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Environmental Engineering: Water, Wastewater, Soil and Groundwater Treatment and Remediation, 6th Edition

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$156.00

Environmental Engineering: Water, Wastewater, Soil and Groundwater Treatment and Remediation, 6th Edition

Nelson L. Nemerow, Franklin J. Agardy, Joseph A. Salvato

ISBN: 978-0-470-08303-1 January 2009 400 Pages

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Description

First published in 1958, Salvato's Environmental Engineering has long been the definitive reference for generations of sanitation and environmental engineers. Approaching its fiftieth year of continual publication in a rapidly changing field, the Sixth Edition has been fully reworked and reorganized into three separate, succinct volumes to adapt to a more complex and scientifically demanding field with dozens of specializations.

Updated and reviewed by leading experts in the field, this revised edition offers new process and plant design examples and added coverage of such subjects as urban and rural systems. Stressing the practicality and appropriateness of treatment, the Sixth Edition provides realistic solutions for the practicing public health official, water treatment engineer, plant operator, and others in the domestic and industrial waste treatment professions.

This volume, Environmental Engineering: Water, Wastewater, Soil and Groundwater Treatment and Remediation, Sixth Edition, covers:

  • Water treatment

  • Water supply

  • Wastewater treatment

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Preface xiii

Contributors xv

Chapter 1 Water Supply 1
T. David Chinn

Introduction 1

Groundwater Pollution Hazard 3

Travel of Pollution through the Ground 5

Disease Transmission 10

Water Quantity and Quality 10

Water Cycle and Geology 10

Groundwater Flow 13

Groundwater Classification 16

Water Quality 17

Sampling and Quality of Laboratory Data 26

Sanitary Survey and Water Sampling 30

Sampling Frequency 33

Water Analyses 36

Heterotrophic Plate Count—The Standard Plate Count 37

Bacterial Examinations 38

Biological Monitoring 42

Virus Examination 42

Protozoa and Helminths Examination 43

Specific Pathogenic Organisms 43

Physical Examinations 44

Microscopic Examination 46

Chemical Examinations 48

Drinking Water Additives 68

Water Quantity 69

Water Conservation 70

Water Reuse 75

Source and Protection of Water Supply 77

General 77

Groundwater 88

Dug Well 88

Bored Well 89

Driven and Jetted Well 90

Drilled Well 91

Well Development 93

Grouting 96

Well Contamination—Cause and Removal 99

Spring 101

Infiltration Gallery 101

Cistern 103

Domestic Well-Water Supplies—Special Problems 105

Household Treatment Units (Point-of-Use and Point-of-Entry) 108

Desalination 111

References 118

Bibliography 126

Chapter 2 Water Treatment 133
T. David Chinn

Treatment of Water—Design and Operation Control 133

Introduction 133

Surface Water 134

Treatment Required 135

Disinfection 136

Gas Chlorinator 137

Testing for Residual Chlorine 138

Chlorine Treatment for Operation and Microbiological Control 139

Distribution System Contamination 145

Plain Sedimentation 146

Microstraining 146

Coagulation, Flocculation, and Settling 147

Filtration 149

Slow Sand Filter 149

Rapid Sand (Granular Media) Filter 151

Direct Filtration 157

Pressure Sand Filter 160

Diatomaceous Earth Filter 160

Package Water Treatment Plant 161

Water Treatment Plant Wastewater and Sludge 162

Causes of Tastes and Odors 162

Control of Microorganisms 163

Zebra Mussel and Its Control 169

Aquatic Weed Control 169

Other Causes of Tastes and Odors 170

Methods to Remove or Reduce Objectionable Tastes and Odors 172

Iron and Manganese Occurrence and Removal 182

Corrosion Cause and Control 187

Removal of Inorganic Chemicals 197

Prevention and Removal of Organic Chemicals 201

Water System Design Principles 205

Water Quantity 205

Design Period 206

Watershed Runoff and Reservoir Design 206

Intakes and Screens 208

Pumping 209

Distribution Storage Requirements 210

Peak Demand Estimates 213

Distribution System Design Standards 217

Small Distribution Systems 220

Fire Protection 220

Cross-Connection Control 222

Hydropneumatic Systems 226

Pumps 231

Displacement Pump 231

Centrifugal Pump, Also Submersible and Turbine 233

Jet Pump 235

Air-Lift Pump 235

Hydraulic Ram 236

Pump and Well Protection 237

Pump Power and Drive 237

Automatic Pump Control 239

Water Hammer 239

Rural Water Conditions in the United States 240

Design of a Household Water System 242

Examples 242

Design of Small Water Systems 242

Design of a Camp Water System 255

Water System Cost Estimates 255

Cleaning and Disinfection 257

Wells and Springs 258

Pipelines 260

Storage Reservoirs and Tanks 261

Emergency Water Supply and Treatment 262

Boiling 263

Chlorination 263

Iodine 266

Filtration in an Emergency 267

Bottled, Packaged, and Bulk Water 267

References 269

Bibliography 278

Chapter 3 Wastewater Treatment and Disposal 283
John R. Kiefer

Disease Hazard 283

Criteria for Proper Wastewater Disposal 285

Definitions 285

Small Wastewater Disposal Systems 288

Wastewater Characteristics 289

Soil Characteristics 289

Soil Suitability 290

Pollutant Travel from Septic Systems 291

Soil Percolation Test 291

Sewage Flow Estimates 293

Septic Tank 295

Care of Septic Tank and Subsurface Absorption Systems 299

Subsurface Soil Absorption Systems 301

Absorption Field System 301

Leaching Pit 305

Cesspool 305

Dry Well 306

Small Wastewater Disposal Systems for Unsuitable Soils or Sites 308

General 308

Modified Septic Tank Soil Absorption System 308

Example 309

Capillary Seepage Trench 309

Raised Bed Absorption-Evapotranspiration System 310

Septic Tank Sand Filter System 312

Aerobic Sewage Treatment Unit 315

Septic Tank Mound System 315

Example 1 317

Electric Osmosis System 318

Septic Tank Evapotranspiration System 318

Example 2 320

Water Conservation 321

Sewage Works Design—Small Treatment Plants 322

Disinfection 322

Physical-Chemical Treatment 326

Sedimentation 326

Coagulation/Flocculation 326

Filtration 327

Activated Carbon Adsorption 328

Biological Treatment 328

Wastewater Reuse 334

Wastewater Aerosol Hazard 335

Wastewater Disposal by Land Treatment 336

Advanced Wastewater Treatment 341

Typical Designs for Small Treatment Plants 344

Standard-Rate Trickling Filter Plant with Imhoff Tank 344

High-Rate Trickling Filter Plant with Imhoff Tank 346

Intermittent Sand Filter Plant with Imhoff Tank or Septic Tank 347

Design of Large Treatment Plants 347

Biosolids Treatment and Disposal 352

Cost of Sewage Treatment 357

Industrial Wastes 360

Hazardous and Toxic Liquid Wastes 360

Pretreatment 362

References 363

Bibliography 367

Index 371