Skip to main content

Environmental Engineering: Prevention and Response to Water-, Food-, Soil-, and Air-borne Disease and Illness, 6th Edition

Environmental Engineering: Prevention and Response to Water-, Food-, Soil-, and Air-borne Disease and Illness, 6th Edition

Nelson L. Nemerow, Franklin J. Agardy, Joseph A. Salvato

ISBN: 978-0-470-43281-5 January 2009 400 Pages

Description

First published in 1958, Salvato's Environmental Engineering has long been the definitive reference for generations of sanitation and environmental engineers. Approaching its fiftieth year of continual publication in a rapidly changing field, the Sixth Edition has been fully reworked and reorganized into three separate, succinct volumes to adapt to a more complex and scientifically demanding field with dozens of specializations.

Updated and reviewed by leading experts in the field, this revised edition offers new coverage of appropriate technology for developing countries. Stressing the practicality and appropriateness of treatment, the Sixth Edition provides realistic solutions for the practicing public health official or environmental engineer.

This volume, Environmental Engineering: Prevention and Response to Water-, Food-, Soil-, and Airborne Disease and Illness, Sixth Edition covers:

  • Disease transmission by contaminated water

  • Food-borne diseases

  • Control of diseases of the air and land

  • Appropriate technology for developing countries

  • Environmental emergencies and emergency preparedness

PREFACE xv

CONTRIBUTORS xvii

CHAPTER 1 DISEASE TRANSMISSION BY CONTAMINATED WATER 1
Richard F. Unz

Introduction / 1

Control of Source (Agent Factors) / 3

Control of Mode of Transmission / 5

Control of Susceptibles (Host Factors) / 6

Typical Epidemic Control / 8

Waterborne Diseases / 12

General / 12

Survival of Pathogens / 13

Substance Dose to Cause Illness / 15

Summary of Characteristics and Control of Water- and Foodborne Diseases / 17

Vehicle or Means by Which Waterborne Diseases Are Spread / 44

Historical Waterborne Disease Background / 45

Control and Prevention of Waterborne Diseases / 55

Prevention of Waterborne Diseases / 56

Schistosomiasis / 58

Bioterrorism / 59

Smallpox / 61

Anthrax / 62

Plague / 64

Tularemia / 65

Glanders / 65

Botulism / 66

Tetanus or Lockjaw / 67

Noninfectious and Noncommunicable Diseases and

Conditions Associated with the Water Environment / 67

Background / 67

Prevention and Control / 71

Investigation of a Water Disease Outbreak / 72

General / 72

Samples and Specimens / 81

Epidemiology and Risk / 83

Molecular Detection of Waterborne Pathogens / 86

References / 90

Bibliography / 98

CHAPTER 2 CONTROL OF DISEASES OF THE AIR AND LAND 99
Nabarun Dasgupta

Communicable Diseases / 99

Background / 99

Life Expectancy and Mortality / 101

Framework for Disease Transmission / 106

Regulatory Authorities in Health / 108

Epidemic Control at the Individual Level / 109

Behavioral Change / 110

Antibiotics and Antivirals / 111

Vaccination (or Immunization) / 111

Control of Infectious Agents and Vectors / 113

Environmental Control of Infectious Diseases / 114

Arthropodborne Diseases / 116

Zoonoses and Their Spread / 127

Infectious Respiratory Diseases / 138

Bioterrorism / 141

Smallpox / 142

Anthrax / 143

Noncommunicable Diseases and Conditions Associated with the Environment / 143

Background / 143

Prevention and Control / 146

Environmental Control Legislation / 147

Lead Poisoning / 151

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning / 154

Mercury Poisoning / 155

Illnesses Associated with Air Pollution—Lung Diseases / 157

Asbestos Diseases / 159

Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer) / 160

Cardiovascular Diseases / 160

Methemoglobinemia / 162

Dental Caries / 162

Hypothermia / 163

High Environmental Temperatures / 163

Skin Damage from Sunlight / 164

Tap Water Scalds / 165

Sporotrichosis / 165

Definitions / 165

Useful Internet Web Sites / 169

References / 169

CHAPTER 3 FOODBORNE DISEASES 175
Nabarun Dasgupta

Introduction / 175

Survival of Pathogens / 176

Infectious Dose / 177

Reservoir or Source of Disease Agents / 178

Humans as Reservoirs / 178

Animals as Reservoirs / 180

Food Spoilage / 181

Burden and Cost of Foodborne Illness / 183

Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance / 184

Poultry / 185

Milk and Other Dairy Products / 186

Fruits and Vegetables / 188

Meat and Seafood / 188

Control and Prevention of Foodborne Diseases / 188

Prevention of Foodborne Diseases / 188

Mercury Poisoning / 197

Methemoglobinemia / 199

Dental Caries / 200

Sporotrichosis / 201

Nutritional Deficiency and Related Diseases / 201

References / 207

CHAPTER 4 APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 213
Harvey F. Ludwig

Abbreviations / 213

Introduction / 215

Background / 215

History / 215

Problem of Developing Countries / 216

Summary of DC Problem / 217

Purpose of This Chapter / 219

Specific Subjects Included in This Chapter / 220

Environmental Governance / 223

Introduction / 223

Situation in DCs versus United States/ICs / 223

What DC and IAA Practitioners Can Do to Correct This Problem / 224

Role of the Private Sector / 225

Urban Water Supply / 225

Situation in United States/ICs / 225

Situation in Typical DCs / 226

Suggested Approach for Improving IAA Assistance to DCs / 227

Appropriate Water Quality Standards / 229

Water and Sewer Pipes in Same Trench / 229

Reuse of Treated Wastewater / 231

IAA-Sponsored Community Water Supply Programs / 231

Other Considerations / 232

Water Hyacinths / 233

Water Quality Analyses / 234

Water Quality Monitoring / 238

Role of Private Sector / 238

Integrated Economic-cum-Environmental Development Planning (IEEDP) / 240

Water Resources Management / 240

Reducing Water Irrigation Requirement / 241

China Studies Sponsored by World Bank / 241

Watershed Management / 242

Urban Sewerage and Excreta Management (USEM) / 242

Situation in ICs / 243

Situation in Typical DCs / 245

Sewerage-cum-Sanitation Systems for 100 Percent

Excreta Management / 247

Sewage Treatment Systems / 247

Sewage Collection (Including Interceptors, Pumping, Transmission) / 248

Sewage Characteristics and Needs for Treatment and Point Source Control / 250

Sewage Flow Measurement / 250

Appropriate Standards / 251

Marine Sewage Disposal / 251

Buffer Area Requirements around

Treatment/Pumping Plants / 253

Regional Water Pollution Control / 253

Industrial Wastewater Management / 253

Situation in ICs versus DCs / 253

Discharge into Municipal Sewerage Systems (MSSs) / 255

Discharge Directly to Environment / 256

Appropriate Standards / 257

Cleaner Production (CP) / 257

Industrial Estates / 258

Marine Disposal / 258

Abstract / 260

Urban Solid Waste Management / 261

Situation in United States versus DCs / 261

Practical Sanitary Landfilling Technology for DCs / 261

Experience in Asian DCs / 262

Alternative Disposal Methods / 264

Reclamation of Swamp Lowlands by Refuse Landfilling / 264

Urban Air Pollution Control / 269

Background / 269

Thailand: General Situation / 269

Thailand: Sharing of Controls for Multiple Industries / 270

Air Pollution Control Experience in India / 272

Hazardous Wastes Management / 276

Background / 276

Guidelines Manual for DCs / 276

Megacities: Rural to Urban Migration / 282

Background / 282

Economic Policies for Sustainable Development (ADB) / 282

Existing Situation in the DCs / 283

Urban Growth Management/Action Strategy / 285

Effective Control of Environmental Degradation / 287

Follow-up Evaluation of ADB Study / 288

Essay on Urban Population Growth in DCs / 290

Urban Slums / 292

Background / 292

Indonesia Kampung Improvement Projects (KIPs) / 292

Urban Sanitation / 295

Ports and Harbors / 295

Coastal City of Chonburi in Thailand / 296

Public Water Supply Taps / 296

Rural Sanitation / 298

Very Low Priority for Attention / 298

WHO Manuals / 298

Xiaolangdi Resettlement / 298

Farm Animal Manures / 300

Handwashing / 300

School Sanitation / 301

Hazard of Flies / 301

Septic Tanks for Coastal Homes on Stilts / 301

Water Treatment for Homes Using Surface Waters / 301

Public Health / 302

Assessment by Asian Development Bank / 302

Water Supply and Sanitation / 302

Disease Reporting / 303

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) / 305

Difficulties in Application of EIA Process to DCs / 305

Effective Use of EIA Process in DCs / 306

Recommended EIA Report Components / 309

Constraints for Construction Contractors / 310

Need for Effective Training / 312

Environmental Economics and Financing / 313

Inclusion of Environmental Values in Project

Economic Analysis (PEA) / 313

Effect of EPMs on Project Economic and Financial Analyses / 313

Human Greed Parameter / 313

Economic-cum-Environmental Development Planning / 314

Value of Human Life / 314

Protecting Precious Eco-Resources / 314

Emergencies Management / 315

Technology Transfer (TT) / 315

Problem / 315

Recommendation / 317

Development Planning for DCs / 317

Social Parameters: Attention to Rural Poverty Poor / 317

Eco-Resources Protection / 319

Affordability of Environmental Improvements / 322

Integrated Economic-cum-Environmental Development Planning (IEEDP) / 322

Global Warming / 323

Problem / 323

Future of Environment in Developing Countries / 325

Problem of DCs / 325

Changes in Environmental Policy in the ICs / 325

Glimpse of Future / 326

Recommendations / 326

References / 326

CHAPTER 5 ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS 335
Piero M. Armenante and James P. Mack

Introduction / 335

Emergency Planning for Industrial Facilities / 339

Resources / 340

Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) / 341

Media Center / 341

Communication Equipment and Alarm Systems / 342

Firefighting Facilities, Equipment, and Supplies / 344

Spill and Vapor Release Control Equipment / 345

Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Supplies / 345

Meteorological Equipment / 346

Security and Access Control Equipment / 346

Environmental Testing Systems / 346

Emergency Action Levels / 347

Emergency Response Organization / 347

Initial-Response Organization / 348

Full Emergency Response Organization / 349

Emergency Director (Site Emergency Coordinator) / 349

Response Operations Coordinator / 349

Incident Response Commander (IRC, Field Operations Coordinator) / 351

Incident Response Team / 351

Emergency Functions / 352

Emergency Response Actions / 353

Concept of Operations / 353

Emergency Response Implementing Procedures / 353

Environmental Considerations / 354

Recovery, Reentry, and Restoration / 354

Training, Exercises, and Plan Maintenance / 355

Emergency Planning at the Local Level / 356

Emergency Management / 356

Leadership Commitment / 356

Planning Team / 357

Planning Process / 358

Hazards Analysis / 358

Damage Assessment and Recovery Operations / 360

Resources / 360

Content of the Plan and Procedures / 361

Plan Integration / 362

Public Information / 363

Public Education / 363

Public Emergency Notification / 364

Conclusion / 364

References / 364

INDEX 367