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Energy Processing and Smart Grid

James A. Momoh

ISBN: 978-1-119-37623-1 June 2018 Wiley-IEEE Press 448 Pages

Description

The first book in the field to incorporate fundamentals of energy systems and their applications to smart grid, along with advanced topics in modeling and control

This book provides an overview of how multiple sources and loads are connected via power electronic devices. Issues of storage technologies are discussed, and a comparison summary is given to facilitate the design and selection of storage types. The need for real-time measurement and controls are pertinent in future grid, and this book dedicates several chapters to real-time measurements such as PMU, smart meters, communication scheme, and protocol and standards for processing and controls of energy options.

Organized into nine sections, Energy Processing for the Smart Grid gives an introduction to the energy processing concepts/topics needed by students in electrical engineering or non-electrical engineering who need to work in areas of future grid development. It covers such modern topics as renewable energy, storage technologies, inverter and converter, power electronics, and metering and control for microgrid systems. In addition, this text:

  • Provides the interface between the classical machines courses with current trends in energy processing and smart grid
  • Details an understanding of three-phase networks, which is needed to determine voltages, currents, and power from source to sink under different load models and network configurations
  • Introduces different energy sources including renewable and non-renewable energy resources with appropriate modeling characteristics and performance measures
  • Covers the conversion and processing of these resources to meet different DC and AC load requirements
  • Provides an overview and a case study of how multiple sources and loads are connected via power electronic devices
  • Benefits most policy makers, students and manufacturing and practicing engineers, given the new trends in energy revolution and the desire to reduce carbon output

Energy Processing for the Smart Grid is a helpful text for undergraduates and first year graduate students in a typical engineering program who have already taken network analysis and electromagnetic courses.

PREFACE xi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii

FOREWORD xv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Introduction 1

Bibliography 4

CHAPTER 2 ELECTRIC NETWORK ANALYSIS IN ENERGY PROCESSING AND SMART GRID 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Complex Power Concepts 5

2.3 Review of AC-Circuit Analysis Using Phasor Diagrams 8

2.4 Polyphase Systems 9

2.5 Three-Phase Loads with Impedence Loads 13

2.6 Transformation of Y to Delta and Delta to Y 17

2.7 Summary of Phase and Line Voltages/Currents for Balanced Three-Phase Systems 19

2.8 Per-Unit Systems 22

2.9 Chapter Summary 27

Exercises 27

Bibliography 29

CHAPTER 3 MAGNETIC SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY PROCESSING 31

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Magnetic Fields 31

3.3 Equivalent Magnetic and Electric Circuits 34

3.4 Overview of Magnetic Materials 35

3.5 Hysteresis Loops and Hysteresis Losses in Ferromagnetic Materials 35

3.6 Definitions 38

3.7 Magnetic Circuit Losses 38

3.8 Producing Magnetic Flux in Air Gap 40

3.9 Rectangular-Shaped Magnetic Circuits 41

3.10 Chapter Summary 45

Exercises 45

Bibliography 47

CHAPTER 4 TRANSFORMERS 49

4.1 Introduction 49

4.2 First Two Maxwell’s Laws 50

4.3 Transformers 51

4.4 Ideal Single-Phase Transformer Models 56

4.5 Modeling a Transformer into Equivalent Circuits 59

4.6 Transformer Testing 65

4.7 Transformer Specifications 71

4.8 Three-Phase Power Transformers 72

4.9 New Advances in Transformer Technology: Solid-State Transformers 72

4.10 Chapter Summary 78

Exercises 78

Bibliography 82

CHAPTER 5 INDUCTION MACHINES 83

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Construction and Types of Induction Motors 83

5.3 Operating Principle 85

5.4 Basic Induction-Motor Concepts 86

5.5 Induction-Motor Slip 88

5.6 Rotor Current and Leakage Reactance 88

5.7 Rotor Copper Loss 91

5.8 Developing the Equivalent Circuit of Polyphase, Wound-Rotor Induction Motors 92

5.9 Computing Corresponding Torque of Induction Motors 96

5.10 Approximation Model for Induction Machines 97

5.11 Speed Control of Induction Motors 100

5.12 Application of Induction Motors 101

5.13 induction-Generator Principles 101

5.14 Chapter Summary 103

Exercises 104

Bibliography 106

CHAPTER 6 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 107

6.1 Introduction 107

6.2 Synchronous-Generator Construction 107

6.3 Exciters 108

6.4 Governors 110

6.5 Synchronous Generator Operating Principle 110

6.6 Equivalent Circuit of Synchronous Machines 112

6.7 Synchronous Generator Equivalent Circuits 113

6.8 Over Excitation and Under Excitation 114

6.9 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Characteristics 115

6.10 Performance Characteristics of Synchronous Machines 118

6.11 Generator Compounding Curve 122

6.12 Synchronous Generator Operating Alone: Concept of Infinite Bus 122

6.13 Initial Elementary Facts about Synchronous Machines 123

6.14 Cylindrical-Rotor Machines for Turbo Generators 125

6.15 Synchronous Machines with Effects of Saliency: Two-Reactance Theory 125

6.16 The Salient-Pole Machine 126

6.17 Synchronous Motors 128

6.18 Synchronous Machines and System Stability 131

6.19 Chapter Summary 135

Exercises 136

Bibliography 137

CHAPTER 7 DC MACHINES 139

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Conductor Moving in a Uniform Magnetic Field 139

7.3 Current-Carrying Conductor in a Uniform Magnetic Field 139

7.4 DC-Machine Construction and Nameplate Parameters 141

7.5 DC Machine Pertinent Nameplate Parameters 142

7.6 Development and Configuration of Equivalent Circuits of DC Machines 142

7.7 Classification of DC Machines 147

7.8 Voltage Regulation 151

7.9 Power Computation for DC Machines 151

7.10 Power Flow and Efficiency 152

7.11 DC Motors 155

7.12 Computation of Speed of DC Motors 155

7.13 DC-Machine Speed-Control Methods 163

7.14 Ward Leonard System 164

7.15 Chapter Summary 166

Exercises 167

Bibliography 168

CHAPTER 8 PERMANENT-MAGNET MOTORS 169

8.1 Introduction 169

8.2 Permanent-Magnet DC Motors 169

8.3 Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors 177

8.4 Variants of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors 186

8.5 Chapter Summary 190

Bibliography 190

CHAPTER 9 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES 193

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Distributed Generation Concepts 193

9.3 DG Benefits 194

9.4 Working Definitions and Classifications of Renewable Energy 195

9.5 Renewable-Energy Penetration 218

9.6 Maximum Penetration Limits of Renewable-Energy Resources 218

9.7 Constraints to Implementation of Renewable Energy 219

Exercises 221

Bibliography 222

CHAPTER 10 STORAGE SYSTEMS IN THE SMART GRID 223

10.1 Introduction 223

10.2 Forms of Energy 223

10.3 Energy Storage Systems 223

10.4 Cost Benefits of Storage 239

10.5 Chapter Summary 244

Bibliography 244

CHAPTER 11 POWER ELECTRONICS 247

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Power Systems with Power Electronics Architecture 248

11.3 Elements of Power Electronics 249

11.4 Power Semiconductor Devices 249

11.5 Applications of Power Electronics Devices to Machine Control 276

11.6 Applications of Power Electronics Devices to Power System Devices 280

11.7 Applications of Power Electronics to Utility, Aerospace, and Shipping 281

11.8 Facts 282

11.9 Chapter Summary 286

Bibliography 287

CHAPTER 12 CONVERTERS AND INVERTERS 289

12.1 Introduction 289

12.2 Definitions 289

12.3 DC–DC Converters 290

12.4 Inverters 296

12.5 Rectifiers 301

12.6 Applications 312

12.7 Chapter Summary 320

Exercises 320

Bibliography 322

CHAPTER 13 MICROGRID APPLICATION DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 323

13.1 Introduction to Microgrids 323

13.2 Types of Microgrids 324

13.3 Microgrid Architecture 325

13.4 Modeling of a Microgrid 330

13.5 Chapter Summary 332

Bibliography 333

CHAPTER 14 MICROGRID OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT 335

14.1 Perfomance Tools of a Microgrid 335

14.2 Microgrid Functions 337

14.3 IEEE Standards for Microgrids 344

14.4 Microgrid Benefits 346

14.5 Chapter Summary 349

Bibliography 349

CHAPTER 15 THE SMART GRID: AN INTRODUCTION 351

15.1 Evolution, Drivers, and the Need for Smart Grid 351

15.2 Comparison of Smart Grid with the Current Grid System 352

15.3 Architecture of a Smart Grid 353

15.4 Design for Smart-Grid Function for Bulk Power Systems 353

15.5 Smart-Grid Challenges 362

15.6 Design Structure and Procedure for Smart-Grid Best Practices 363

15.7 Chapter Summary 365

Bibliography 365

CHAPTER 16 SMART-GRID LAYERS AND CONTROL 367

16.1 Introduction 367

16.2 Controls for the Smart Grid 367

16.3 Layers of Smart Grid Within the Grid 373

16.4 Command, Control, and Communication Applications in Real Time 390

16.5 Hardware-in-the-Loop for Energy Processing and the Smart Grid 394

16.6 Evolution of Cyber-Physical Systems 394

16.7 Chapter Summary 396

Bibliography 397

CHAPTER 17 ENERGY PROCESSING AND SMART-GRID TEST BEDS 401

17.1 Introduction 401

17.2 Study of Available Test Beds for the Smart Grid 401

17.3 Smart Microgrid Test-Bed Design 403

17.4 Smart-Grid Test Beds 404

17.5 Smart-Grid Case Studies 405

17.6 Simulation Tools, Hardware, and Embedded Systems 408

17.7 Limitations of Existing Smart-Grid Test Beds 411

17.8 Chapter Summary 412

Bibliography 412

INDEX 415