Energy in Unit Manufacturing Process 21

2.6.1 Cases of Processing Energy Modeling 21

2.6.1.1 Forging 21

2.6.1.2 Orthogonal Cutting 22

2.6.1.3 Grinding 24

2.6.1.4 Specific Energy vs. MRR 25

2.6.2 Energy Measurement 26

2.7 Energy Reduction Opportunities 26

2.7.1 Shortening Process Chain by Hard Machining 28

2.7.2 Substitution of Process Steps 28

2.7.3 Hybrid processes 29

2.7.4 Adaptation of Cooling and Flushing Strategies 29

2.7.5 Remanufacturing 30

References 30

3 Materials Processing 33
Karl R. Haapala, Sundar V. Atre, Ravi Enneti, Ian C. Garretson, Hao Zhang

3.1 Steel 34

3.1.1 Steelmaking Technology 35

3.2 Aluminum 36

3.2.1 Aluminum Alloying 37

3.2.2 History of Aluminum Processing 37

3.2.3 Aluminum in Commerce 38

3.2.4 Aluminum Processing 41

3.2.5 Bayer Process 42

3.2.6 Preparation of Carbon 44

3.2.7 Hall-Heroult Electrolytic Process 44

3.3 Titanium 45

3.3.1 Titanium Alloying 46

3.3.2 History of Titanium Processing 47

3.3.3 Titanium in Commerce 48

3.3.4 Titanium Processing Methods 49

3.3.5 Sulfate Process 50

3.3.6 Chloride Process 51

3.3.7 Hunter Process and Kroll Process 51

3.3.8 Remelting Processes 52

3.3.9 Emerging Titanium Processing Technologies 52

3.4 Polymers 54

3.4.1 Life Cycle Environmental and Cost Assessment 59

3.4.2 An Application of Polymer-Powder Processes 59

References 61

4 Energy Reduction in Manufacturing via Incremental Forming and Surface Microtexturing 65
Jian Cao and Rajiv Malhotra

4.1 Incremental Forming 66

4.1.1 Conventional Forming Processes 66

4.1.2 Energy Reduction via Incremental Forming 71

4.1.3 Challenges in Incremental Forming 77

4.1.3.1 Toolpath Planning for Enhanced Geometric Accuracy and Process Flexibility 78

4.1.3.2 Formability Prediction and Deformation Mechanics 87

4.1.3.3 Process Innovation and Materials Capability in DSIF 94

4.1.3.4 Future Challenges in Incremental Forming 97

4.2 Surface Microtexturing 98

4.2.1 Energy Based Applications of Surface Microtexturing 99

4.2.1.1 Microtexturing for Friction Reduction 99

4.2.1.2 Microtexturing Methods 101

4.2.1.3 Future Work in Microtexturing 116

4.3 Summary 117

4.4 Acknowledgement 117

References 118

5 An Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency in Material Removal Processes 123
Tao Lu and I.S. Jawahir

5.1 Overview 123

5.2 Plant and workstation levels 125

5.3 Operation level 129

5.4 Process Optimization for Energy Consumption 134

5.4.1 Plant Level and Workstation Level 134

5.4.2 Operation Level 136

5.4.2.1 Turning Operation 137

5.4.2.2 Milling Operation 143

5.4.2.3 Drilling Operation 147

5.4.2.4 Grinding operation 148

5.5 Conclusions 151

Reference 151

6 Nontraditional Removal Processes 155
Murali Sundaram and K.P. Rajurkar

6.1 Introduction 155

6.1.2 Working Principle 156

6.1.2.1 Electrical Discharge Machining 156

6.2.2.2 Electrochemical Machining 157

6.1.2.3 Electrochemical Ddischarge Machining 159

6.1.2.4 Electrochemical Grinding 160

6.2 Energy Efficiency 161

Acknowledgments 163

References 163

7 Surface Treatment and Tribological Considerations 165
S.R. Schmid and J. Jeswiet

7.1 Introduction 166

7.2 Surface Treatment Techniques 169

7.2.1 Surface Geometry Modification 170

7.2.2 Microstructural Modification 171

7.2.3 Chemical Approaches 175

7.3 Coating Operations 175

7.3.1 Hard Facing 175

7.3.2 Vapor Deposition 179

7.3.3 Miscellaneous Coating Operations 181

7.4 Tribology 185

7.5 Evolving Technologies 187

7.5.1 Biomimetics – Biologically Inspired Design 187

7.6 Micro Manufacturing 188

7.7 Conclusions 190

References 190

8 Joining Processes 193
Amber Shrivastava, Manuela Krones, Frank E. Pfefferkorn

8.1 Introduction 194

8.2 Sustainability in Joining 196

8.3 Taxonomy 199

8.4 Data Sources 201

8.5 Efficiency of Joining Equipment 204

8.6 Efficiency of Joining Processes 206

8.6.1 Fusion Welding 207

8.6.2 Chemical Joining Methods 210

8.6.3 Solid-State Welding 212

8.6.4 Mechanical Joining Methods 214

8.6.4.1 Mechanical Fastening 214

8.6.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 215

8.7 Process Selection 216

8.8 Efficiency of Joining Facilities 217

8.9 Case Studies 220

8.9.1 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 220

8.9.2 Friction Stir Welding (FSW) 224

Reference 231

9 Manufacturing Equipment 235
M. Helu, N. Diaz-Elsayed, D. Dornfeld

9.1 Introduction 235

9.2 Power Measurement 236

9.3 Characterizing the Power Demand 238

9.3.1 Constant Power 238

9.3.2 Variable Power 239

9.3.3 Processing Power 240

9.4 Energy Model 240

9.5 Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Production Equipment 241

9.6 Energy Reduction Strategies 243

9.6.1 Strategies for Equipment with High Processing Power 244

9.6.2 Strategies for Equipment with High Tare Power 245

9.6.2.1 Process Time 245

9.6.2.2 Machine Design 246

9.7 Additional Life Cycle Impacts of Energy

Reduction Strategies 248

9.8 Summary 250

References 252

10 Energy Considerations in Assembly Operations 257
Camelio, J.A., McCullough, D., Prosch, S. and Rickli, J.L.

10.1 Introduction to Assembly Systems & Operations 258

10.2 Fundamentals of Assembly Operations 259

10.3 characterizing Assembly System Energy Consumption 260

10.3.1 Indirect Energy 261

10.3.2 Direct Energy 262

10.4 Direct Energy Considerations of Assembly Joining Processes 264

10.4.1 Mechanical Assembly 264

10.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 265

10.4.3 Welding, Brazing, and Soldering 268

10.5 Assembly System Energy Metrics 271

10.6 Case Study: Heavy Duty Truck Assembly 276

10.6.1 Case Study Energy Consumption Analysis Approach 276

10.6.2 Assembly Process Categorization 277

10.6.3 Case Study Energy Analysis Results 281

10.6.4 Discussion and Recommendations 288

10.7 Future of Energy Efficient Assembly Operations 289

References 290

Appendix 10.A 292

11 Manufacturing Facility Energy Improvement 295
Chris Yuan, Junling Xie, John Nicol

11.1 Introduction 296

11.2 Auxiliary Industrial Energy Consumptions 299

11.2.1 Lighting 299

11.2.1.1 Lighting Technologies 300

11.2.1.2 Opportunities for Improving Energy Efficiency of Industrial Lighting 301

References 334

12 Energy Efficient Manufacturing Process Planning 335
RuixueYin, Fu Zhao, John W. Sutherland

12.1 Introduction 335

12.2 The Basics of Process Planning 337

12.2.1 Types of Production 338

12.2.2 Process Planning Procedure 340

12.2.3 Process Planning Methods 342

12.3 Energy Efficient Process Planning 346

12.3.1 Energy Consumption and Carbon Footprint Models of Manufacturing Processes

12.3.2 A Semi-Generative Process Planning 346

Approach for Energy Efficiency 347

12.4 Case Study 349

12.5 Conclusions 353

Reference 353

13 Scheduling for Energy Efficient Manufacturing 355
Nelson A. Uhan, Andrew Liu and Fu Zhao

13.1 Introduction 355

13.2 A Brief Introduction to Scheduling 356

13.3 Machine Environments 356

13.4 Job Characteristics 358

13.5 Feasible Schedules and Gantt Charts 358

13.6 Objective functions: classic time-based objectives 360

13.7 Objective Functions for Energy Efficiency 361

13.8 An Integer Linear Program for Scheduling an Energy-Efficient Flow Shop 363

13.9 A Very Brief Introduction to Mathematical Optimization 364

13.10 A Time-Indexed Integer Linear Program for the Energy-Efficient Flow Shop Problem 366

13.10.1 Algorithms for Solving IntegerLinear Programs 372

13.11 Conclusion and Additional Reading 373

References 375

14 Energy Efficiency in the Supply Chain 377
Thomas J. Goldsby and Fazleena Badurdeen

14.1 Supply Chain Management 377

14.2 Supply Chain Structure 378

14.3 Supply Chain Processes 381

14.3.1 Customer Relationship Management 383

14.3.2 Supplier Relationship Management 384

14.3.3 Customer Service Management 385

14.3.4 Demand Management 386

14.3.5 Manufacturing Flow Management 387

14.3.6 Order Fulfillment 388

14.3.7 Product Development and Commercialization 389

14.3.8 Returns Management 390

14.4 Supply Chain Management Components 391

14.5 Conclusion 392

References 392

Endnotes 396

15 Business Models and Organizational Strategies 397
Omar Romero-Hernandez, David Hirsch, Sergio Romero, Sara Beckman

15.1 Introduction 398

15.2 Reference Framework for Selection of Energy Efficiency Projects 400

15.2.1 Mission and Drivers 401

15.2.2 Set Level of Assessment 401

15.2.3 Recognize Opportunities and Risk 402

15.2.4 Select Projects 402

15.2.5 Implementation and Communication 403

15.3 Common Energy Efficiency Opportunities 404

15.3.1 Building Envelope 404

15.3.2 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) 405

15.3.3 Efficient Lighting 406

15.3.4 Efficient Motors and Systems 407

15.3.5 Building Management Systems 408

15.4 Stakeholders 409

15.4.1 Tenants and Owners 409

15.4.2 Regulators 410

15.4.3 Banks/Lenders 410

15.4.4 Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) 411

15.4.5 Business Models 411

15.5 Conclusions 413

References 413

16 Energy Efficient or Energy Effective Manufacturing? 417
S. A. Shade and J. W. Sutherland

16.1 Energy Efficiency: A Macro Perspective 418

16.1.1 Government Perspective 418

16.1.2 Company Perspective 419

16.2 The Basics of Energy Efficiency 421

16.3 Limitations of Energy Efficiency 429

16.4 Energy Effectiveness 432

16.4.1 Effectiveness – It’s Up to the Decision Maker 434

16.4.2 Effectiveness – A Choice on Where to Invest 435

16.4.3 Effectiveness – Is An Action Really Worthwhile? 435

16.5 Summary 438

16.6 Acknowledgments 439

References 439