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Energy and the Environment, 3rd Edition

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Energy and the Environment, 3rd Edition

Robert A. Ristinen, Jack J. Kraushaar, Jeffrey Brack

ISBN: 978-1-119-17923-8 January 2016 336 Pages

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Energy and the Environment, 3rd Edition examines several critical topics of global importance associated with our increasing use of resource consumption and its impact on our environment. Author, Jeffrey Brack, provides updated information on pivotal issues that surround the study of energy through the exploration of basic concepts, resources applications, and problems of current interest.

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Chapter 1 Energy Fundamentals, Energy Use in an Industrial Society 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Why Do We Use So Much Energy? 4

1.3 Energy Basics 7

1.3.1 General 7

1.3.2 Forms of Energy 8

1.3.3 Power 10

1.4 Units of Energy 11

1.4.1 The Joule 11

1.4.2 The British Thermal Unit 11

1.4.3 The Calorie 12

1.4.4 The Foot-Pound 12

1.4.5 The Electron-Volt 12

1.5 Scientific Notation 12

1.6 Energy Consumption in the United States 14

1.7 The Principle of Energy Conservation 20

1.8 Transformation of Energy from One Form to Another 21

1.9 Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Sources 22

1.9.1 Nonrenewable Energy Sources 22

1.9.2 Renewable Energy Sources 22

Key Terms 24

Suggested Reading and References 24

Questions and Problems 24

Multiple Choice Questions 25

Chapter 2 The Fossil Fuels 28

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 Petroleum 29

2.3 History of the Production of Petroleum in the United States 30

2.4 Petroleum Resources of the United States 32

2.5 World Production of Petroleum 35

2.6 The Cost of Gasoline in the United States 36

2.7 Petroleum Refining 37

2.8 Natural Gas 39

2.9 The History of Use of Natural Gas 41

2.10 The Natural Gas Resource Base in the United States 43

2.11 The Natural Gas Resource Base for the World 44

2.12 The Formation of Coal 46

2.13 Coal Resources and Consumption 46

2.14 Shale Oil 49

2.15 Tar Sands 52

2.16 Summary 52

Key Terms 53

Suggested Reading and References 54

Questions and Problems 54

Multiple Choice Questions 55

Chapter 3 Heat Engines 57

3.1 The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 57

3.2 The Energy Content of Fuels 58

3.3 The Thermodynamics of Heat Engines 59

3.4 Generation of Electricity 61

3.5 Electric Power Transmission 63

3.6 Practical Heat Engines 65

3.6.1 Steam Engines 65

3.6.2 Gasoline Engines 67

3.6.3 Diesel Engines 67

3.6.4 Gas Turbines 70

3.7 Heat Pumps 71

3.8 Cogeneration 74

Key Terms 76

Suggested Reading and References 76

Questions and Problems 76

Multiple Choice Questions 77

Chapter 4 Renewable Energy Sources I: Solar Energy 81

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 Energy from the Sun 82

4.3 A Flat-Plate Collector System 87

4.4 Passive Solar 91

4.5 Solar Thermal Electric Power Generation 94

4.5.1 Power Towers 96

4.5.2 Parabolic Dishes and Troughs 97

4.6 The Direct Conversion of Solar Energy to Electrical Energy 100

4.7 Solar Cooling 106

Key Terms 107

Suggested Reading and References 107

Questions and Problems 108

Multiple Choice Questions 108

Chapter 5 Renewable Energy Sources II: Alternatives 111

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Hydropower 112

5.3 Wind Power 118

5.4 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 125

5.5 Biomass as an Energy Feedstock 130

5.6 Biomass: Municipal Solid Waste 135

5.7 Biomass-Derived Liquid and Gaseous Fuels 136

5.8 Geothermal Energy 140

5.9 Tidal Energy 145

5.10 Wave Energy 147

5.11 Summary 147

Key Terms 148

Suggested Reading and References 148

Questions and Problems 149

Multiple Choice Questions 150

Chapter 6 The Promise and Problems of Nuclear Energy 152

6.1 Introduction 152

6.2 A Short History of Nuclear Energy 153

6.3 Radioactivity 156

6.4 Nuclear Reactors 157

6.5 The Boiling Water Reactor 159

6.6 Fuel Cycle 162

6.7 Uranium Resources 163

6.8 Environmental and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Energy 165

6.9 Nuclear Reactor Accidents 168

6.9.1 The Chernobyl Disaster 168

6.9.2 Fukushima Daiichi Disaster 169

6.10 Nuclear Weapons 170

6.11 The Storage of High-Level Radioactive Waste 172

6.12 The Cost of Nuclear Power 174

6.13 Nuclear Fusion as an Energy Source 175

6.14 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions 177

6.15 A Fusion Reactor 178

Key Terms 182

Suggested Reading and References 182

Questions and Problems 183

Multiple Choice Questions 184

Chapter 7 Energy Conservation 187

7.1 A Penny Saved is a Penny Earned 187

7.2 Space Heating 189

7.2.1 Thermal Insulation 190

7.2.2 Air Infiltration 195

7.2.3 Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces 196

7.2.4 Solar and Other Sources of Heat Energy 199

7.2.5 Standards for Home Heating 200

7.3 Water Heaters, Home Appliances, and Lighting 201

7.3.1 Water Heating 201

7.3.2 Appliances 202

7.3.3 Lighting 204

7.3.4 The Energy-Conserving House 206

7.4 Energy Conservation in Industry and Agriculture 208

7.4.1 Housekeeping 208

7.4.2 Waste Heat Recovery and Cogeneration 208

7.4.3 Process Changes 209

7.4.4 Recycling 209

7.4.5 New Developments 210

7.4.6 Help from Public Utilities 211

Key Terms 212

Suggested Reading and References 212

Questions and Problems 213

Multiple Choice Questions 214

Chapter 8 Transportation 216

8.1 Introduction 216

8.2 Power and Energy Requirements 219

8.3 Electric Batteries, Flywheels, Hybrids, Hydrogen, Alcohol 226

8.3.1 Electric Vehicles 227

8.3.2 Flywheel-Powered Vehicles 229

8.3.3 Hybrid Vehicles 232

8.3.4 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells 234

8.3.5 Alcohol as a Transportation Fuel 238

8.4 Mass Transportation 240

Key Terms 243

Suggested Reading and References 243

Questions and Problems 244

Multiple Choice Questions 244

Chapter 9 Air Pollution 247

9.1 Spaceship Earth 247

9.2 The Earth’s Atmosphere 248

9.3 Thermal Inversions 249

9.4 Carbon Monoxide 253

9.5 The Oxides of Nitrogen 258

9.6 Hydrocarbon Emissions and Photochemical Smog 259

9.7 Reduction of Vehicle Emissions 262

9.8 Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere 265

9.9 Particulates as Pollutants 267

9.10 Acid Rain 272

Key Terms 275

Suggested Reading and References 275

Questions and Problems 275

Multiple Choice Questions 276

Chapter 10 Global Effects 279

10.1 Introduction 279

10.2 Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere 280

10.3 The Greenhouse Effect and World Climate Changes 284

Key Terms 296

Suggested Reading and References 296

Questions and Problems 297

Multiple Choice Questions 298

Appendix 299

A.1 Linear Plots, Semilogarithmic Plots, and Exponential Growth 299

A.2 Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin Temperature Scales 302

Answers to Selected End-of-Chapter Problems 305

Index 307

  • Chapter 2 includes a discussion of the risks of pursuing remote reserves, using the Deep Horizon Spill as an example.
  • Chapter 4 and 5 include recent trends in home solar installations and the most recent and largest solar and wind farm installations.
  • Chapter 6 includes discussion of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, its lessons, and its sociopolitical implications for the future of nuclear energy.
  • Chapter 7 includes coverage of smart grid implementations being adopted by many utility and municipality providers.
  • Reviews the basic concepts, resources, applications, and current problems and concerns as they relate to energy.
  • Highlights the major environment concerns.
  • Updated to include the most recent developments and events.