Skip to main content

Environmental Hydraulics: Stratified Flows

Environmental Hydraulics: Stratified Flows

Flemming Bo Pedersen

ISBN: 978-1-118-66970-9

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

278 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies Series, Volume 18.

The present lecture notes cover a first course in the most common types of stratified flows encountered in Environmental Hydraulics. Most of the flows are buoyancy flows, i.e. currents in which gravity acts on small density differences.
Part I presents the basic concepts of stagnant, density - stratified water, and of flowing non-miscible stratified fluids. The similarity to the (presumed) well-known open channel flow, subject to a reduced gravity, is illustrated.
Part II treats the miscible density stratified flows. In outlining the governing equations, the strong coupling between the turbulence (the mixing) and the mean flow is emphasized. The presentation and discussions of the basic governing equations are followed by illustrative examples. Separate chapters are devoted to Dense Bottom Currents, Free Penetrative Convection, Wind-driven Stratified Flow, Horizontal Buoyancy Flow and Vertical jet/plumes.
Part III presents some examples of practical problems solved on the basis of knowledge given in the present lecture notes. It is the author's experience that the topics treated in chapter 8 and in the subsequent chapters are especially well-suited for self-tuition, followed by a study-circle.

PART I. NON-MISCIBLE STRATIFIED FLOWS

1. INTRODUCTION 2

2. PRESSURE CONDITIONS AND POTENTIAL ENERGY 5

3. THE MOTION OF NON-MISCIBLE STABLY STRATIFIED FLUIDS 17

3.1 Dense bottom currents 17

3.2 The stationary salt water wedge ig

3.3 Containment of oil spill in rivers and harbours 23

PART II. MISCIBLE STRATIFIED FLOWS

4. THE EQUATIONS OF CONTINUITY AND MOTION FOR MISCIBLE STRATIFIED FLOWS 36

4.1 The continuity equations 37

4.2 The equations of motion 41

5. RTf = THE BULK FLUX RICHARDSON NUMBER 55

6. ENTRAPMENT (VE) 61

7. INTERFACIAL SHEAR STRESS (ti) 71

8. DENSE BOTTOM CURRENTS 81

9. FREE PENETRATIVE CONVECTION 99

10. WIND-DRIVEN STRATIFIED FLOW 113

11. HORIZONTAL BUOYANT FLOW 127

12. VERTICAL BUOYANT JETS AND PLUMES 147

APPENDIX 155

REFERENCES 161

PART III. CASE STUDIES

13. COMMENTS ON PART III 168

14. SEDIMENT LADEN BUOYANCY JETS
Henriksen, H.J., Haar, H. and Bo Pedersen, Fl. [1982]  169

15. DENSE BOTTOM CURRENTS IN ROTATING OCEAN
Bo Pedersen, Fl. [1980]  179

16. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ON ENTRAINMENT DUE TO FREE CONVECTION
Bo Pedersen, Fl. and Jiirgensen, C. [1984]  197

17. STEADY WIND SET-UP IN PRISMATIC LAKES
Engelund, F.A. [1973]  205

18. DIVISION OF THE RIVER NEVA. How will it influence the Baltic Sea, the Belt and
Cattegat
Bo Pedersen, Fl. and M011er, J.S. [1981]  213

19. SURFACE JET AT SMALL RICHARDSON NUMBERS
Engelund, F.A. and Bo Pedersen, Fl. (1973)  233

20. INTERNAL SEICHES IN A STRATIFIED SILL FJORD
Muller, J.S. and Bo Pedersen, Fl. (1983)  254

21. ON ARCTIC LAKES, A thermodynomic and hydrodynamic investigation
Danielsen, N. , Iversen, S.K. and Bo Pedersen, Fl. (1981)  255

22. A MULTIPURPOSE STRATIFIED FLOW FLUME
Bo Pedersen, Fl. (1984)  263

SUBJECT INDEX 275