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Environment, High School Edition, 8th Edition

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Environment, High School Edition, 8th Edition

Peter H. Raven, Linda R. Berg

ISBN: 978-1-118-29753-7 November 2011 592 Pages

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Raven's 8th edition of Environmentoffers more detailed content than the Visualizing text for a better understanding and integration of the core environmental systems and to view and analyze the role those systems play.  Shorter, but still comprehensive coverage focuses on ethical decision making and key local environmental science issues, requiring readers to think critically about the course material outside of the classroom.

Other features include brief text in the comprehensive segment; extensive chapter pedagogy to help reinforce the systems approach; more opportunities to think critically about the how systems intersect and fit together; and new data interpretation questions at the end of each chapter.

1 Introducing Environmental Science and Sustainability 1

Human Impacts on the Environment 2

Increasing Human Numbers 2

The Gap Between Rich and Poor Countries 4

Population, Resources, and the Environment 4

Types of Resources 4

Resource Consumption 5

The IPAT Model 7

Sustainability 8

Sustainability and the Tragedy of the Commons 9

Global Plans for Sustainable Development 9

Environmental Science 10

Earth Systems and Environmental Science 11

Science as a Process 12

Addressing Environmental Problems 14

Working Together 17

CASE IN POINT Lake Washington 15

2 Environmental Laws, Economics, and Ethics 21

A Brief Environmental History of the United States 22

Protecting Forests 22

Establishing and Protecting National Parks and Monuments 22

Conservation in the Mid-20th Century 23

The Environmental Movement of the Late 20th Century 24

U.S. Environmental Legislation 26

Environmental Policy Since 1970 26

Economics and the Environment 29

Strategies for Pollution Control 31

Critiques of Environmental Economics 32

Natural Resources, the Environment, and National Income Accounts 32

Environmental Justice 35

Environmental Justice and Ethical Issues 35

Mandating Environmental Justice at the Federal Level 36

Environmental Justice at the International Level 36

Environmental Ethics, Values, and Worldviews 36

Human-Centered and Life-Centered Worldviews 37

CASE IN POINT Environmental Problems in Central and Eastern Europe 34

3 Ecosystems and Energy 42

What Is Ecology? 43

The Energy of Life 45

The First Law of Thermodynamics 47

The Second Law of Thermodynamics 47

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 48

The Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems 49

Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers 49

The Path of Energy Flow: Who Eats Whom in Ecosystems 50

Ecological Pyramids 53

Ecosystem Productivity 54

CASE IN POINT Life Without the Sun 48

CASE IN POINT How Humans Have Affected the Antarctic Food Web 52

4 Ecosystems and the Physical Environment 58

The Cycling of Materials Within Ecosystems 59

The Carbon Cycle 59

The Nitrogen Cycle 61

The Phosphorus Cycle 62

The Sulfur Cycle 64

The Hydrologic Cycle 66

Solar Radiation 67

Temperature Changes with Latitude 68

Temperature Changes with the Seasons 68

The Atmosphere 69

Layers of the Atmosphere 69

Atmospheric Circulation 70

The Global Ocean 72

Patterns of Circulation in the Ocean 72

Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water 73

Ocean Interactions with the Atmosphere 74

Weather and Climate 75

Precipitation 75

Tornadoes 78

Tropical Cyclones 78

Internal Planetary Processes 79

Earthquakes 80

Volcanoes 82

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Recycling Phosphorus From Sewage 64

CASE IN POINT Hurricane Katrina 79

5 Ecosystems and Living Organisms 85

Evolution: How Populations Change Over Time 86

Natural Selection 86

The Modern Synthesis 86

Evolution of Biological Diversity: The Domains and Kingdoms of Life 88

Principles of Population Ecology 89

Population Density 90

How Do Populations Change in Size? 90

Maximum Population Growth 91

Environmental Resistance and Carrying Capacity 92

Factors That Affect Population Size 93

Reproductive Strategies 94

Survivorship 95

Metapopulations 95

Biological Communities 96

The Ecological Niche 96

Competition 98

Symbiosis 100

Predation 102

Keystone Species 103

Species Richness in a Community 104

Species Richness, Ecosystem Services, and Community Stability 105

Community Development 107

Primary Succession 107

Secondary Succession 108

CASE IN POINT Species Richness in Lake Victoria 106

6 Major Ecosystems of the World 113

Earth’s Major Biomes 114

Tundra: Cold Boggy Plains of the Far North 114

Boreal Forests: Conifer Forests of the North 116

Temperate Rain Forests: Lush Temperate Forests 117

Temperate Deciduous Forests: Broad-leaved Trees That Shed Their Leaves 118

Grasslands: Temperate Seas of Grass 118

Chaparral: Thickets of Evergreen Shrubs and Small Trees 119

Deserts: Arid Life Zones 119

Savanna: Tropical Grasslands 121

Tropical Rain Forests: Lush Equatorial Forests 122

Vertical Zonation: The Distribution of Vegetation on Mountains 123

Aquatic Ecosystems 124

Freshwater Ecosystems 124

Estuaries: Where Fresh Water and Salt Water Meet 128

Marine Ecosystems 130

CASE IN POINT The Everglades 128

7 Human Health and Environmental Toxicology 139

Human Health 140

Health Issues in Highly Developed Countries 140

Health Issues in Developing Countries 141

Emerging and Reemerging Diseases 141

Environmental Pollution and Disease 143

Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification of Environmental Contaminants 144

Endocrine Disrupters 146

Determining Health Effects of Environmental Pollution 147

Identifying Toxic Substances 147

Children and Chemical Exposure 150

Ecotoxicology: Toxicant Effects on Communities and Ecosystems 151

Decision Making and Uncertainty: Assessment of Risks 153

Risk Information as a Decision Tool 153

Ecological Risk Assessment 156

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Global Polio Eradication 142

CASE IN POINT Influenza Pandemics Past and Future 143

CASE IN POINT The Ocean and Human Health 152

8 The Human Population 160

The Science of Demography 161

Current and Future Population Numbers 161

Human Migration 162

Demographics of Countries 163

Demographic Stages 164

Age Structure 165

Population and Quality of Life 167

Population and Chronic Hunger 167

Economic Effects of Continued Population Growth 168

Reducing the Total Fertility Rate 168

Culture and Fertility 168

The Social and Economic Status of Women 169

Family Planning Services 170

Government Policies and Fertility 171

China and Mexico: Contrasting Population Growth Measures 172

Achieving Population Stabilization 174

CASE IN POINT The Millennium Development Goals 173

MEETING THE CHALLENGE The Poverty Action Lab 174

9 The Urban Environment 179

Population and Urbanization 180

Characteristics of the Urban Population 180

Urbanization Trends 181

The City as an Ecosystem 183

Phoenix, Arizona: Long-Term Study of an Urban Ecosystem 184

Environmental Problems Associated with Urban Areas 184

Environmental Benefits of Urbanization 187

Urban Land Use Planning 187

Transportation and Urban Development 188

Suburban Sprawl 188

Making Cities More Sustainable 189

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Green Architecture 190

CASE IN POINT Curitiba, Brazil 191

10 Energy Consumption 195

Energy Consumption and Policy 196

Energy Consumption 196

Energy Efficiency and Conservation 198

Energy Efficiency 199

Energy Conservation 204

Electricity, Hydrogen, and Energy Storage 205

Electricity 205

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 206

Energy Storage 208

Energy Policy 209

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Saving Energy at Home 202

CASE IN POINT Hydrogen and Electricity for Transportation 207

11 Fossil Fuels 213

Fossil Fuels 214

How Fossil Fuels Formed 214

Fossil Fuels, the Carbon Cycle, and Climate 214

Coal 215

Coal Reserves 216

Coal Mining 216

Safety Problems Associated with Coal 217

Environmental Impacts of the Mining Process 217

Environmental Impacts of Burning Coal 218

Making Coal a Cleaner Fuel 219

Capture and Storage of Carbon from Coal 220

Oil and Natural Gas 221

Exploration for Oil and Natural Gas 223

Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas 223

Global Oil Demand and Supply 227

Environmental Impacts of Oil and Natural Gas 227

Synfuels and Other Potential Fossil-Fuel Resources 230

Environmental Impacts of Synfuels 231

CASE IN POINT The Marcellus Shale 225

CASE IN POINT The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 229

12 Renewable Energy and Nuclear Power 235

Direct Solar Energy 236

Heating Buildings and Water 237

Solar Thermal Electric Generation 238

Photovoltaics 239

Indirect Solar Energy 240

Biomass Energy 240

Wind Energy 241

Hydropower 243

Other Indirect Solar Energy 244

Other Renewable Energy Sources 245

Geothermal Energy 245

Tidal Energy 246

Nuclear Power 247

Electricity from Conventional Nuclear Fission 250

Breeder Reactors and Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) for Nuclear Fission 250

Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy 251

Safety Issues at Nuclear Power Plants 253

The Link Between Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Weapons 255

Radioactive Wastes 256

Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants 258

The Future of Nuclear Power 259

Small and Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors 259

Public and Expert Attitudes toward Nuclear Energy 259

Fusion: Nuclear Energy for the Future 260

CASE IN POINT The Three Gorges Dam 244

CASE IN POINT Yucca Mountain 257

13 Water: A Limited Resource 263

The Importance of Water 264

Properties of Water 264

The Hydrologic Cycle and Our Supply of Fresh Water 265

Water Use and Resource Problems 267

Too Much Water 267

Too Little Water 269

Water Problems in the United States and Canada 270

Surface Water 271

Groundwater 273

Global Water Problems 274

Water and Climate Change 275

Drinking-Water Problems 275

Population Growth and Water Problems 275

Sharing Water Resources Among Countries 276

Water Management 278

Providing a Sustainable Water Supply 278

Water Conservation 281

Reducing Agricultural Water Waste 281

Reducing Industrial Water Waste 282

Reducing Municipal Water Waste 282

CASE IN POINT The Floods of 2008 268

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Conserving Water at Home 283

14 Soil Resources 287

The Soil System 288

State Factors: Soil-Forming Factors 288

Soil Composition 288

Soil Horizons 290

Soil Organisms 290

Nutrient Cycling 291

Soil Properties and Major Soil Types 292

Soil Acidity 293

Major Soil Groups 294

Environmental Problems Related to Soil 295

Soil Erosion 295

Nutrient Mineral Depletion 297

Soil Salinization 298

Desertification 298

Soil Conservation and Regeneration 299

Conservation Tillage 299

Crop Rotation 300

Contour Plowing, Strip Cropping, and Terracing 300

Preserving Soil Fertility 300

Soil Reclamation 301

Agroforestry 302

Soil Conservation Policies in the United States 303

CASE IN POINT The American Dust Bowl 296

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Composting and Mulching 302

15 Mineral Resources 306

Introduction to Minerals 307

Mineral Distribution and Formation 307

How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed 308

Environmental Impacts Associated with Minerals 311

Mining and The Environment 311

Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals 312

Restoration of Mining Lands 314

Minerals: An International Perspective 315

Worldwide Mineral Consumption 315

Mineral Distribution Versus Consumption 316

Will We Run Out of Important Minerals? 316

Increasing the Supply of Minerals 317

Locating and Mining New Deposits 317

Minerals in Antarctica 317

Minerals from the Ocean 318

Advanced Mining and Processing Technologies 319

Using Substitution and Conservation to Expand Mineral Supplies 319

Finding Mineral Substitutes 319

Mineral Conservation 320

CASE IN POINT Copper Basin, Tennessee 313

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Industrial Ecosystems 322

16 Biological Resources 325

Biological Diversity 326

Why We Need Organisms 326

Extinction and Species Endangerment 328

Endangered and Threatened Species 329

Where is Declining Biological Diversity the Greatest Problem? 331

Human Causes of Species Endangerment 332

Conservation Biology 337

In Situ Conservation: Protecting Habitats 337

Restoring Damaged or Destroyed Habitats 338

Zoos, Aquaria, Botanical Gardens, and Seed Banks 338

Conservation Organizations 341

Conservation Policies and Laws 342

Habitat Conservation Plans 343

International Conservation Policies and Laws 343

Wildlife Management 343

Management of Migratory Animals 344

Management of Aquatic Organisms 344

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Addressing Declining Biological Diversity 330

CASE IN POINT Disappearing Frogs 336

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Dealing Effectively with Fragmented Habitats 340

17 Land Resources 348

Land Use 349

World Land Use 349

Land Use in the United States 349

Wilderness, Parks, and Wildlife Refuges 351

National Parks 352

Wildlife Refuges 353

Forests 353

Forest Management 354

Deforestation 355

Forest Trends in the United States 357

Trends in Tropical Forests 359

Boreal Forests and Deforestation 361

Rangelands and Agricultural Lands 361

Rangeland Degradation and Desertification 362

Rangeland Trends in the United States 362

Agricultural Lands 363

Wetlands and Coastal Areas 363

Coastlines 365

Conservation of Land Resources 366

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Preserving Forests in the Eastern

States 357

CASE IN POINT Tongass National Forest 358

18 Food Resources 370

World Food Security 371

Famines 371

Maintaining Grain Stocks 371

Economic and Political Effects on Food Security 372

Poverty and Food 372

Food Production 373

The Main Types of Agriculture 375

Challenges of Producing More Crops and Livestock 376

The Effect of Domestication on Genetic Diversity 376

Increasing Crop Yields 377

Increasing Livestock Yields 378

The Gene Revolution 379

The Environmental Impacts of Agriculture 381

Cultivating Marginal Lands 383

Solutions to Agricultural Problems 383

Sustainable Agriculture 383

Making Subsistence Agriculture Sustainable and More

Productive 384

Fisheries of the World 386

Problems and Challenges for the Fishing Industry 386

Ocean Pollution and Deteriorating Habitat 387

Aquaculture: Fish Farming 388

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Vegetarian Diets 374

CASE IN POINT The Green Revolution 377

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Certified Environmental Management Systems for Agriculture 385

19 Air Pollution 392

The Atmosphere as a Resource 393

Types and Sources of Air Pollution 393

Major Classes of Air Pollutants 393

Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution 395

Urban Air Pollution 397

Effects of Air Pollution 399

Air Pollution and Human Health 399

Controlling Air Pollution in the United States 400

Controlling Air Pollutants 400

The Clean Air Act 403

Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere 404

The Causes of Ozone Depletion 405

The Effects of Ozone Depletion 405

Facilitating the Recovery of the Ozone Layer 406

Acid Deposition 407

Measuring Acidity 407

How Acid Deposition Develops 407

The Effects of Acid Deposition 407

The Politics of Acid Deposition 408

Facilitating Recovery from Acid Deposition 410

Air Pollution Around the World 410

Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution 412

Indoor Air Pollution 413

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution 414

Indoor Tobacco Smoke 414

Radon 415

CASE IN POINT Efforts to Reduce Ozone In Southern California 397

MEETING THE CHALLENGE States Adopt Low Carbon Fuel Standard 402

CASE IN POINT Air Pollution In Beijing And Mexico City 411

20 Global Climate Change 419

Introduction to Climate Change 420

The Causes of Global Climate Change 420

Pollutants That Cool the Atmosphere 422

Developing and Using Climate Models 423

Unpredictable and Extreme Climate Change 423

The Effects of Global Climate Change 425

Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels 425

Changes in Precipitation Patterns 427

Effects on Organisms 427

Effects on Human Health 429

Effects on Agriculture 429

International Implications of Global Climate Change 431

Links among Global Climate Change, Ozone Depletion, and Acid Deposition 432

Dealing with Global Climate Change 432

Mitigation of Global Climate Change 433

Adaptation to Global Climate Change 434

International Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas

Emissions 434

CASE IN POINT Impacts In Fragile Areas 426

21 Water Pollution 437

Types of Water Pollution 438

Sewage 438

Disease-Causing Agents 439

Sediment Pollution 441

Inorganic Plant and Algal Nutrients 441

Organic Compounds 443

Inorganic Chemicals 444

Radioactive Substances 445

Thermal Pollution 446

Water Quality Today 446

Water Pollution from Agriculture 447

Municipal Water Pollution 447

Industrial Wastes in Water 448

Groundwater Pollution 450

Water Pollution in Other Countries 451

Improving Water Quality 453

Purification of Drinking Water 453

Municipal Sewage Treatment 454

Individual Septic Systems 456

Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems 456

Laws Controlling Water Pollution 457

Safe Drinking Water Act 457

Clean Water Act 458

Laws that Protect Groundwater 459

CASE IN POINT Green Chemistry 448

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Preventing Water Pollution 450

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Using Citizen Watchdogs to Monitor Water Pollution 458

22 Pest Management 462

What Is a Pesticide? 463

First-Generation and Second-Generation Pesticides 463

The Major Groups of Insecticides 463

The Major Kinds of Herbicides 464

Benefits and Problems with Pesticides 464

Benefit: Disease Control 465

Benefit: Crop Protection 465

Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance 465

Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem 467

Problems: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological

Magnification 468

Problem: Mobility in the Environment 468

Risks of Pesticides to Human Health 469

Short-Term Effects of Pesticides 469

Long-Term Effects of Pesticides 469

Pesticides as Endocrine Disrupters 470

Alternatives to Pesticides 470

Using Cultivation Methods to Control Pests 470

Biological Controls 471

Pheromones and Hormones 472

Reproductive Controls 472

Genetic Controls 472

Quarantine 473

The Systems Approach: Integrated Pest Management 473

Irradiating Foods 474

Laws Controlling Pesticide Use 476

Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act 476

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act 476

Food Quality Protection Act 477

The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticide 477

The Importation of Food Tainted With Banned Pesticides 477

The Global Ban on Persistent Organic Pollutants 477

CASE IN POINT Bt, its Potential and Problems 473

YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Avoiding Pesticide use at Home 475

CASE IN POINT Economic Development and Pesticides in Central America 478

23 Solid and Hazardous Wastes 481

Solid Waste 482

Types of Solid Waste 482

Open Dumps 482

Sanitary Landfills 483

Incineration 485

Composting 486

Waste Prevention 487

Reducing the Amount of Waste: Source Reduction 488

Reusing Products 488

Recycling Materials 489

Integrated Waste Management 491

Hazardous Waste 492

Types of Hazardous Waste 492

Management of Hazardous Waste 495

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Reusing and Recycling Old Automobiles 488

CASE IN POINT Hanford Nuclear Reservation 494

24 Tomorrow’s World 501

Living Sustainably 502

Sustainable Living: A Plan of Action 503

Recommendation 1: Eliminating Poverty and Stabilizing the Human Population 503

Recommendation 2: Protecting and Restoring Earth’s Resources 506

Recommendation 3: Providing Adequate Food for all People 509

Recommendation 4: Mitigating Climate Change 510

Recommendation 5: Designing Sustainable Cities 511

Changing Personal Attitudes and Practices 513

The Role of Education 513

What Kind of World Do We Want? 514

MEETING THE CHALLENGE Microcredit Programs 504

CASE IN POINT Jakarta, Indonesia 511


I Review of Basic Chemistry A-1

II Graphing A-6

III Models and Modeling A-8

IV Units of Measure: Some Useful Conversions A-10

V Abbreviations, Formulas, and Acronyms Used in This Text A-11