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Equine Reproductive Procedures

Equine Reproductive Procedures

John Dascanio (Editor), Patrick McCue (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-90439-8

Jun 2014, Wiley-Blackwell

576 pages

Description

Equine Reproductive Procedures is a user-friendly guide to reproductive management, diagnostic techniques, and therapeutic techniques on stallions, mares, and foals.  Offering detailed descriptions of 161 procedures ranging from common to highly specialized, the book gives step-by-step instructions with interpretative information, as well as useful equipment lists and references for further reading. Presented in a highly portable spiral-bound format, Equine Reproductive Procedures is a practical resource for daily use in equine practice.

Divided into sections on the non-pregnant mare, the pregnant mare, the postpartum mare, the stallion, and the newborn foal, the book is well-illustrated throughout with clinical photographs demonstrating procedures.  Equine Reproductive Procedures provides practical guidance for performing basic and advanced techniques associated with the medical management of horses.

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

Section I Non-Pregnant Mare

1 Reproductive Evaluation of the Mare 3
Patrick M. McCue

2 Teasing 6
Patrick M. McCue

3 TailWrap and Preparation/Washing of the Perineum 9
John J. Dascanio

4 Placement of a Tail Rope 14
John J. Dascanio

5 Perineal Conformation Evaluation 17
John J. Dascanio

6 Removal of a Persistent Hymen 20
John J. Dascanio

7 Palpation of the Reproductive Tract of the Non-Pregnant Mare 22
Patrick M. McCue

8 Ultrasound Evaluation of the Non-Pregnant Mare 26
Patrick M. McCue

9 Prediction of Ovulation 32
Patrick M. McCue

10 Speculum Examination of the Vagina 35
John J. Dascanio

11 Digital Examination of the Vagina/Cervix 38
Sofie Sitters

12 Uterine Culture Collection: Swab/Brush 41
John J. Dascanio

13 Antimicrobiotic Sensitivity Testing 44
Jillian Bishop and Patrick M. McCue

14 Microbiology: Microbial Culture 46
Patrick M. McCue and Jillian Bishop

15 Microbiology: Gram Stain 51
Jillian Bishop and Patrick M. McCue

16 qPCR Assay for the Diagnosis of Infectious Endometritis 53
Ryan A. Ferris and Patrick M. McCue

17 Uterine Cytology Collection: Swab/Brush 58
John J. Dascanio and Ryan A. Ferris

18 Uterine Culture/Cytology: Low Volume Lavage 64
John J. Dascanio

19 Endometrial Biopsy 68
Patrick M. McCue

20 Hysteroscopic Examination of the Uterus 71
Patrick M. McCue

21 Endometrial Cyst Removal 74
John J. Dascanio

22 Chromosomal Analysis 77
Teri L. Lear

23 Endocrinological Examination 83
Patrick M. McCue

24 Laparoscopic Examination of the Uterus and Ovaries 85
Fausto Bellezzo

25 Evaluation of the Mammary Gland 88
Patrick M. McCue

26 Antisperm Antibody Testing 91
Patrick M. McCue

27 Starch Granule Test for the Evaluation of Oviductal Patency 93
Sofie Sitters and John J. Dascanio

28 Fluorescent Microspheres Test for Evaluation of Oviductal Patency 95
Sofie Sitters and John J. Dascanio

29 Oviductal Flush Procedure for the Evaluation of Oviductal Patency 97
Sofie Sitters and Patrick M. McCue

30 Prostaglandin E2 Treatment for Blocked Oviducts 100
Patrick M. McCue and Sofie Sitters

31 Uterine Lavage 102
John J. Dascanio

32 Uterine Infusion 106
John J. Dascanio

33 Restraint for Breeding 109
John J. Dascanio

34 Natural Service: Pasture Breeding 112
Patrick M. McCue

35 Natural Service: In-hand Breeding 114
Charles F. Scoggin

36 Breeding Stitches 117
Charles F. Scoggin

37 Reinforcement Breeding 119
Charles F. Scoggin

38 Breeding with Fresh or Cooled Semen 121
John J. Dascanio and Patrick M. McCue

39 Insemination Through a Vaginal Speculum 125
Patrick M. McCue

40 Breeding with Frozen Semen 127
John J. Dascanio

41 Deep Horn Insemination 131
John J. Dascanio

42 Hysteroscopic (Low Dose) Insemination 133
Patrick M. McCue

43 Caslick Operation or Vulvoplasty 136
John J. Dascanio

44 Contagious Equine Metritis Testing 140
John J. Dascanio

45 Management of Seasonal Anestrus: Artificial Photoperiod 144
Patrick M. McCue

46 Management of Seasonal Anestrus: Hormone Therapy 146
Patrick M. McCue

47 Hormone Therapy in Cycling Mares 149
Patrick M. McCue

48 Estrus Suppression 155
Patrick M. McCue

49 Use of an Intrauterine Ball in Estrus Suppression 158
John J. Dascanio

50 Harvesting and Shipping Ovaries for Oocyte Recovery 161
Patrick M. McCue

Section II Pregnant Mare

51 Embryo Collection 165
Patrick M. McCue

52 Embryo Evaluation 169
Patrick M. McCue

53 Embryo Biopsy 173
Patrick M. McCue

54 Embryo Packaging for Cooled Transport 175
Patrick M. McCue

55 Embryo Cryopreservation 178
Patrick M. McCue

56 Non-Surgical Embryo Transfer 182
Patrick M. McCue

57 Palpation of the Pregnant Mare Per Rectum 185
Sofie Sitters

58 Ultrasound Examination of the Pregnant Mare 188
Patrick M. McCue

59 Speculum Examination of the Pregnant Mare 193
Sofie Sitters

60 Ultrasound Determination of Fetal Sex 195
Richard D. Holder

61 Assessment of Fetal Well-being 201
John J. Dascanio

62 Combined Thickness of the Uterus and Placenta 205
Patrick M. McCue

63 Doppler Ultrasonography 208
John J. Dascanio

64 Prediction of Fetal Age 212
John J. Dascanio

65 Twin Reduction: Manual Technique 216
John J. Dascanio

66 Twin Reduction: Transvaginal Aspiration 219
John J. Dascanio

67 Twin Reduction: Cranio-Cervical Dislocation 222
Sofie Sitters and Karen Wolfsdorf

68 Twin Reduction: Transabdominal Fetal Cardiac Puncture 226
John J. Dascanio

69 Elective Termination of Pregnancy 229
John J. Dascanio

70 Abortion Diagnostic Evaluation: Sample Collection in the Field and Submission 232
Julie T. Cecere and John J. Dascanio

71 Endocrine Evaluation of Pregnancy 235
Patrick M. McCue

72 Treatment of Vaginal Varicosities 240
John J. Dascanio

73 Manual Correction of Uterine Torsion 243
John J. Dascanio

74 Preparation of the Mare for Foaling 246
John J. Dascanio

75 Assessment of Mammary Gland Secretions to Predict Foaling 249
John J. Dascanio

76 Assessment of pH of Mammary Gland Secretions to Predict Foaling 253
Patrick M. McCue

77 Monitoring of Peri-Parturient Mares Using Video and Web Cameras 256
Ryan A. Ferris and Etta A. Bradecamp

78 Foaling Alert: Vulvar Device 259
John J. Dascanio

79 Positional Labor Alert Devices 261
Etta A. Bradecamp and Ryan A. Ferris

80 Induction of Parturition 264
John J. Dascanio

81 Premature Separation of the Placenta 267
Patrick M. McCue

82 Dystocia Management 270
Patrick M. McCue and Sofie Sitters

83 Dystocia Correction 275
John J. Dascanio

84 Fetotomy 280
John J. Dascanio

85 Epidural 285
John J. Dascanio

86 Induction of Lactation to Create a Nurse Mare 287
Patrick M. McCue

87 Screening the Pregnant Mare to Prevent Neonatal Isoerythrolysis 289
Patrick M. McCue

Section III Postpartum Mare

88 Evaluation of Colostrum Specific Gravity 293
Patrick M. McCue

89 Evaluation of Colostrum Quality: Brix Refractometry 297
Patrick M. McCue

90 Colostrum Banking 299
Patrick M. McCue

91 Obtaining Milk from the Mare 302
John J. Dascanio

92 Placental Evaluation 304
Patrick M. McCue

93 Removal of Retained Placenta 309
John J. Dascanio

94 Abdominocentesis in the Postpartum Mare 312
John J. Dascanio

95 Uterine Prolapse Treatment 314
John J. Dascanio

96 Buhner Needle Placement of a Perivulvar Suture 317
John J. Dascanio

Section IV Stallion

97 Breeding Soundness Evaluation of the Stallion 321
Patrick M. McCue

98 Training of a Stallion to Use a Phantom 325
John J. Dascanio

99 Missouri Artificial Vagina 329
John J. Dascanio

100 Colorado Model Artificial Vagina 332
Patrick M. McCue

101 Roanoke Artificial Vagina 336
John J. Dascanio

102 Hannover Artificial Vagina 340
Sofie Sitters

103 Teaser Stallions 342
Charles F. Scoggin

104 Standing Semen Collection 344
John J. Dascanio

105 Chemical Ejaculation 347
Patrick M. McCue

106 Preparation of a Jump Mare or a Mare for Natural Cover 349
John J. Dascanio

107 Washing the Penis 351
John J. Dascanio

108 Evaluation of Sexual Behavior in the Stallion 354
John J. Dascanio

109 Calibrated Spectrophotometer Evaluation of Sperm Concentration 357
John J. Dascanio

110 Hemocytometer Evaluation of Sperm Concentration 360
John J. Dascanio

111 NucleoCounter® Evaluation of Sperm Concentration and Viability 363
Patrick M. McCue

112 Visual Evaluation of Sperm Motility 366
Patrick M. McCue

113 Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis 368
John J. Dascanio

114 Eosin-Nigrosin Staining in the Evaluation of Sperm 373
Julie T. Cecere

115 Evaluation of Sperm Morphology 377
Leonardo Brito

116 Determination of Daily Sperm Output 384
Patrick M. McCue

117 Measurement of Testicular Size and Estimation of Daily Sperm Output 386
Patrick M. McCue

118 Wet Mount Evaluation of Sperm 389
John J. Dascanio

119 Diff-Quik® Evaluation of Round Cells and Sperm 392
John J. Dascanio

120 Electron Microscopy of Semen 394
D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni

121 Bacterial Culture in the Stallion 396
John J. Dascanio

122 Evaluation of pH and Osmolarity of Semen 399
Patrick M. McCue

123 Alkaline Phosphatase: A Marker for Ejaculation 401
Patrick M. McCue

124 Diagnosis and Management of Urospermia 403
John J. Dascanio

125 Semen Extenders and Sperm Media 406
Patrick M. McCue

126 Preparation of Semen for Cooled Transport 409
Etta A. Bradecamp

127 Packing Semen for Cooled Transport 412
Etta A. Bradecamp

128 Longevity Testing of Sperm 419
John J. Dascanio

129 Calculation of g Force for Centrifuging Semen 421
John J. Dascanio

130 Centrifugation of Semen: Standard Technique 424
Etta A. Bradecamp

131 Centrifugation of Semen: Cushion Technique 429
Etta A. Bradecamp

132 Centrifugation of Semen: Selection of Motile Sperm Using a Single Layer Colloid Technique 433
Etta A. Bradecamp

133 Semen Freezing 436
Patrick M. McCue

134 Thawing Frozen Semen 441
John J. Dascanio

135 Preparing a Vapor Shipper 444
Julie T. Cecere

136 Loading a Vapor Shipper 448
Julie T. Cecere, Patrick M. McCue, and John J. Dascanio

137 Maintaining a Long-Term Frozen Semen Storage Tank 450
John J. Dascanio

138 Harvesting and Shipping Testes 453
John J. Dascanio

139 Epididymal Sperm Recovery 455
John J. Dascanio

140 Endoscopic Examination of the Urethra 458
Patrick M. McCue

141 Palpation and Ultrasonography of the Testis, Epididymis, and Spermatic Cord 461
Sofie Sitters

142 Palpation and Ultrasonography of the Accessory Sex Glands 466
Sofie Sitters

143 Radiographic Examination of the Penis 471
Patrick M. McCue

144 Testicular Biopsy and Aspiration 473
John J. Dascanio

145 Assessment of Sperm Plasma Membrane Integrity and Viability: Propidium Iodide/SYBR-14 476
Amanda I. Glazar

146 Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay 478
Charles Love

147 Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test 481
Patrick M. McCue

148 Assessment of Sperm Acrosomal Status: FITC PNA 483
Amanda I. Glazar

149 Assessment of Sperm Mitochondrial Function: JC-1 and Rhodamine 123 486
Amanda I. Glazar

150 Equine Viral Arteritis Testing 488
G. Reed Holyoak

151 Diagnostic Endocrinology: Baseline Hormone Levels 492
Patrick M. McCue

152 Diagnostic Endocrinology: GnRH Stimulation Tests 494
Patrick M. McCue

153 Diagnostic Endocrinology: hCG Stimulation Test 496
Patrick M. McCue

154 Diagnostic Endocrinology: Estrogen Conjugate Assay 499
Patrick M. McCue

155 Probang Apparatus 501
Julie T. Cecere

156 Support Apparatus for Paraphimosis 504
John J. Dascanio

Section V Newborn Foal

157 Birth Resuscitation 511
Patrick M. McCue

158 Evaluation of Passive Transfer 514
Patrick M. McCue

159 Colostral Administration via Naso-Gastric Intubation 518
John J. Dascanio

160 Routine Care 521
Patrick M. McCue

161 Foal Rejection 527
Patrick M. McCue

Section VI Appendices

Appendix 1 Society for Theriogenology Stallion Reproductive Evaluation Form 533

Appendix 2 Mare Breeding Soundness Evaluation Form 537

Appendix 3 Formulary for Equine Reproduction 540

Appendix 4 Foaling Kit and Associated Equipment and Supplies 549

Index 551

“However, these rare omissions and errors should be overlooked because this book is a brilliant addition to the library of any equine practitioner involved in the reproductive management of horses.”  (JAVMA, 15 December 2014)

 

  • Provides detailed step-by-step descriptions of 161 procedures used in equine reproductive practice
  • Covers stallions, mares, and newborn foals
  • Offers complete coverage of reproductive management, diagnostic techniques, and therapeutic techniques
  • Includes both basic and specialized procedures, making it useful for practitioners of any experience level
  • Uses a cookbook style to present instructions and interpretations, a list of supplies, corresponding images, and pertinent references for each topic
  • Features nearly 500 images to illustrate techniques