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Engineering Plasticity: Theory and Applications in Metal Forming

Engineering Plasticity: Theory and Applications in Metal Forming

Z. R. Wang, Weilong Hu, S. J. Yuan, Xiaosong Wang

ISBN: 978-1-119-23730-3

May 2018

536 pages

Select type: Hardcover

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Description

An all-in-one guide to the theory and applications of plasticity in metal forming, featuring examples from the automobile and aerospace industries

  • Provides a solid grounding in plasticity fundamentals and material properties
  • Features models, theorems and analysis of processes and relationships related to plasticity, supported by extensive experimental data
  • Offers a detailed discussion of recent advances and applications in metal forming

Preface xiii

1 Fundamentals of Classical Plasticity 1

1.1 Stress 1

1.1.1 The Concept of Stress Components 1

1.1.2 Description of the Stress State 2

1.1.2.1 Stresses on an Arbitrary Inclined Plane 2

1.1.2.2 Stress Components on an Oblique Plane 4

1.1.2.3 Special Stresses 6

1.1.2.4 Common Stress States 7

1.1.3 Stress Tensors and Deviatoric Stress Tensors 7

1.1.4 Mohr Stress Circles 9

1.1.4.1 Mohr Circles for a Two-Dimensional Stress System 9

1.1.4.2 Mohr Circles for a Three-Dimensional Stress System 12

1.1.5 Equations of Force Equilibrium 13

1.2 Strain 15

1.2.1 Nominal Strain and True Strain 15

1.2.2 Strain Components as Functions of Infinitesimal Displacements 17

1.2.3 The Maximum Shear Strains and the Octahedral Strains 20

1.2.4 Strain Rates and Strain Rate Tensors 21

1.2.5 Incompressibility and Chief Deformation Types 23

1.3 Yield Criteria 25

1.3.1 The Concept of Yield Criterion 25

1.3.2 Tresca Yield Criterion 26

1.3.3 Mises Yield Criterion 26

1.3.4 Twin Shear Stress Yield Criterion 27

1.3.5 Yield Locus and Physical Concepts of Tresca, Mises, and Twin Shear Stress Yield Criteria 27

1.3.5.1 Interpretation of Tresca Yield Criterion 29

1.3.5.2 Interpretation of Twin Shear Stress Yield Criterion 30

1.3.5.3 Interpretation of Mises Yield Criterion 31

1.4 A General Yield Criterion 33

1.4.1 Representation of General Yield Criterion 33

1.4.2 Yield Surface and Physical Interpretation 34

1.4.3 Simplified Yield Criterion 34

1.5 ClassicalTheory about Plastic Stress–Strain Relation 35

1.5.1 Early Perception of Plastic Stress Strain Relations 36

1.5.2 Concept of the Gradient-Based Plasticity and Its Relation with Mises Yield Criterion 37

1.5.2.1 Concept of the Plastic Potential 37

1.5.2.2 Physical Interpretation of the Plastic Potential 38

1.5.2.3 Physical Interpretation of Mises Yield Function (Plastic Potential) 39

1.6 Effective Stress, Effective Strain, and Stress Type 42

1.6.1 Effective Stress 42

1.6.2 Effective Strain 42

1.6.3 Stress Type 44

References 44

2 Experimental Research on Material Mechanical Properties under Uniaxial Tension 47

2.1 Stress–Strain Relationship of Strain-Strengthened Materials under Uniaxial Tensile Stress State 47

2.2 The Stress–Strain Relationship of the Strain-Rate-Hardened Materials in Uniaxial Tensile Tests 48

2.3 Stress–Strain Relationship in Uniaxial Tension during Coexistence of Strain Strengthening and Strain Rate Hardening 50

2.4 Bauschinger Effect 56

2.5 Tensile Tests for Automotive Deep-Drawing Steels and High-Strength Steels 57

2.5.1 Test Material and Experiment Scheme 57

2.5.2 True Stress–Strain Curves in Uniaxial Tension 58

2.5.3 Mechanical Property Parameters of Sheets 58

2.5.3.1 Strain-Hardening Exponentn 59

2.5.3.2 Lankford ParameterR 62

2.5.3.3 Plane Anisotropic Exponent ΔR 62

2.5.3.4 Yield-to-Tensile Ratio ��s¨M��b 62

2.5.3.5 Uniform Elongation ��m 62

2.6 Tensile Tests on Mg-Alloys 63

2.7 Tension Tests on Ti-Alloys 63

2.7.1 Mechanical Properties of Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-Alloy Tubes at High Temperatures 65

2.7.2 Strain Hardening of Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-Alloy in Deformation at High Temperatures 69

References 71

3 Experimental Research on Mechanical Properties of Materials under a Non-Uniaxial Loading Condition 73

3.1 P-p Experimental Results ofThin-Walled Tubes 73

3.1.1 Lode Experiment 73

3.1.2 P-p Experiments onThin-Walled Tubes Made of Superplastic Materials 78

3.1.2.1 Experiment Materials and Specimens 78

3.1.2.2 Loading Methods 80

3.1.2.3 Experimental Results and Analysis 80

3.1.3 Experiments on Tubes Subjected to Internal Pressure and Axial Compressive Forces 86

3.1.3.1 Experimental Device 86

3.1.3.2 Material Properties 88

3.1.3.3 Experimental Results 89

3.2 Results from P-M Experiments onThin-Walled Tubes 91

3.2.1 Taylor-Quinney Experiments 91

3.2.2 P-M Experiments on Superplastic Material 94

3.3 Biaxial Tension Experiments on Sheets 95

3.3.1 Equipment for Biaxial Tension of Cruciform Specimens 96

3.3.2 Design of Cruciform Tensile Specimens 96

3.3.3 Application of Cruciform Biaxial Tensile Test 97

3.3.3.1 Forming Limit 97

3.3.3.2 Prediction of Yielding Locus 97

3.3.3.3 Analysis of Composite Materials 99

3.4 Influences of Hydrostatic Stress on Mechanical Properties of Materials 100

3.4.1 Testing Technique in High-Pressure Experiments 101

3.4.2 Influences of Hydrostatic Stresses on Flow Behavior of Materials 103

3.4.3 Influences of Hydrostatic Pressure on Fracture Behavior of Materials 106

3.5 Experimental Researches Other Than Non-Uniaxial Tension 114

3.5.1 Plane Compression Experiments 114

3.5.2 Loading Experiments along Normal and Tangential Directions 118

3.5.3 Other Combined LoadingMethods 119

References 119

4 Yield Criteria of Different Materials 123

4.1 Predicting Capability of a Yield Criterion Affected by Multiple Factors 123

4.2 Construction of a Proper Yield Criterion in Consideration of Multifactor-Caused Effects 129

4.2.1 A Proper Frame of Yield Criterion 130

4.2.2 Practical Yield Criterion with Multifactor-Caused Effects 133

4.2.3 Material Yielding Behavior Affected by Different Factors 136

4.2.3.1 Convexity of Yield Locus at Plane Stress State 137

4.2.3.2 Stress-Type-Caused Effects 143

4.2.3.3 Hydrostatic-Stress-Caused Effects 145

4.2.4 Simplified Forms of the Yield Criterion 148

4.2.5 Verification of the Yield CriterionThrough Experiments 151

4.3 Anisotropic Materials 156

4.3.1 Experimental Description of Anisotropic Behavior of Rolled Sheet Metals 156

4.3.1.1 Uniaxial Tension 157

4.3.1.2 Biaxial Tension 159

4.3.2 Brief Review of the Anisotropic Yield and Plastic Potential Functions 160

4.3.3 Nonassociated-Flow-Rule-Based Yield Function and Plastic Potential 165

4.3.3.1 Anisotropic Yield Criterion 165

4.3.3.2 Anisotropic Plastic Potential 172

4.3.4 Associated-Flow-Rule-Based Anisotropic Yield Criterion 174

4.3.5 Experimental Verification of Two Kinds of Anisotropic Yield Criteria 178

References 184

5 Plastic Constitutive Relations of Materials 187

5.1 Basic Concepts about Plastic Deformation of Materials and Relevant Plastic Constitutive Relations 187

5.1.1 Effects of Material, Strength, and Property Transformation on Material Plastic Deformation 187

5.1.2 General Description of Subsequent Hardening Increments and Convexity of Yield Function 189

5.1.3 Effects of Flow Rules on Judgment of Condition of Stable Plastic Deformation of Materials 196

5.2 Equivalent Hardening Condition in Material Plastic Deformation 197

5.2.1 Universal Forms of Plastic Potential and Yield Criterion in Constructing Plastic Constitutive Relations 198

5.2.2 Relationship between Yield Function and Plastic Potential in Describing Equivalent Hardening Increments 199

5.2.3 Equivalent Hardening Condition Corresponding to Associated Flow Rule 201

5.2.4 Equivalent Hardening Condition Related to Nonassociated Flow Rule 206

5.3 “Softening” and Strength Property Changes in Plastic Deformation of Materials 209

5.3.1 Mechanical Models Mimicking Plastic Deformation of Sensitive-to-Pressure Materials 210

5.3.2 Dynamic Models to Imitate the Stress–Strain Relation of Anisotropic Material 215

5.3.3 Softening and Material Strength Property Changes in a Stable Plastic Deformation 219

5.4 Influences of Loading Path on Computational Accuracy of Incremental Theory 227

5.4.1 Discontinuous Stress Path 227

5.4.2 Unrealistic Strain Path 229

References 231

6 Description of Material Hardenability with Different Models 233

6.1 Plastic Constitutive Relations of Sensitive-to-Pressure Materials 233

6.1.1 Experimental Characterizations of Yield Function and Corresponding Plastic Potential 234

6.1.2 Predictions-Based Constitutive Relations and in Comparison with Experimental Results 237

6.1.2.1 Influences of Hardening Models upon Description of Plastic Deformation of Materials 238

6.1.2.2 Yieldability and Plastic Flowability of Sensitive-to-Pressure Materials 239

6.1.2.3 Prediction of the Volumetric Plastic Strain 240

6.1.2.4 Predictions of Stress–Strain Relations in Uniaxial Tension and Compression 243

6.1.2.5 Stress–Strain Relations in Compression Affected by Superimposed Pressures 247

6.2 Anisotropic Hardening Model of Rolled Sheet Metals Characterized by Multiple Experimental Stress–Strain Relations and Changeable Anisotropic Parameters 248

6.2.1 A Constitutive Model to Describe Anisotropic Hardening and Anisotropic Plastic Flow of Rolled Sheet Metals 249

6.2.2 Transformation from Special 3D Stress State into 2D Stress States 252

6.2.3 Predictions of Anisotropic Hardening and Plastic Flow Behavior 254

6.2.3.1 Subsequent Yield Locus of Anisotropic Materials 254

6.2.3.2 Predictions of All Experimental Stress–Strain Relations in Yield Function 260

6.2.4 Experimental Verification 262

6.2.4.1 Predictions of Stress–Strain Relations in Uniaxial Tensions in Different Directions 262

6.2.4.2 Predictions of Changeable Anisotropic Parameters 267

6.3 Plastic Constitutive Relation with the Bauschinger Effects 271

6.3.1 Basic Concepts of the Bauschinger Effects 271

6.3.2 Consideration of the Bauschinger Effect in Constructing a Constitutive Relation 274

6.3.3 Exotic Anisotropic Behavior of Material Element Induced by Kinematic Hardening Model Based on Associated Flow Rule 276

6.3.3.1 Anisotropic Flowability Borne of Kinematic Yield Model 276

6.3.3.2 Calculations of the Exotic Anisotropy by Means of Yoshida’s Modified Kinematic Model 281

6.3.4 A Method to Generate a Kinematic Plastic Potential Function 286

References 292

7 Sequential Correspondence Law between Stress and Strain Components and Its Application in Plastic Deformation Process 295

7.1 Sequential Correspondence Law between Stress and Strain Components and Its Experimental Verification 295

7.1.1 Sequential Correspondence Law between Stress and Strain Components 295

7.1.2 Experimental Verification of the Sequential Correspondence Law between Stress and Strain Components 298

7.1.3 Application of the Sequential Correspondence Law between Stress and Strain Components 300

7.2 Zoning of Mises Yield Ellipse and Typical Plane Stress Forming Processes on It 302

7.3 Stress and Strain Analysis of Plane-Stress Metal-Forming Processes 306

7.3.1 Tube Drawing 306

7.3.2 Deep Drawing 307

7.3.3 Tube Hydroforming 308

7.4 Spreading of Mises Yield Cylinder and Characterization of Three-Dimensional Stresses Therein 309

7.5 Zoning inThree-Dimensional Stress Yield Locus and Positioning Typical Forming ProcessesThereon 311

References 316

8 Stress and Strain Analysis and Experimental Research on Typical Axisymmetric Plane Stress-Forming Process 317

8.1 Incremental-Theory-Based Solution to Stress and Strain Distribution of Steady Axisymmetric Plane Stress-Forming Processes 317

8.1.1 Two Expressions of Stress and Strain Distribution 317

8.1.2 Division of Steady Thin-Walled Tube-Forming Processes 319

8.1.3 Basic Formulas and Assumption 320

8.1.4 Stress and Strain Distribution in Steady Frictionless Forming Process 321

8.1.4.1 General Equilibrium Equation 321

8.1.4.2 Stress Distribution ��(r) 322

8.1.4.3 Strain Rate d��/d�� 324

8.1.4.4 Strain Distribution ��(��) 325

8.1.5 Stress and Strain Distribution in Steady Forming Processes in the Presence of Friction 328

8.1.5.1 General Equilibrium Equation 329

8.1.5.2 Stress and Strain Distribution 331

8.2 Experimental Study on Thickness Distribution in Tube Necking and Tube Drawing 331

8.2.1 Thickness Distribution in Tube-Necking Processes 331

8.2.2 Experimental Research onThickness Distribution during Tube Drawing [6] 333

8.3 Experiments on Thin-Walled Tube under Action of Biaxial Compressive Stresses 336

8.3.1 Introduction of Experimental Setup 337

8.3.2 Results and Discussion 339

References 341

9 Shell and Tube Hydroforming 343

9.1 Mechanics of Dieless Closed Shell Hydro-Bulging 343

9.1.1 Equilibrium Equation for an Internally Pressurized Closed Shell 343

9.1.2 Yield Equation of an Internally Pressurized Closed Shell 345

9.1.3 Principle of Spheroidization of Plastic Deformation in Shell Hydro-Bulging 345

9.2 Dieless Hydro-Bulging of Spherical Shells 347

9.2.1 Stress Analysis of Dieless Hydro-Bulging of Spherical Shells 347

9.2.2 Manufacture of Spherical Shells 347

9.2.3 Shell Structure before Hydro-Bulging 348

9.2.4 Dieless Hydro-Bulging of Single-Curvature Polyhedral Shells 349

9.3 Dieless Hydro-Bulging of Ellipsoidal Shells 350

9.3.1 Stress Analysis of Internally Pressurized Ellipsoidal Shells 351

9.3.2 Wrinkling of Internally Pressurized Ellipsoidal Shell and Anti-Wrinkling Measures 352

9.4 Dieless Hydro-Bulging of Elbow Shell 355

9.5 Tube Hydroforming 356

9.5.1 Principle of Tube Hydroforming and Its Stress States 356

9.5.2 Yield Criterion for Tube Hydroforming 357

9.5.3 Position of Tube Hydroforming on Yield Ellipse 358

9.5.4 Typical Stress States andTheir Distribution on Yield Ellipse 358

9.5.5 Effect of Stress State on the Tube Deformation Characteristics 359

9.5.6 Formation Mechanism ofWrinkles inThin-Walled Tube Hydroforming 360

References 362

10 Bulk Forming 365

10.1 Load Calculation in Tool Movement Direction 365

10.2 Upsetting of Cylinders and Rings 368

10.2.1 Load Calculation for Cylinder Upsetting 369

10.2.2 Inhomogeneous Deformation in Cylinder Upsetting 373

10.2.3 Metal Flow and Pressure Distribution during Ring Compression 376

10.3 Characteristics of Die Forgings and Calculation of Required Loads 378

10.4 Isothermal Forging 381

10.4.1 Stress Analysis in Isothermal Forging 381

10.4.2 Stress Analysis of a Single Rib Piece in Isothermal Forging 382

10.4.3 Isothermal Forming of Cross-Rib-Born Pieces 384

10.4.3.1 Analysis of Forming Processes 384

10.4.3.2 Stress Analysis 384

10.4.4 Control and Analysis of Flow Defects during Isothermal Forging 386

10.4.4.1 Folds 386

10.4.4.2 Formation and Control of Flow Lines 388

10.5 Calculation of Required Load in Rolling 389

10.5.1 Derivation of Formula for Calculating Unit Pressure Distribution on Rollers’ Contact Arc Surface 391

10.5.2 Total Rolling Force and Average Pressure 395

10.5.3 Rolling Torque 396

10.5.4 Energy Consumption in Rolling 397

10.6 Extrusion and Drawing 397

10.6.1 Extrusion 397

10.6.2 Drawing 400

10.7 Rotary Forging 403

10.7.1 Introduction 403

10.7.2 Stress and Strain Analysis in Rotary Forging of Cylinders 403

10.7.3 Stress–Strain Analysis in Rotary Forging of Discs 409

10.8 Strain DistributionMeasurement in Bulk Forming 411

10.8.1 Introduction 411

10.8.2 Screw Method 412

10.9 Applications of Screw Method in Determining Strain Distribution 414

References 419

11 Sheet Forming 421

11.1 Deep Drawing 421

11.1.1 Basic Principles 421

11.1.2 Strain Analysis in Flange Area 421

11.1.3 Stress Analysis of the Flange Area 424

11.1.3.1 Equilibrium Equation 424

11.1.3.2 Yield Criteria 425

11.2 Sheet Hydroforming Process 426

11.2.1 Basic Principles 426

11.2.2 Characteristics and Application Scope 427

11.2.3 Assessment of Experimental Parameters 428

11.2.3.1 Critical Liquid Pressure pcr 428

11.2.3.2 Drawing Force 429

11.2.3.3 Blank Holder Force (BHF) 429

11.2.4 Influences of Normal Stress on SHP [10] 430

11.2.5 Influences of Pre-Bulging on the Deformation Uniformity in SHP 430

11.3 Hole-Flanging 434

11.3.1 Basic Principles 434

11.3.2 Analysis of Stress and Strain 434

11.3.3 Limiting Flanging Coefficient 436

11.4 Viscous Pressure Forming 438

11.4.1 Mechanism and Features 438

11.4.1.1 Forming Sequence 438

11.4.1.2 Properties of Pressure Medium 439

11.4.1.3 Reverse Pressure 439

11.4.1.4 Surface Quality 439

11.4.2 Constitutive Equations of Viscous Medium 439

11.4.3 Influences of BHP on Forming Process 441

11.5 Multipoint Sandwich Forming 445

11.5.1 Introduction 445

11.5.2 Working Principles of MPSF 446

11.5.3 Advantages of MPSF and Applications 447

11.5.4 FE Model of MPSF 448

11.5.5 Forming of EllipsoidalWorkpiece 451

11.5.6 Saddle-Type Pieces Forming 455

11.6 Formability of Sheet Metals 462

11.6.1 Introduction 462

11.6.2 Forming Limit Diagram 462

11.6.3 Experimental Determination of FLC 464

11.6.3.1 Uniaxial Tensile Test 465

11.6.3.2 Hydro-Bulging Test 465

11.6.3.3 Nakazima Test 465

11.6.4 Advanced ExperimentalMethods 466

11.6.5 Theoretical Prediction of FLC 469

11.6.6 New Developments in FLCs 475

11.7 Improvements of Panel Stamping Process 478

11.7.1 Designs of Draw-Bars Corresponding to theWrinkling Types 479

11.7.2 Replacement of StretchingWall with Local Nondeformable Design 482

References 484

Index 489