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Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry

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Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry

Frank M. Dunnivant

ISBN: 978-0-471-66027-9 November 2004 416 Pages

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Description

A comprehensive set of real-world environmental laboratory experiments

This complete summary of laboratory work presents a richly detailed set of classroom-tested experiments along with background information, safety and hazard notes, a list of chemicals and solutions needed, data collection sheets, and blank pages for compiling results and findings. This useful resource also:

  • Focuses on environmental, i.e., "dirty" samples
  • Stresses critical concepts like analysis techniques and documentation
  • Includes water, air, and sediment experiments
  • Includes an interactive software package for pollutant fate and transport modeling exercises
  • Functions as a student portfolio of documentation abilities
  • Offers instructors actual samples of student work for troubleshooting, notes on each procedure, and procedures for solutions preparation.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

To The Instructor xv

Part 1 Preliminary Exercises

1 How to Keep a Legally Defensible Laboratory Notebook 3

2 Statistical Analysis 7

3 Field Sampling Equipment for Environmental Samples 19

Part 2 Experiments for Air Samples

4 Determination of Henry’s Law Constants 33

5 Global Warming: Determining If a Gas is Infrared Active 49

6 Monitoring the Presence of Hydrocarbons in Air around Gasoline Stations 61

Part 3 Experiments for Water Samples

7 Determination of an Ion Balance for a Water Sample 73

8 Measuring the Concentration of Chlorinated Pesticides in Water Samples 83

9 Determination of Chloride, Bromide, and Fluoride in Water Samples 93

10 Analysis of Nickel Solutions by Ultraviolet–Visible Spectrometry 101

Part 4 Experiments for Hazardous Waste

11 Determination of the Composition of Unleaded Gasoline Using Gas Chromatography 113

12 Precipitation of Metals from Hazardous Waste 123

13 Determination of the Nitroaromatics in Synthetic Wastewater from a Munitions Plant 143

14 Determination of a Surrogate Toxic Metal in a Simulated Hazardous Waste Sample 151

15 Reduction of Substituted Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Humic Acid Solutions 167

Part 5 Experiments for Sediment and Soil Samples

16 Soxhlet Extraction and Analysis of a Soil or Sediment Sample Contaminated with n-Pentadecane 179

17 Determination of a Clay–Water Distribution Coefficient for Copper 191

Part 6 Wet Experiments

18 Determination of Dissolved Oxygen in Water Using the Winkler Method 207

19 Determination of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Sewage Influent 217

20 Determination of Inorganic and Organic Solids in Water Samples: Mass Balance Exercise 233

21 Determination of Alkalinity of Natural Waters 245

22 Determination of Hardness in a Water Sample 257

Part 7 Fate and Transport Calculations

23 pC–pH Diagrams: Equilibrium Diagrams for Weak Acid and Base Systems 267

24 Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Rivers and Streams 277

25 Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Lake Systems 285

26 Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Groundwater Systems 293

27 Transport of Pollutants in the Atmosphere 303

28 Biochemical Oxygen Demand and the Dissolved Oxygen Sag Curve in a Stream: Streeter–Phelps Equation 317

Appendix A Periodic Table 327

Index 329

“ … a most useful book to base the experimental aspects of an undergraduate environmental course on.”  (Applied Organometallic Chemistry, May 2005)

"...a good reference for educators involved in the design of an introductory environmental or instrumental chemistry laboratory." (Journal of Chemical Education, March 2005)

"Dunnivant offers some very good experiments in this book...the student CD-ROM was easy to enter and use." (CHOICE, February 2005)

"…this volume is an excellent set of environmental/analytical chemistry experiment." (Microchemical Journal, December 17, 2004)

"This textbook lays out standards for lab notebooks that might one day become evidence in a pollution case." (Environmental Science & Technology, December 2004)