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Environmental Geography: Science, Land Use, and Earth Systems, 3rd Edition

Environmental Geography: Science, Land Use, and Earth Systems, 3rd Edition

William M. Marsh, John Grossa Jr.

ISBN: 978-0-471-48280-2 November 2004 512 Pages

 Hardcover

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$169.95

Description

Environmental Geography combines traditional physical geography with a consideration of human-related environmental issues.  This unique text emphasizes physical processes and systems, using the tools of geography, such as maps, to convey information.

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Preface v

Introduction vii

CHAPTER 1 A World In Crisis: Environment and Humanity in the Twenty-First Century 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The State of Earth’s Nations 2

1.3 Prospects for the New Century 4

Population 4

Economic Development 4

Environment 6

Land Use 7

1.4 The Concept of Development 8

1.5 Earth’s Capacity to Support Humans 10

The Carrying Capacity Concept 11

1.6 Limits to Growth 11

1.7 Your Role in the Global Environmental Community 13

1.8 Summary 15

1.9 Key Terms and Concepts 15

1.10 Questions For Review 15

CHAPTER 2 The Search For An Enduring Balance Between Humanity and Environment 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 The Growing Environmental Impact of Human Activity 18

Trends in Poor and Wealthy Countries 19

2.3 Sustainable Land Use: The Key to Environmental Management 20

Humanity as Part of Nature 21

Accounting for Pollution Costs and Environmental Damage 21

Natural Resource Accounting 22

Reduction of Poverty 22

2.4 Necessary Changes in Resources Policies for Sustainability 23

Reforming Agriculture 23

Promoting Efficient Raw Material and Energy Use 23

2.5 Constraints on Achieving Sustainable Land Use 24

2.6 Some Geographic Requisites for Sustainability 25

2.7 A Grass-Roots Effort at Sustainable Land Use 27

2.8 Measuring Sustainability 27

2.8 Summary 28

2.9 Key Terms and Concepts 28

2.10 Questions For Review 28

CHAPTER 3 The Global Context and Some Geographic Imperatives 30

3.1 Introduction 30

3.2 The Scope of Environmental Geography 30

Environmental Pollution 21

Environmental Disturbance 21

Land Use and Technology 31

3.3 The Global Context and Setting 32

Earth’s Surface Features 32

Global Coordinate System 34

Zones of Latitude 36

Where People Live in the World 36

3.4 Our Geographically Integrated Planet 37

Distance and Scale 37

Uncertainty and Risk 38

3.5 Human Use of the Earth 39

The Rural World 39

Agriculture, Forest, and Grassland 41

The Urban World 42

3.6 The Role of Human Values and Environmental Regulations 43

Environmental Policy and Regulation 43

International Regulation 45

3.7 Summary 46

3.8 Key Terms and Concepts 47

3.9 Questions For Review 48

CHAPTER 4 Global Cycles and Systems: The Master Environmental Framework 49

4.1 Introduction 49

4.2 The General Organization of the Earth’s Environments 50

Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, and Atmosphere 50

The Biosphere 51

The Ecological Context 53

4.3 The Source of Energy for the Earth’s Environments 54

Available Solar Energy 55

Global Distribution of Solar Energy 55

Radiation and Moisture: Implications for Life Support 56

4.4 The Major Energy Systems of Earth 57

The Heat Path and Geophysical Systems 57

The Organic Path and Life Systems 57

4.5 The Cycle of Matter in Ecosystems 58

Nutrients 58

Nutrient Cycles 59

The Carbon Cycle 59

The CO2 Balance 60

The Oxygen Cycle 60

The Oxygen Balance 60

The Nitrogen Cycle 61

The Phosphorus Cycle 61

4.6 Interrelations in Environmental Systems 62

Primary Relationships 62

Secondary Relationships 64

4.7 The Gaia Concept 64

Geophysiology 64

Some Questions 64

4.8 Summary 65

4.9 Key Terms and Concepts 65

4.10 Questions for Review 66

CHAPTER 5 Ecosystems and the Bioclimatic Environment 67

5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Basic Form and Function

of an Ecosystem 68

Organization of Food Chains 68

Energy Flow 69

5.3 Plant Productivity: Feeding

Ecosystems 70

Limiting Factors 71

Productivity and Climatic Limitations 71

Global Productivity and Human Needs

and Impacts 73

5.4 Types of Ecosystems and Their

Characteristics 73

Terrestrial Ecosystems 73

Compositional Traits 74

Some Interrelations within Communities 75

Biogeographical Trends 75

5.5 Ecosystem Patterns and Distributions 76

Global Terrestrial Patterns 76

Global Marine Patterns 78

Patterns within Climatic Zones 81

5.6 Models of Spatial Dynamics

in Ecosystems 83

Succession Theory 83

Disturbance Theory 83

The Human Factor 84

5.7 Land Use as Ecosystems 84

5.8 Human Impact and Disturbance

of Ecosystems 85

5.9 Summary 88

5.10 Key Terms and Concepts 89

5.11 Questions for Review 90

CHAPTER 6 The Spread of Humanity and the Challenge of the Last Frontiers 92

6.1 Introduction 92

6.2 Human Dispersal and Adaptation 93

6.3 The Rise of Human Populations 94

The Spread of Agriculture 94

Emergence of Global Power Centers 94

Global Zones of Human Occupation 96

6.4 Frontier Environments and the Modern

Threat 97

6.5 The Wet Tropics 97

Tropical Forest Loss 97

Environmental Consequences 99

6.6 The Dry Lands 100

Types of Dry Environments 100

Moisture Variability 100

Desertification 101

6.7 The Cold Lands 102

Types of Cold Lands 103

Land Use and Environment 104

6.8 The Mountain Lands 105

Environmental Barriers 106

6.9 The Continental Shelves 106

Natural Resources 106

Environmental Threats 107

6.10 Summary 108

6.11 Key terms and Concepts 109

6.12 Questions for Review 110

CHAPTER 7 The Human Population: Trends, Patterns, and Problems 111

7.1 Introduction 111

7.2 Historical Perspectives of Population Trends 112

Resources, Technology, and Population Growth 112

Future Population Trends in the Next Generation 113

7.3 Population Patterns and Trends 113

Temporal and Spatial Variations in Population 113

International Comparisons of Population Size and Density 115

Variations in Population Density Patterns 116

Changing Perceptions of Population Trends 117

Natural Population Changes 118

HIV/AIDS Epidemic Slowing Population Growth 121

The Demographic Transition 122

Demographic Transition in the Developing World 124

7.4 Fertility, Age Structure, and Population Momentum 124

7.5 Family-Planning Programs in the Developing World 126

7.6 A Worldwide Program to Stabilize World Population—Improving the Status of Women 127

7.7 Migration: Where Do People Go? 127

Some Reasons for Migration 127

North American Internal Migration 128

Some Demographic Effects of Migration 129

Migration and Environmental Impact 130

7.8 Problems Faced by Developing Countries with Rapidly Growing Populations 130

Economic and Environmental Problems of a Fast-Growing Developing Country— A Case Study of Brazil 131

A Neo-Malthusian Specter 132

7.9 Perceived Problems in Developed Countries with Stable or Declining Populations 133

7.10 Population Trends that Will Shape the Future 133

Continued but Declining Growth in the Developing World 133

A World Growing Old 134

International Migration: Poor People Moving to Rich Countries 134

7.11 Two Alternative Views of Future Population Trends 134

7.12 Summary 135

7.13 Key Terms and Concepts 136

7.14 Questions for Review 136

CHAPTER 8 Agriculture, Food Production, Hunger, and the Environment 137

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Cultural Evolution and the Development of Global Agriculture 138

8.3 Industrialization and the Changing Nature of Agriculture 139

8.4 Food Choices: The Plants and Animals that Feed the World 140

8.5 Systems of Agricultural Production 144

Commercial Agriculture 146

8.6 A Geographical Perspective on World Hunger and Malnutrition 146

Famine 146

Malnutrition 147

Why Does Hunger Persist in the Twenty-First Century? 149

Agricultural Subsidies and Hunger 150

U.S. Food Aid 150

8.7 New Horizons in World Agriculture: The Green Revolution 151

A New Chapter in the Green Revolution 152

Outside the Green Revolution: New Strategies for Traditional Agriculture 153

Beyond the Green Revolution: Biotechnology 154

Transgenic Crops in the Developing World 154

8.8 Agriculture and the Environment 156

Soil Erosion 156

Salinization and Waterlogging 158

Groundwater Depletion and Contamination 158

Surface Water Impacts 158

Simplification, Substitution, and Environmental Change 160

Environmental Regulation and Agriculture 160

8.9 Moving Toward Sustainable Agricultural Production 161

Conserving Soil Productivity 161

Conserving Energy Resources 163

Conserving Water Resources 163

Use of Perennials 163

Adoption of Natural Resource Accounting 163

Developing Agricultural Policies that Support Sustainable Agriculture 163

8.10 Can Sustainable Agriculture Supply Enough Food for a Growing Population? 164

Land 164

Water for Irrigation 164

Energy 164

Climate 164

Genetic Materials 165

Expansion of Knowledge 165

8.11 Summary 165

8.12 Key Terms and Concepts 166

8.13 Questions for Review 167

CHAPTER 9 Energy Generation, Use, and the Environment 168

9.1 Introduction 168

9.2 Global Energy Sources and Uses 169

9.3 Fossil Fuels 172

Coal 173

Crude Oil or Petroleum 176

Natural Gas 180

9.4 Nuclear Power 182

Generating Electricity in a Nuclear Power Plant 182

9.5 Renewable and Perpetual Energy Resources 185

Biomass 185

Hydroelectric Power 187

Wind Power 188

Solar Energy 189

Geothermal and Tidal Energy 192

The Transition to Renewable Energy Resources 192

Hydrogen: The Key to a Sustainable Energy Future 193

9.6 Using Energy More Efficiently 194

Reducing Energy Consumption in Buildings 194

Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry 195

Saving Energy in Transportation 195

Fuel-Cell Vehicles (FCVs) 196

9.7 Summary 196

9.8 Key Terms and Concepts 197

9.9 Questions for Review 198

CHAPTER 10 The Atmospheric Environment: Climate, Land Use, and Global Warming 199

10.1 Introduction 199

10.2 The General Composition of Air 200

Carbon Dioxide and Ozone 200

Water Vapor and Airborne Particles 200

10.3 Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere 201

The Troposphere 201

The Stratosphere and Above 202

10.4 Atmospheric Pressure and General Circulation 202

Vertical Distribution of Pressure 202

Wind and Pressure Systems 203

Global Pressure and Prevailing Wind Systems 205

Global Circulation and Air Pollution 205

10.5 Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere 206

10.6 Breakdown of the Solar Beam 207

Reduction by the Stratosphere 207

Reduction by the Troposphere 207

Surface Reflection and Absorption 207

Cloud and Pollution Factors 207

10.7 Earth’s Heat Balance 209

The Distribution of Solar Heating 209

Recycling Heat and Radiation 210

Earth’s Equilibrium Temperature 210

10.8 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming 211

Heat-Absorbing Gases 211

Trends and Forecasts 212

A Counterargument 213

Some Consequences of Atmospheric Warming 214

10.9 The Effects of Urban Climate 216

Thermal Conditions 216

Precipitation Trends 216

Growth of Megacities 217

Heat Syndrome 217

Improving the Urban Climate 218

10.10 Managing the Global Climate 219

Efforts of International Policy 220

Making the Switch to Cleaner Fuel

Systems 220

Some Reasonable Considerations 220

10.11 Summary 220

10.12 Key Terms and Concepts 221

10.13 Questions for Review 222

CHAPTER 11 Air Pollution: Patterns, Trends, and Impacts 223

11.1 Introduction 223

11.2 Types of Air Pollution 224

The Major Pollutants 224

Relative Human and Natural

Contributions 225

11.3 Sources of Air Pollution 226

Pollution Sources in Developed Countries 226

Pollution Sources in Developing Countries 229

11.4 Processes, Patterns, and Scales of Air Pollution 230

Plume Patterns 230

Thermal Inversion Episodes 230

Tropospheric Mixing of Pollutants 232

Global Dispersal of Air Pollution 236

11.5 Patterns of Pollution in the Urban Region 236

Urban Land-Use Patterns 236

Local Pollution Patterns in Cities 236

Air Pollution within Buildings 237

The Urban Thermal Landscape 238

Urban Planning for Air Quality 240

11.6 Air Pollution Impacts on People and Environment 240

Air Pollution and Human Health 240

Impacts on Crops, Forests, and Ecosystems 241

Impacts on Water Quality 242

11.7 Air Pollution Control: How Well Are We Doing? 242

Prospects for Clean Air in the Developing World 242

Building Pollution-Control Programs 243

Air Pollution Control in the United States 244

11.8 Summary 247

11.9 Key terms and Concepts 247

11.10 Questions for Review 248

CHAPTER 12 The Hydrologic Environment: Precipitation, Land Use, and Water Resources 249

12.1 Introduction 249

12.2 The Hydrologic Cycle 250

Components of the Cycle 250

Water Vapor, Condensation, and Precipitation 251

Moisture Exchange and Delivery 251

12.3 Precipitation, Storms, and their Impact on Environment 252

Convectional Precipitation 252

Environmental Impacts 252

Thunderstorms and Global Warming 252

Orographic Precipitation 254

Environmental Impacts 254

Frontal/Cyclonic Precipitation 255

Environmental Impacts 257

Convergent Precipitation 258

Environmental Impacts 259

Hurricanes and Global Warming 259

12.4 Streamflow and Floods 260

Sources of Streamflow 260

Drainage Basins 260

12.5 Flood Hazard and Land Use 261

12.6 Managing the World’s Watersheds 263

12.7 Groundwater 265

Aquifers and Their Functions 265

Aquifer Use and Decline 266

12.8 Lakes, Ponds, and Wetlands 267

Wetlands 269

Wetland Trends 269

Lakes and Ponds 269

12.9 Human Use of Water 270

Global Supplies and Problems 272

Privatization of Water Supply Systems 273

Environmental Effects of Water Use 274

12.10 Managing Water Resources for Sustained Use 275

12.11 Summary 277

12.12 Key Terms and Concepts 278

12.13 Questions for Review 279

CHAPTER 13 Water Pollution: Patterns, Trends, and Impacts 280

13.1 Introduction 280

13.2 Types of Water Pollution 281

13.3 Measuring Water Pollution 281

Pollution Concentration and Loading 281

Setting Standards for Water Pollution 281

13.4 Water Pollution Sources and Distribution Processes 282

Water Pollution in the Traditional Rural Landscape 284

Water Pollution in the Modern Urban Landscape 284

Stormwater Pollution 286

Water Pollution from Agriculture 287

Soil Erosion as a Source of Water Pollution 289

Air Pollution as a Source of Water Pollution 289

13.5 Groundwater Pollution 291

Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste 292

Groundwater Pollution from Solid Waste 293

Other Sources of Groundwater Pollution 294

Groundwater Protection 295

13.6 Pathways and Sinks in the Hydrologic Cycle 295

Movement Through the Atmosphere and Streams 296

Pollution Sinks: Environmental Waste Bins 296

Humans and Other Organisms as Pollution Sinks 297

13.7 Pollution of the Oceans 298

13.8 Pollution Control with Treatment Systems 299

Primary and Secondary Sewage Treatment

Systems 300

Advanced Treatment Systems 300

Low-Tech Treatment Systems 300

13.9 Summary 302

13.10 Key Terms and Concepts 304

13.11 Questions for Review 304

CHAPTER 14 Hazardous Waste: Sources, Problems, and Management 306

14.1 Introduction 306

14.2 Types and Sources of Disposable Waste 307

Hazardous Wastes 308

Distribution of Hazardous Wastes 309

14.3 Traditional Methods of Waste Disposal 311

Hazardous Waste Dumping 312

Central and Eastern European Hazardous Waste Experience 313

The Evolving Geography of Hazardous Waste 314

14.4 Some Consequences of Improper Waste Management 316

The Love Canal, Niagara Falls, New York Disaster 316

The Bhopal, India Disaster 316

Health Effects of Hazardous Wastes 317

14.5 Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States 317

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 317

The U.S. Superfund Program 318

Polluter-Pays Laws 318

14.6 Modern Hazardous Waste Disposal Methods 318

Land Disposal Methods for HazardousWaste 318

Radioactive Waste Disposal 320

14.7 Hazardous Waste Treatment 322

Land Application of Hazardous Waste 322

Processing and Incineration of Hazardous Waste 322

14.8 Waste Reduction and Recycling 322

Why Recycle? 322

Modern Recycling Efforts 323

Recycling the Automobile 324

14.9 Summary 326

14.10 Key Terms and Concepts 327

14.11 Questions for Review 328

CHAPTER 15 Soil and Land: Formation, Use, and Abuse 329

15.1 Introduction 329

15.2 Geographic Organization of the Land 330

15.3 Topography and Land Use 331

15.4 The Soil Mantle: Sources of Plant Material 333

15.5 Soil Properties: Key Soil Traits and Components 335

Soil Composition 335

Soil Texture 337

Soil Water 338

Water Types, Processes, and Climate 338

15.6 Soil-Forming Processes: Solum as a Chemical System 339

Sources of Chemical Matter in Soil 339

Chemical Process of the Solum 340

Soil Formation and Features 340

The Soil Profile 341

15.7 Integrated Models of Soil, Land Use, and Environment 343

Wet Tropical Soil Regime 343

Desert and Grassland Soil Regime 343

Midlatitude Forest Soil Regime 343

Permafrost Tundra Soil Regime 344

Wetland Soil Regime 344

Floodplain Soil Regime 344

Cropland Soil Regime 344

15.8 Soil Loss by Erosion 344

Soil Erosion by Runoff 345

Soil Erosion and Sediment Loss Rates 346

15.9 Environmental Impacts of Soil Erosion 348

Impacts on Water Features 349

Other Impacts Related to Agriculture 350

15.10 The Challenge to Managing Our Soil Reservoir 351

15.11 Summary 352

15.12 Key Terms and Concepts 353

15.13 Questions for Review 353

CHAPTER 16 Biological Diversity: Trends, Threats, and Protection 355

16.1 Introduction 355

16.2 The Concept of a Species 356

The Process of Speciation 356

The Geographic Ranges of Species 357

Species Extinction 358

16.3 Genetic Diversity: A Global Resource 359

16.4 Species Counts, Estimates, and Extinction Trends 361

Extinction Events and Trends 361

Extinction and the Human Scene 361

The Loss of Tropical Forest Habitat 362

16.5 Geographical Biodiversity 363

Relationship between Organisms and Their Habitat 364

Land Use and Habitat Loss 366

Opportunistic Species 368

16.6 Endangered, Threatened, and Protected Species 369

The Most Vulnerable Species 370

16.7 Ways of Cutting Biodiversity Losses 370

Application of Landscape Ecology 371

Repairing Damaged Landscapes 371

Stream and Watershed Restoration 372

16.8 Summary 374

16.9 Key Terms and Concepts 375

16.10 Questions for Review 376

CHAPTER 17 Open-Land Resources: Forests, Grasslands and Shrublands, Parks, and Preserves 377

17.1 Introduction 377

17.2 Development and Exploitation of Open-Land Resources 378

Forest Use and Mining 379

Decline of Wildlife and Closing of the Frontier 379

Settlement and Resources Development Trends in Other Regions 380

17.3 Conservation and Preservation of Open-Land Resources 380

The American Conservation Movement 380

New Deal Conservation 380

Current Public Land Management 380

17.4 Forests, Woodlands, and Land Use 381

Types of Forests and Woodlands 382

Forests as a Multiple-Use Resource 383

Forests in Parks, Wilderness, and Other

Reserves 384

Lumber, Fuelwood, and Other Forest Products 384

Commercial Logging and Environmental Impact 386

Recent Trends in Forest Resource Use in the United States 387

Forest Extent, Ownership, and Age 387

Timber Harvest and Growth 387

Protected Forests 388

The National Forest System 388

Sustainable Forest Management 389

17.5 Grasslands and Shrublands, Herding, and Ranching 390

Traditional Use of Grasslands and Shrublands 391

Commercial Ranching 391

North America’s Grasslands and Shrublands 392

Use of Grasslands and Shrublands in North America 392

Managing the Public Range 392

17.6 The Parks Movement 393

The National Park System in the United States 394

State, Provincial, and Urban Parks in the United States and Canada 395

17.7 The Wilderness Movement 396

Inventory of the Earth’s Wildlands 396

International Wilderness Programs 397

The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations 398

17.8 Summary 398

17.9 Key Terms and Concepts 399

17.10 Questions for Review 399

CHAPTER 18 Managing the Global Environment: The Drive Toward a Sustainable World 401

18.1 Introduction 401

18.2 Progress Toward Sustainable Development at the Beginning of the New Millennium 402

Stabilizing World Population 402

Meeting Human Needs 402

Maintaining Earth’s Life Support Systems and Living Resources 402

Atmosphere and Climate 402

Oceans and Freshwater 403

Land Use and Land Cover 403

Terrestrial Biodiversity 403

Toxics 403

A Summary of Progress 403

18.3 Several Unsustainable Environmental Trends 404

18.4 International Institutions to Manage the Environment 405

Setting the Precedent: Establishing Institutions 405

Sustainable Economic Development: The Key to Environmental Management in Developing Countries 407

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) 407

Progress Since UNCED 407

World Summit on Sustainable Development 408

Nongovernmental Organization (NGOs) 408

Grass-roots Movement 409

18.5 Monitoring Environmental Change with Remote Sensing 410

An Introduction to Some Remote Sensing Systems 410

Aircraft Remote Sensing to Map and Inventory Resources 411

Satellite Remote Sensing to Monitor the Environment 413

Meteorology Satellites 413

Earth Resources Satellites 415

Satellites Using Remote Sensing Radar 419

Mission to Planet Earth and Earth Science Enterprise 420

18.6 Geographic Information Systems 421

Data Input 422

Data Manipulation and Analyses 423

Information Output 423

18.7 The Role of GIS in Environmental Management 424

18.8 Global Change, Research, and Geographic Information Systems 424

GIS and Environmental Change 424

GIS and Climate Change 424

GIS and Hydrologic Systems 425

Ecosystem Change Modeling and GIS 425

Human Interaction and GIS 425

18.9 Summary 426

18.10 Key Terms and Concepts 427

18.11 Questions for Review 428

Glossary 429

Credits 447

References For Further Reading 449

Index I-1

  • A continuing theme of sustainability, with more emphasis on efforts by governments, corporations, private organizations, and individuals that are showing promise in bringing us into balance with the planet.
  • 16 new case studies, 12 of which deal with sustainability issues.
  • A revised organization. The first five chapters have been rearranged to provide a better flow of topics from issues and perspectives, to environmental foundation material, to factual matter on the condition of earth and its people.
  • New material in several chapters, including the increasing role of NGO's in working out solutions to environmental problems from the global to the local level.
  • Thoroughly updated statistics on population, energy, and food production.
  • Revised graphics, including dozens of new photos.
· Environmental Geography is written at the appropriate level for undergraduates providing a good introduction to the key topics.  Instructors can choose which topics they would like to emphasize and explore in greater detail with students.
· The first edition of this title was praised for its strong coverage of policy issues including laws, regulations and international agreements.
· The author has written the text from a uniquely geographic perspective.  Emphasis is on the spatial aspects of environmental use and abuse.
· A comprehensive glossary provides students with an excellent reference for key concepts.