Skip to main content

Environmental Psychology: An Introduction, 2nd Edition

Environmental Psychology: An Introduction, 2nd Edition

Linda Steg (Editor), Judith I. M. de Groot (Consulting Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-24107-2 November 2018 Wiley-Blackwell 448 Pages

E-Book
$37.99
Paperback
$46.50
O-Book
Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description.

Description

The updated edition of the essential guide to environmental psychology

Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition, Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers an overview of the interplay between humans and their environments. The text examines the influence of the environment on human experiences, behaviour and well-being and explores the factors influencing environmental behaviour, and ways to encourage pro-environmental behaviour. The revised edition is a state-of-the art review of relevant theories and research on each of these topics.

With contributions from an international panel of noted experts, the text addresses a wealth of topics including the main research methods in environmental psychology; effects of environmental stress; emotional impacts and meanings of natural environment experience; aesthetic appraisals of architecture; how to measure environmental behaviour; cognitive, emotional and social factors explaining environmental behaviour; effects and acceptability of strategies to promote pro-environmental factors; and much more. This important book:

  • Discusses the environmental factors that threaten and promote human wellbeing
  • Explores a wide range of factors influencing actions that affect environmental conditions
  • Discusses the effects and acceptability of approaches that aim to encourage pro-environmental behavior
  • Presents research results conducted in different regions in the world
  • Contains contributions from noted experts

Written for scholars and practitioners in the field, the revised edition of Environmental Psychology offers a comprehensive review of the most recent research available in environmental psychology.

List of Figures xix

List of Tables xxi

List of Boxes xxii

List of Contributors xxiv

1 Environmental Psychology: History, Scope, and Methods 1
Linda Steg, Agnes E. van den Berg, and Judith I. M. de Groot

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 History of the Field 2

1.2.1 Towards ‘Architectural’ Psychology 3

1.2.2 Towards a Green Psychology 4

1.3 Current Scope and Characteristics of the Field 4

1.3.1 Interactive Approach 4

1.3.2 Interdisciplinary Collaboration 5

1.3.3 Problem‐Focused Approach 5

1.3.4 Diversity of Methods 6

1.4 Main Research Methods in Environmental Psychology 6

1.4.1 Questionnaire Studies 7

1.4.2 Laboratory Experiments 8

1.4.3 Computer Simulation Studies 8

1.4.4 Field Studies 9

1.4.5 Case Studies 9

1.5 Overview of the Book 10

Glossary 10

Suggestions for Further Reading 11

Review Questions 11

PART I ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AND WELL-BEING 13

2 Environmental Risk Perception 15
Gisela Böhm and Carmen Tanner

2.1 Introduction 16

2.2 What are Environmental Risks? 16

2.3 Subjective Risk Judgements 17

2.3.1 Heuristics and Biases in Risk Judgements 17

2.3.2 Temporal Discounting of Environmental Risks 19

2.3.3 The Psychometric Paradigm 19

2.4 Risk, Values, and Morality 19

2.4.1 Values 20

2.4.2 Morality and Ethics 21

2.5 Emotional Reactions to Environmental Risks 22

2.6 Summary 23

Glossary 23

Suggestions for Further Reading 24

Review Questions 25

3 Climate Change as a Unique Environmental Problem 26
Janet K. Swim and Lorraine Whitmarsh

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Public Understanding of Climate Change 27

3.3 Assessing the Risk of Climate Change 28

3.3.1 Detecting a Problem 30

3.3.2 Interpretations of Problems 31

3.3.3 Accepting Responsibility and Taking Action 32

3.4 Summary 33

Glossary 33

Suggestions for Further Reading 34

Review Questions 35

4 Environmental Stress 36
Elena Bilotta, Uchita Vaid, and Gary W. Evans

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 Conceptualizations of Stress 37

4.3 Effects of Environmental Stress 38

4.3.1 Noise 38

4.3.2 Crowding 40

4.3.3 Poor Housing Quality 41

4.3.4 Poor Neighbourhood Quality 42

4.3.5 Traffic Congestion 42

4.4 Summary 43

Glossary 43

Acknowledgements 44

Suggestions for Further Reading 44

Review Questions 44

5 Scenic Beauty: Visual Landscape Assessment and Human Landscape Perception 45
Mari S. Tveit, Åsa Ode Sang, and Caroline M. Hagerhall

5.1 Introduction 46

5.2 Visual Quality Assessment 46

5.3 Theories Explaining Landscape Preferences as Innate or Learnt 47

5.4 Measuring and Mapping Scenic Beauty 50

5.5 Methodological Developments 51

5.6 Summary 52

Glossary 52

Suggestions for Further Reading 53

Review Questions 54

6 Health Benefits of Nature 55
Agnes E. van den Berg,Yannick Joye, and Sjerp de Vries

6.1 Introduction 56

6.2 What is Health and How can it be Measured? 57

6.3 What is Nature and How can it be Measured? 57

6.4 Nature and Clinical Health 58

6.5 Green Space and Public Health 59

6.6 Mechanisms Linking Nature to Health 60

6.6.1 Air Quality 61

6.6.2 Physical Activity 61

6.6.3 Social Cohesion 62

6.6.4 Stress Reduction 62

6.7 Summary 63

Glossary 63

Suggestions for Further Reading 64

Review Questions 64

7 Restorative Environments 65
Yannick Joye and Agnes E. van den Berg

7.1 Introduction 66

7.2 Restorative Environments Research 66

7.2.1 Stress Recovery Theory 67

7.2.2 Attention Restoration Theory 68

7.3 The Evolutionary Origins of Restorative Nature Experiences 69

7.4 Recent Theoretical and Empirical Developments 70

7.4.1 Perceptual Fluency Account 70

7.4.2 Connectedness to Nature 70

7.4.3 Micro‐Restorative Experiences and Instorative Effects 72

7.5 Applications and Implications 72

7.6 Summary 73

Glossary 73

Suggestions for Further Reading 75

Review Questions 75

8 Ambivalence Towards Nature and Natural Landscapes 76
Agnes E. van den Berg and Cecil C. Konijnendijk

8.1 Introduction 77

8.2 Historical Overview 77

8.3 Emotional Impacts and Meanings of Natural Environment Experience 78

8.4 Views of Nature and Landscape Preferences 79

8.5 The Role of Biodiversity 80

8.6 An Existential‐Motivational Account 81

8.7 Practical Implications 82

8.8 Summary 83

Glossary 83

Suggestions for Further Reading 84

Review Questions 84

9 Human Dimensions of Wildlife 85
Maarten H. Jacobs, Jerry J. Vaske, Tara L. Teel, and Michael J. Manfredo

9.1 Introduction 86

9.2 Early Work: Attitudes Towards Wildlife 86

9.3 The Cognitive Hierarchy 87

9.4 Wildlife Value Orientations 89

9.5 Predicting Norms and Attitudes Towards Wildlife 91

9.6 Emotions Towards Wildlife 91

9.7 Summary 93

Glossary 93

Suggestions for Further Reading 94

Review Questions 94

10 Children and the Natural Environment 95
Karin TanjaDijkstra, Jolanda Maas, Janke van DijkWesselius, and Agnes van den Berg

10.1 Introduction 96

10.2 Childhood Experiences with Nature 96

10.3 Nature and Children’s Health and Well‐Being 98

10.3.1 Physical Health Benefits 99

10.3.2 Mental Health Benefits 99

10.3.3 Cognitive Benefits 100

10.4 Childhood Nature Experiences and Adult Environmentalism 101

10.5 Applications and Implications 101

10.6 Summary 102

Glossary 102

Suggestions for Further Reading 103

Review Questions 103

11 Appraising and Designing Built Environments that Promote WellBeing and Healthy Behaviour 104
Robert Gifford and Lindsay J. McCunn

11.1 Introduction 105

11.2 Aesthetic Appraisals of Architecture 105

11.2.1 Uniformities in the Appraisal of Built Space 105

11.2.2 Observer Differences 107

11.2.3 Meaning in Architecture 108

11.3 Three Building Design Approaches that Promote Well‐Being and Healthy Behaviour in Buildings 108

11.3.1 Social Design 108

11.3.2 Biophilic Design 110

11.3.3 Evidence‐Based Design 111

11.4 Summary 111

Glossary 111

Suggestions for Further Reading 112

Review Questions 112

12 Urban Environmental Quality 113
Mirilia Bonnes, Massimiliano Scopelliti, Ferdinando Fornara, and Giuseppe Carrus

12.1 Introduction 114

12.2 Urban Settings as a Source of Stress and Discomfort 115

12.3 Urban Settings as a Source of Well‐Being and Restoration 116

12.4 Residential Satisfaction – A Multicomponent Concept 117

12.5 A Multidimensional Approach to Urban Environmental Quality 117

12.6 The Multi‐Place Approach 120

12.7 Summary 121

Glossary 121

Suggestions for Further Reading 122

Review Questions 122

13 Environment and Quality of Life 123
Goda Perlaviciute and Linda Steg

13.1 Introduction 124

13.2 QoL: Objective and Subjective Measures 125

13.3 QoL: Unidimensional and Multidimensional Measures 126

13.4 Environment and QoL: Research Overview 127

13.4.1 Which QoL Aspects are most Important? 127

13.4.2 To What Extent is QoL Sustained in Certain Situations? 129

13.4.3 How Does QoL Differ with Varying Environmental Conditions? 130

13.4.4 How Do Environmental Transformations Influence QoL? 131

13.5 Summary 133

Glossary 133

Suggestions for Further Reading 134

Review Questions 134

14 Place Attachment 135
Lynne C. Manzo and Patrick DevineWright

14.1 Introduction 136

14.2 Theories and Models of Place Attachment 137

14.2.1 Components of Place Attachment 137

14.2.2 Types of Place Attachments 138

14.2.3 Place Attachments Involve an Array of Emotions 138

14.2.4 Place Attachments as Dynamic and Socially Produced 139

14.3 Applications of Place Attachment 140

14.4 Summary 142

Glossary 142

Suggestions for Further Reading 143

Review Questions 143

15 How Cues in the Environment Affect Normative Behaviour 144
Siegwart Lindenberg

15.1 Introduction 145

15.2 Overarching Goals and their Relative Strengths 146

15.3 Environmental Cues that Directly Strengthen the Normative Goal 148

15.4 Environmental Cues that Directly Weaken the Normative Goal 149

15.5 Indirect Weakening of the Normative Goal by Environmental Cues that Strengthen the Gain Goal 150

15.6 Indirect Weakening of the Normative Goal by Environmental Cues that Strengthen the Hedonic Goal 151

15.7 Summary 152

Glossary 152

Suggestions for Further Reading 153

Review Questions 153

PART II FACTORS INFLUENCING ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR 155

16 Measuring Environmental Behaviour 157
Birgitta Gatersleben

16.1 Introduction 158

16.2 What to Measure? Behaviour or Impact 158

16.2.1 Environmental Behaviour 158

16.2.2 Environmental Impact 159

16.3 How to Measure Environmental Behaviour? 162

16.4 Multidimensional or Unidimensional Measures of Environmental Behaviour 163

16.4.1 Multidimensional Measures of Environmental Behaviour 163

16.4.2 A Unidimensional Measure of Environmental Behaviour 164

16.5 Summary 165

Glossary 165

Suggestions for Further Reading 166

Review Questions 166

17 Values and ProEnvironmental Behaviour 167
Judith I.M. de Groot and John Thøgersen

17.1 Introduction 168

17.2 Values 168

17.3 Value Theories 169

17.3.1 Social Value Orientations 169

17.3.2 Schwartz’s Value Theory 169

17.3.3 Four Key Values for Pro‐Environmental Behaviour 171

17.4 How Values Affect Environmental Behaviour 173

17.5 Related Concepts 174

17.6 Practical Relevance of Value Research 176

17.7 Summary 176

Glossary 177

Suggestions for Further Reading 177

Review Questions 178

18 Social Norms and ProEnvironmental Behaviour 17
Kees Keizer and P. Wesley Schultz

18.1 Introduction 180

18.2 What is a Social Norm? 180

18.3 How Influential are Norms on Behaviour? 181

18.4 Why Do People Conform to Norms? 182

18.5 When Do Norms Influence Behaviour? 182

18.5.1 Salience 182

18.5.2 Group Size 183

18.5.3 Reference Groups 184

18.5.4 Personal Norms 184

18.5.5 Norm Conflict and the Importance of Aligned Messages 185

18.6 Summary 187

Glossary 188

Suggestions for Further Reading 188

Review Questions 188

19 Emotions and ProEnvironmental Behaviour 189
Danny Taufik and Leonie Venhoeven

19.1 Introduction 190

19.2 Emotions as a Motive for Action 191

19.3 Hedonic and Eudaimonic View on Emotions 192

19.4 Why Pro‐Environmental Behaviour Elicits Positive Emotions: A Closer Look at the Eudaimonic View 194

19.5 Summary 196

Glossary 196

Suggestions for Further Reading 197

Review Questions 197

20 Symbolic Aspects of Environmental Behaviour 198
Birgitta Gatersleben and Ellen van der Werff

20.1 Introduction 199

20.2 Identity 199

20.2.1 Environmental Self‐Identity and Behaviour 200

20.2.2 Factors Influencing Identity 201

20.3 Impression Management 203

20.4 Summary 205

Glossary 205

Suggestions for Further Reading 206

Review Questions 206

21 Social Dilemmas: Motivational, Individual, and Structural Aspects Influencing Cooperation 207
Chris von Borgstede, LarsOlof Johansson, and Andreas Nilsson

21.1 Introduction 208

21.2 Defining Social Dilemmas 208

21.3 Types of Social Dilemmas 209

21.3.1 Large‐Scale Dilemmas 209

21.3.2 Resource Dilemmas 209

21.3.3 Public Good Dilemmas 210

21.4 Motives in Social Dilemmas 210

21.4.1 Greed 210

21.4.2 Efficiency 211

21.4.3 Fairness 212

21.5 Factors Promoting Cooperation 212

21.5.1 Group Size 213

21.5.2 Communication 213

21.5.3 Response Efficacy 213

21.5.4 Environmental Uncertainty 214

21.5.5 Social Uncertainty 214

21.5.6 Norms in Large‐Scale Dilemmas 214

21.6 Summary 215

Glossary 215

Suggestions for Further Reading 216

Review Questions 216

22 Theories to Explain Environmental Behaviour 217
Linda Steg and Annika Nordlund

22.1 Introduction 218

22.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour 218

22.3 Protection Motivation Theory 220

22.4 The Norm Activation Model 221

22.5 The Value‐Belief‐Norm Theory of Environmentalism 223

22.6 Goal‐Framing Theory 224

22.7 Summary 225

Glossary 226

Suggestions for Further Reading 227

Review Questions 227

23 The Role of Group Processes in Environmental Issues, Attitudes, and Behaviours 228
Lise Jans and Kelly Fielding

23.1 Introduction 229

23.2 Why Should Environmental Psychologists be Interested in Group Processes? 229

23.3 How the Social Identity Approach Explains Environmental Conflict 230

23.4 Why Social Identity Guides Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 231

23.4.1 Group Norms Guide Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 232

23.4.2 Group Members Influence Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 233

23.4.3 Group Identification Influences Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours 234

23.5 Why Social Identity can Affect Cooperation on Environmental Issues 234

23.6 How the Social Identity Approach Explains Environmental Group Formation 235

23.7 Summary 236

Glossary 236

Suggestions for Further Reading 237

Review Questions 237

24 Yesterday’s Habits Preventing Change for Tomorrow? About the Influence of Automaticity on Environmental Behaviour 238
Christian A. Klöckner and Bas Verplanken

24.1 Introduction 239

24.2 Theoretical Background: How Habits are Acquired 240

24.3 Narrowing Down Decision‐Making: How Habits Affect Information Use 241

24.4 Measuring Habits: A Challenge for Research 243

24.5 Breaking Bad Habits, Creating Good Habits: Interventions Changing Routine Behaviour 246

24.6 Summary 248

Glossary 248

Suggestions for Further Reading 249

Review Questions 250

25 Environmental Psychology in Latin America 251
Javier UrbinaSoria and Emilio MoyanoDíaz

25.1 Introduction 252

25.2 Latin American Background 252

25.3 Past Reviews on Environmental Psychology in Latin America 253

25.4 Recent Developments in Environmental Psychology in Latin America 254

25.5 Key Issues for the Development of Research in Latin America 256

25.5.1 Lack of Collaboration 256

25.5.2 Few Possibilities to Publish in Spanish or Portuguese 257

25.5.3 Academic Training in Environmental Psychology 257

25.6 Summary 258

Glossary 258

Suggestions for Further Reading 259

Review Questions 259

PART III ENCOURAGING PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR 261

26 Informational Strategies to Promote ProEnvironmental Behaviour: Changing Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes 263
Wokje Abrahamse and Ellen Matthies

26.1 Introduction 264

26.2 Interventions: From Research to Implementation 264

26.3 Informational Strategies 265

26.3.1 Provision of Information 265

26.3.2 Goal Setting 266

26.3.3 Commitment 267

26.3.4 Prompting 268

26.3.5 Feedback 268

26.4 Intervention Research: Some General Issues 269

26.5 Summary 270

Glossary 271

Suggestions for Further Reading 271

Review Questions 272

27 Encouraging ProEnvironmental Behaviour with Rewards and Penalties 273
Jan Willem Bolderdijk, Philip K. Lehman, and E. Scott Geller

27.1 Introduction 274

27.2 Analysis of Consequences 274

27.3 Natural Versus Extra Consequences 276

27.4 When is it Appropriate to Apply Extra Consequences? 277

27.5 How Should Extra Consequences be Announced and Delivered? 278

27.5.1 Negative Versus Positive Consequences 279

27.5.2 Monetary Versus Non‐Monetary Consequences 279

27.6 Summary 281

Glossary 281

Suggestions for Further Reading 282

Review Questions 282

28 Persuasive Technology to Promote ProEnvironmental Behaviour 283
Cees Midden and Jaap Ham

28.1 Introduction 284

28.2 Technology and Behaviour 284

28.3 Persuasive Technology 285

28.4 Approaches to Applying Persuasive Technology 286

28.5 Social Influence through Smart Systems 287

28.5.1 The Role of Social Cues 287

28.5.2 Reactance 288

28.6 Providing Persuasive Experiences 289

28.7 Persuasive Technology as a Tool to Promote Behaviour Change 289

28.7.1 Ambient Persuasion 290

28.7.2 Group Interventions 291

28.8 Summary 292

Glossary 293

Suggestions for Further Reading 293

Review Questions 294

29 Acceptability of Environmental Policies 295
Geertje Schuitema and Cecilia J. Bergstad

29.1 Introduction 296

29.2 Acceptability as a Social Dilemma 296

29.3 Theoretical Framework to Explain the Acceptability of Policy Measures 297

29.3.1 Individual Policy Outcomes 298

29.3.2 Collective Policy Outcomes 298

29.3.3 Fair Distribution of Policy Outcomes 300

29.4 Procedural Fairness and Acceptability of Environmental Policies 302

29.5 How can Public Support Increase Over Time? An Illustration 303

29.6 Summary 305

Glossary 305

Suggestions for Further Reading 306

Review Questions 306

30 Processes of Change 307
Sebastian Bamberg and Maxie Schulte

30.1 Introduction 308

30.2 Lewin’s Theory of Change 308

30.3 Behavioural Change: A Self‐Regulation Process Steered by Feedback Loops 309

30.3.1 Goals as Reference Values in a Feedback Loop 309

30.3.2 Hierarchical Organization of Goals and Feedback Loops 309

30.3.3 The Importance of Self‐Focus 311

30.4 Behavioural Change: It Takes Time to Overcome Resistance to Change 311

30.5 The Stage Model of Self‐Regulated Behavioural Change 312

30.6 Implications for Interventions 314

30.7 Empirical Validation of the SSBC 315

30.8 Summary 316

Glossary 317

Suggestions for Further Reading 318

Review Questions 318

31 Simulating Social Environmental Systems 319
Wander Jager and Nick Gotts

31.1 Introduction 320

31.2 An Introduction to Social Complexity 320

31.3 Social Simulation as a Methodology 321

31.4 Social Simulation of Environmental Behaviour 322

31.4.1 Using Theory in Simulation Models: Formalizing Processes of Attitude Change 322

31.4.2 Using Theory and Data in Models: Diffusion of Environmental Innovations 323

31.5 Integrating Social Simulation into Environmental Modelling 324

31.5.1 The Lakeland Study 324

31.5.2 Companion Modelling: A Study of Rice Production and Labour Migrations in North‐East Thailand 325

31.5.3 Integrating Multiple Models of a Socioenvironmental System: Water Use in the Danube Basin 326

31.6 Key Steps in Building Agent‐Based Models 327

31.6.1 Development of Models 327

31.6.2 Using Models 327

31.7 Summary 328

Glossary 328

Suggestions for Further Reading 329

Review Questions 329

32 Environmental Issues in Low and MiddleIncome Countries 330
Nadja Contzen, HansJoachim Mosler, and Silvie KraemerPalacios

32.1 Introduction 331

32.2 Environmental Risk Perception, Environmental Concern, and Climate Change Perception 331

32.2.1 Environmental Risk Perception 331

32.2.2 Environmental Concern 332

32.2.3 Climate Change Perception 332

32.3 Residential Environment and Well‐Being 333

32.3.1 Slums and Public Housing 333

32.3.2 Communal Spaces 334

32.3.3 Rural Communities 334

32.4 Behaviour and Behaviour Change 334

32.4.1 Resource Conservation 335

32.4.2 Sustainable Transportation 335

32.4.3 Recycling 335

32.4.4 Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene 337

32.5 Summary 338

Glossary 339

Suggestions for Further Reading 339

Review Questions 340

33 Conclusion: Summary, Trends, and Future Perspectives in Environmental Psychology 341
Agnes E. van den Berg and Linda Steg

33.1 Summary and Key Findings 342

33.1.1 Part I: Environmental Influences on Human Behaviour and Well‐Being 342

33.1.2 Part II: Factors Influencing Environmental Behaviour 343

33.1.3 Part III: Encouraging Pro‐Environmental Behaviour 344

33.2 General Trends and Developments 345

33.2.1 Positive Interactions Between Humans and Environments 345

33.2.2 Integrative Approaches 346

33.2.3 From One Psychology to Multiple Psychologies 346

33.3 Challenges for Future Research 347

33.3.1 Further Integration 348

33.3.2 Further Development of Theories and Methods 349

33.3.3 Further Engagement 349

Glossary 351

Suggestions for Further Reading 351

Review Questions 351

References 352

Index 407