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Environment, 10th Edition

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Environment, Tenth Edition helps students understand the connection between the core concepts of the Environmental Science and their daily lives. The 10th edition enhanced e-text features a rich, interactive collection of current case studies and in-text examples, which provides students with the tools to understand, apply, and think critically about environmental science. It also provides instructors with powerful tools to assess individual students progresses well as the class as a whole.

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1 Introducing Environmental Science and Sustainability 1

Human Impacts on the Environment 1

Increasing Human Numbers 2

Development, Environment, and Sustainability 3

Population, Resources, and the Environment 4

Types of Resources 4

Resource Consumption 5

Ecological Footprint 6

The IPAT Model 6

Sustainability 8

Sustainability and the Tragedy of the Commons 9

Global Plans for Sustainable Development 9

Environmental Science 10

Earth Systems and Environmental Science 11

Science as a Process 11

Addressing Environmental Problems 15

Addressing Environmental Problems 15

Environmental Science in Practice: Lake Washington 16

2 Environmental Laws, Economics, and Ethics 21

A Brief Environmental History of the United States 21

Protecting Forests 22

Establishing and Protecting National Parks and Monuments 22

Conservation in the Mid-20th Century 23

The Environmental Movement of the Late 20th Century 24

U.S. Environmental Legislation 26

Environmental Policy Since 1970 27

Economics and the Environment 29

Strategies for Pollution Control 31

Critiques of Environmental Economics 32

Natural Resources, the Environment, and National Income Accounts 32

Environmental Ethics, Values, and Worldviews 34

Environmental Ethics 34

Environmental Worldviews 35

Environmental Justice 36

3 Ecosystems and Energy 41

What Is Ecology? 42

The Energy of Life 44

The First Law of Thermodynamics 45

The Second Law of Thermodynamics 46

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 46

Case in Point Life Without the Sun 47

The Flow of Energy through Ecosystems 48

Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers 48

The Path of Energy Flow: Who Eats Whom in Ecosystems 49

Case in Point How Humans Have Affected the Antarctic Food Web 51

Ecological Pyramids 52

Ecosystem Productivity 53

Human Impact on Net Primary Productivity 54

4 Ecosystems and the Physical Environment 57

The Cycling of Materials within Ecosystems 57

The Carbon Cycle 58

The Nitrogen Cycle 60

The Phosphorus Cycle 61

The Sulfur Cycle 64

The Hydrologic Cycle 65

Solar Radiation 66

Temperature Changes with Latitude 67

Temperature Changes with the Seasons 68

The Atmosphere 68

Layers of the Atmosphere 68

Atmospheric Circulation 69

The Global Ocean 71

Patterns of Circulation in the Ocean 71

Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water 72

Ocean Interactions with the Atmosphere 73

Weather and Climate 75

Precipitation 75

Tornadoes 76

Tropical Cyclones 78

Case in Point Hurricane Katrina 79

Internal Planetary Processes 79

Earthquakes 80

Volcanoes 81

5 Ecosystems and Living Organisms 85

Evolution: How Populations Change Over Time 85

Natural Selection 86

Modern Synthesis 86

Evolution of Biological Diversity: The Organization of Life 87

Principles of Population Ecology 89

Population Density 90

How Do Populations Change in Size? 90

Maximum Population Growth 91

Environmental Resistance and Carrying Capacity 91

Factors that Affect Population Size 93

Reproductive Strategies 94

Survivorship 95

Metapopulations 95

Biological Communities 96

The Ecological Niche 97

Competition 98

Symbiosis 99

Predation 102

Keystone Species 103

Species Richness in a Community 104

Species Richness, Ecosystem Services, and Community Stability 105

Case in Point Gardens as Ecosystems 106

Community Development 106

Primary Succession 107

Secondary Succession 108

6 Major Ecosystems of the World 113

Earth’s Major Biomes 113

Tundra: Cold Boggy Plains of the Far North 114

Boreal Forests: Conifer Forests of the North 116

Temperate Rain Forests: Lush Temperate Forests 117

Temperate Deciduous Forests: Trees That Shed Their Leaves 118

Grasslands: Temperate Seas of Grass 118

Chaparral: Thickets of Evergreen Shrubs and Small Trees 119

Deserts: Arid Life Zones 120

Savanna: Tropical Grasslands 121

Tropical Rain Forests: Lush Equatorial Forests 122

Vertical Zonation: The Distribution of Vegetation on Mountains 123

Aquatic Ecosystems 124

Freshwater Ecosystems 124

Case in Point The Everglades 128

Estuaries: Where Fresh Water and Salt Water Meet 129

Marine Ecosystems 130

7 Human Health and Environmental Toxicology 140

Human Health 140

Health Issues in Highly Developed Countries 141

Health Issues in Developing Countries 142

Emerging and Reemerging Diseases 142

Influenza Pandemics Past and Future 144

Environmental Pollution and Disease 144

Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification of Environmental Contaminants 145

Endocrine Disrupters 147

Determining Health Effects of Environmental Pollution 148

Identifying Toxic Substances 149

Children and Chemical Exposure 151

Decision Making and Uncertainty: Assessment of Risks 152

Risk Information as a Decision Tool 153

Ecological Risk Assessment 156

Ecological Risk Assessment and Ecotoxicology 157

Case in Point The Ocean and Human Health 158

8 The Human Population 161

The Science of Demography 161

Current and Future Population Numbers 162

Human Migration 163

Demographics of Countries 163

Demographic Stages 164

Age Structure 166

Population and Quality of Life 168

Case in Point Coping with AIDS in Africa 169

Population and Chronic Hunger 169

Economic Effects of Continued Population Growth 170

Reducing the Total Fertility Rate 170

Culture and Fertility 171

The Social and Economic Status of Women 171

Family Planning Services 173

Government Policies, Fertility, and Poverty 173

China and Mexico: Contrasting Population Growth Measures 174

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 175

9 The Urban Environment 179

Population and Urbanization 179

Characteristics of the Urban Population 180

Urbanization Trends 180

The City as an Ecosystem 183

Long-Term Study of Urban Ecosystems 184

Environmental Problems Associated with Urban Areas 185

Environmental Benefits of Urbanization 187

Urban Land-Use Planning 187

Transportation and Urban Development 188

Suburban Sprawl 189

Making Cities More Sustainable 190

Case in Point Curitiba, Brazil 192

10 Energy Consumption 196

Energy Consumption and Policy 196

Energy Consumption 197

Energy Efficiency and Conservation 199

Energy Efficiency 200

Energy Conservation 205

Electricity, Hydrogen, and Energy Storage 205

Electricity 206

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 206

Energy Storage 208

Energy Policy 210

Four Energy Policy Objectives 210

Climate Energy Policy and Climate Change 211

11 Fossil Fuels 214

Fossil Fuels 215

How Fossil Fuels Formed 215

Fossil Fuels, the Carbon Cycle, and Climate 216

Coal 216

Coal Reserves 217

Coal Mining 217

Safety Problems Associated with Coal 218

Environmental Impacts of the Mining Process 218

Environmental Impacts of Burning Coal 218

Making Coal a Cleaner Fuel 219

Coal and Carbon Dioxide Emissions 220

Oil and Natural Gas Extraction and Consumption 221

Sources and Uses of Oil and Natural Gas Resources 221

Oil and Natural Gas Extraction and Consumption 223

Environmental Impacts of Oil and Natural Gas 226

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 227

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 228

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 229

Synfuels and Other Potential Fossil-Fuel Resources 229

Environmental Impacts of Synfuels 231

12 Renewable Energy and Nuclear Power 234

Direct Solar Energy 234

Heating Buildings and Water 235

Solar Thermal Electricity Generation 237

Photovoltaics 238

Indirect Solar Energy 239

Energy From Biomass 239

Wind Energy 240

Hydropower 242

Case in Point The Three Gorges Dam 243

Other Uses of Indirect Solar Energy 243

Other Renewable Energy Sources 244

Geothermal Energy 244

Tidal Energy 245

Nuclear Energy 246

Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy 247

Nuclear Power Plant Safety and Radioactive Waste 249

Case in Point Yucca Mountain 251

13 Water: A Limited Resource 255

The Importance of Water 255

Properties of Water 256

The Hydrologic Cycle and Our Supply of Fresh Water 256

Water Use and Resource Problems 259

Too Much Water 259

Case in Point Flood Control on the Mississippi River 260

Too Little Water 261

Water Problems in the United States and Canada 262

Surface Water 263

Groundwater 265

Global Water Problems 266

Water and Climate Change 267

Drinking-Water Problems 267

Population Growth and Water Problems 267

Sharing Water Resources Among Countries 268

Water Management 271

Providing a Sustainable Water Supply 271

Water Conservation 274

Reducing Agricultural Water Waste 274

Reducing Industrial Water Waste 275

Reducing Municipal Water Waste 275

14 Soil Resources 280

The Soil System 280

State Factors: Soil-Forming Factors 281

Soil Composition 281

Soil Horizons 283

Soil Organisms 283

Nutrient Cycling 284

Soil Properties and Major Soil Types 285

Soil Acidity 286

Major Soil Groups 286

Environmental Problems Related to Soil 288

Soil Erosion 288

Case in Point The American Dust Bowl 289

Nutrient Mineral Depletion 290

Soil Salinization 291

Desertification 291

Soil Conservation and Regeneration 292

Conservation Tillage 292

Crop Rotation 293

Contour Plowing, Strip Cropping, and Terracing 293

Preserving Soil Fertility 293

Soil Reclamation 294

Agroforestry 295

Soil Conservation Policies in the United States 296

15 Mineral Resources 299

Introduction to Minerals 299

Mineral Distribution and Formation 301

How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed 301

Environmental Impacts Associated with Minerals 304

Mining and the Environment 304

Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals 305

Case in Point Copper Basin, Tennessee 306

Restoration of Mining Lands 307

Minerals: An International Perspective 308

Worldwide Mineral Production and Consumption 308

Mineral Distribution Versus Consumption 309

Evaluating Our Mineral Supplies 309

Increasing the Supply of Minerals 310

Locating and Mining New Deposits 310

Minerals in Antarctica 310

Minerals from the Ocean 311

Advanced Mining and Processing Technologies 311

Using Substitution and Conservation to Expand Mineral Supplies 312

Finding Mineral Substitutes 312

Mineral Conservation 313

16 Biological Resources 318

Biological Diversity 318

Why We Need Organisms 319

Extinction and Species Endangerment 321

Endangered and Threatened Species 322

Where is Declining Biological Diversity the Greatest Problem? 324

Human Causes of Species Endangerment 325

Case in Point Disappearing Frogs 329

Conservation Biology 330

In Situ Conservation: Protecting Habitats 330

Restoring Damaged or Destroyed Habitats 331

Zoos, Aquaria, Botanical Gardens, and Seed Banks 332

Conservation Organizations 334

Conservation Policies and Laws 335

Habitat Conservation Plans 336

International Conservation Policies and Laws 336

Wildlife Management 336

Management of Migratory Animals 337

Management of Aquatic Organisms 337

17 Land Resources 341

Land Use 341

World Land Use 342

Land Use in the United States 342

Wilderness, Parks, and Wildlife Refuges 344

National Parks 345

Wildlife Refuges 346

Forests 346

Forest Management 347

Deforestation 349

Forest Trends in the United States 349

Case in Point Tongass National Forest 350

Trends in Tropical Forests 351

Boreal Forests and Deforestation 353

Rangelands and Agricultural Lands 353

Rangeland Degradation and Desertification 354

Rangeland Trends in the United States 355

Agricultural Lands 355

Wetlands and Coastal Areas 356

Coastlines 357

Conservation of Land Resources 359

18 Food Resources 362

World Food Security 362

Famines 363

Maintaining Grain Stocks 363

Economics, Politics, and Food Security 364

Poverty and Food 364

Food Production 365

Sources of Food 365

The Main Types of Agriculture 366

Challenges of Producing More Crops and Livestock 368

The Effect of Domestication on Genetic Diversity 368

The Global Decline in Domesticated Plant and Animal Varieties 369

Case in Point Grow Appalachia 370

Supplements for Livestock 371

Genetic Modification 371

The Environmental Impacts of Agriculture 374

Solutions to Agricultural Problems 375

Fisheries of the World 377

Problems and Challenges for the Fishing Industry 377

Aquaculture: Fish Farming 379

19 Air Pollution 383

Types and Sources of Air Pollution 383

Major Classes of Air Pollutants 384

Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution 387

Urban Air Pollution 387

Case in Point Efforts to Reduce Ozone in Southern California 388

Effects of Air Pollution 389

Air Pollution and Human Health 390

Controlling Air Pollution in the United States 391

Controlling Air Pollutants 391

The Clean Air Act 393

Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere 394

Stratospheric Ozone Thinning 395

The Effects of Ozone Depletion 396

Facilitating the Recovery of the Ozone Layer 396

Acid Deposition 397

How Acid Deposition Develops 397

The Effects of Acid Deposition 398

Managing Acid Deposition 400

Air Pollution around the World 401

Air Pollution in Developing Countries 401

Case in Point Air Pollution in Beijing, New Delhi, and Mexico City 401

Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution 402

Indoor Air Pollution 403

Sources and Effects of Indoor Air Pollution 403

Tobacco Smoke and Radon 404

20 Global Climate Change 409

Introduction to Climate Change 409

The Causes of Global Climate Change 410

Pollutants that Cool the Atmosphere 412

Modeling the Future Climate 413

Unpredictable and Extreme Climate Change 414

The Effects of Global Climate Change 415

Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels 415

Case in Point Impacts in Fragile Areas 416

Changes in Precipitation Patterns 417

Effects on Organisms 417

Effects on Human Health 419

Effects on Agriculture 420

International Implications of Global Climate Change 421

Links Among Global Climate Change, Ozone Depletion, and Acid Deposition 421

Dealing with Global Climate Change 422

Mitigation of Global Climate Change 423

Adaptation to Global Climate Change 424

International Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions 424

21 Water Pollution 427

Types of Water Pollution 427

Sewage 428

Disease-Causing Agents 429

Sediment Pollution 431

Inorganic Plant and Algal Nutrients 432

Organic Compounds 432

Inorganic Chemicals 434

Radioactive Substances 435

Thermal Pollution 435

Water Quality Today 436

Water Pollution from Agriculture 437

Municipal Water Pollution 437

Industrial Wastes in Water 438

Case in Point Green Chemistry 438

Groundwater Pollution 439

Water Pollution in Other Countries 441

Improving Water Quality 442

Purification of Drinking Water 442

Municipal Sewage Treatment 444

Individual Septic Systems 445

Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems 446

Laws Controlling Water Pollution 446

Safe Drinking Water Act 446

Clean Water Act 447

Laws that Protect Groundwater 448

22 Pest Management 450

What Is a Pesticide? 450

First-Generation and Second-Generation Pesticides 451

The Major Groups of Insecticides 452

The Major Kinds of Herbicides 452

Benefits and Problems with Pesticides 452

Benefit: Disease Control 453

Benefit: Crop Protection 453

Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance 454

Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem 455

Problems: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification 455

Problem: Mobility in the Environment 456

Risks of Pesticides to Human Health 457

Short-Term Effects of Pesticides 457

Long-Term Effects of Pesticides 457

Pesticides as Endocrine Disrupters 458

Alternatives to Pesticides 459

Using Cultivation Methods to Control Pests 459

Biological Controls 459

Pheromones and Hormones 460

Reproductive Controls 460

Genetic Controls 461

Case in Point BT, Its Potential and Problems 461

Quarantine 461

The Systems Approach: Integrated Pest Management 462

Irradiating Foods 463

Laws Controlling Pesticide Use 463

Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act 464

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act 464

Food Quality Protection Act 464

The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides 465

Importation of Food Tainted with Banned Pesticides 465

Global Ban on Persistent Organic Pollutants 465

23 Solid and Hazardous Wastes 469

Solid Waste 469

Types of Solid Waste 470

Open Dumps 470

Sanitary Landfills 470

Incineration 472

Composting 474

Waste Prevention 475

Case in Point Drinking Water on College Campuses 475

Reducing the Amount of Waste: Source Reduction 475

Reusing Products 476

Recycling Materials 477

Integrated Waste Management 479

Hazardous Waste 480

Types of Hazardous Waste 481

Case in Point Hanford Nuclear Reservation 482

Management of Hazardous Waste 483

24 Tomorrow’s World 489

Living Sustainably 489

Sustainable Living: A Plan of Action 490

Recommendation 1: Eliminate Poverty and Stabilize the Human Population 491

Recommendation 2: Protect and Restore Earth’s Resources 493

Recommendation 3: Provide Adequate Food for all People 495

Recommendation 4: Mitigate Climate Change 496

Recommendation 5: Design Sustainable Cities 497

Case in Point Durban, South Africa 498

Changing Personal Attitudes and Practices 499

The Role of Education 499

What Kind of World Do We Want? 500

Appendices 503

Glossary 516

Index I-1

New “Climate” icon: The Climate icon flags all discussions and features strongly related to climate change, including graphs and illustrations. Its prevalence throughout the text illustrates the widespread influence of climate change across environmental science issues.

Integrated media resources: WileyPLUS for Environmental Science gives faculty a significant tool by providing them with a mechanism for motivating students while integrating supplementary resources, including new videos and animations.

You Can Make a Difference boxes where students must apply ethical decision making.

Chapter Introductions illustrate certain concepts in the chapter with stories about some of today’s most pressing environmental issues.

Food for Thought features in most chapters challenge students to consider how issues in the chapter relate to some aspect of food systems.

Learning Objectives at the beginning of each section head indicate in behavioral terms what the student must be able to do to demonstrate mastery of the material in the chapter.

Meeting the Challenge boxes profile environmental success stories.

Tables and Graphs, with complete data sources cited in the text, summarize and organize important information.

Marginal Glossaries, located in every chapter, provide handy definitions of the most important terms.

Case in Point features offer a wide variety of in-depth case studies that address important issues in the field of environmental science.

  • A focus on Systems and Sustainability highlight how the various aspects of the environment interact, and how changes in one part of the environment might affect other processes, places and organisms. Understanding this is essential to managing existing problems, avoiding future problems and improving the world we live in.
  • Well-developed extensive pedagogy offers a clear way for students to move from general concepts to applications of key concepts.
  • In Your Own Backyard feature provides a critical thinking question at the beginning of each chapter and connects the broad themes of the text to local issues and resources students can investigate.
  • Critical Thinking and Review Questions, many new to this edition, encourage critical thinking and highlight important concepts and applications. At least one question in each chapter provides a systems perspective; another question relates climate and energy to the chapter. Visual questions have been added to each chapter.