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Essential Biochemistry, 4th Edition

Charlotte W. Pratt, Kathleen Cornely

ISBN: 978-1-119-31933-7 February 2017 744 Pages

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Description

Essential Biochemistry, 4th Edition is comprised of biology, pre-med and allied health topics and presents a broad, but not overwhelming, base of biochemical coverage that focuses on the chemistry behind biology. Futhermore, it relates the chemical concepts that scaffold the biology of biochemistry, providing practical knowledge as well as many problem-solving opportunities to hone skills. Key Concepts and Concept Review features help students to identify and review important takeaways in each section.

Related Resources

Preface xi

Part 1 Foundations

1 The Chemical Basis of Life 1

1.1 What Is Biochemistry? 1

1.2 Biological Molecules 3

1.3 Energy and Metabolism 10

1.4 The Origin and Evolution of Life 14

2 Aqueous Chemistry 24

2.1 Water Molecules and Hydrogen Bonds 24

2.2 The Hydrophobic Effect 29

2.3 Acid–Base Chemistry 33

2.4 Tools and Techniques: Buffers 40

2.5 Clinical Connection: Acid–Base Balance in Humans 42

Part 2 Molecular Structure and Function

3 From Genes to Proteins 52

3.1 Nucleotides 52

3.2 Nucleic Acid Structure 56

3.3 The Central Dogma 61

3.4 Genomics 64

3.5 Tools and Techniques: Manipulating DNA 68

4 Protein Structure 85

4.1 Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins 86

4.2 Secondary Structure: The Conformation of the Peptide Group 94

4.3 Tertiary Structure and Protein Stability 97

4.4 Quaternary Structure 104

4.5 Clinical Connection: Protein Misfolding and Disease 105

4.6 Tools and Techniques: Analyzing Protein Structure 107 

5 Protein Function 119

5.1 Myoglobin and Hemoglobin: Oxygen-Binding Proteins 120

5.2 Clinical Connection: Hemoglobin Variants 127

5.3 Structural Proteins 130

5.4 Motor Proteins 141

6 How Enzymes Work 154

6.1 What Is an Enzyme? 154

6.2 Chemical Catalytic Mechanisms 158

6.3 Unique Properties of Enzyme Catalysts 166

6.4 Chymotrypsin in Context 169

6.5 Clinical Connection: Blood Coagulation 173

7 Enzyme Kinetics and Inhibition 183

7.1 Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics 183

7.2 Derivation and Meaning of the Michaelis–Menten Equation 186

7.3 Enzyme Inhibition 194

7.4 Clinical Connection: Drug Development 204

8 Lipids and Membranes 215

8.1 Lipids 215

8.2 The Lipid Bilayer 222

8.3 Membrane Proteins 225

8.4 The Fluid Mosaic Model 228

9 Membrane Transport 235

9.1 The Thermodynamics of Membrane Transport 235

9.2 Passive Transport 240

9.3 Active Transport 245

9.4 Membrane Fusion 248 

10 Signaling 260

10.1 General Features of Signaling Pathways 260

10.2 G Protein Signaling Pathways 265

10.3 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases 270

10.4 Lipid Hormone Signaling 274

11 Carbohydrates 283

11.1 Monosaccharides 283

11.2 Polysaccharides 287

11.3 Glycoproteins 291

Part 3 Metabolism

12 Metabolism and Bioenergetics 301

12.1 Food and Fuel 301

12.2 Metabolic Pathways 306

12.3 Free Energy Changes in Metabolic Reactions 314

13 Glucose Metabolism 329

13.1 Glycolysis 330

13.2 Gluconeogenesis 344

13.3 Glycogen Synthesis and Degradation 347

13.4 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway 350

13.5 Clinical Connection: Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism 353

14 The Citric Acid Cycle 362

14.1 The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction 362

14.2 The Eight Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle 365

14.3 Thermodynamics of the Citric Acid Cycle 372

14.4 Anabolic and Catabolic Functions of the Citric Acid Cycle 375

15 Oxidative Phosphorylation 385

15.1 The Thermodynamics of Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 385

15.2 Mitochondrial Electron Transport 390

15.3 Chemiosmosis 399

15.4 ATP Synthase 401

16 Photosynthesis 411

16.1 Chloroplasts and Solar Energy 411

16.2 The Light Reactions 415

16.3 Carbon Fixation 422

17 Lipid Metabolism 432

17.1 Lipid Transport 432

17.2 Fatty Acid Oxidation 435

17.3 Fatty Acid Synthesis 443

17.4 Synthesis of Other Lipids 452

18 Nitrogen Metabolism 464

18.1 Nitrogen Fixation and Assimilation 464

18.2 Amino Acid Biosynthesis 469

18.3 Amino Acid Catabolism 476

18.4 Nitrogen Disposal: The Urea Cycle 480

18.5 Nucleotide Metabolism 485

19 Regulation of Mammalian Fuel Metabolism 497

19.1 Integration of Fuel Metabolism 498

19.2 Hormonal Control of Fuel Metabolism 501

19.3 Disorders of Fuel Metabolism 507

19.4 Clinical Connection: Cancer Metabolism 511

Part 4 Genetic Information

20 DNA Replication and Repair 519

20.1 The DNA Replication Machinery 519

20.2 Telomeres 528

20.3 DNA Damage and Repair 531

20.4 Clinical Connection: Cancer as a Genetic Disease 538

20.5 DNA Packaging 540

21 Transcription and RNA 551

21.1 Initiating Transcription 552

21.2 RNA Polymerase 562

21.3 RNA Processing 567

22 Protein Synthesis 580

22.1 tRNA and the Genetic Code 580

22.2 Ribosome Structure 586

22.3 Translation 589

22.4 Post-Translational Events 597

Glossary G-1

Odd-Numbered Solutions S-1

Index I-1 

  • Guided Tours: created by Charlotte Pratt, these multipart animations present big picture concepts conveyed through animations, tutorials and practice.
  • ORION, adaptive learning, primer: students enrolled in biochemistry courses often don’t have the basic chemistry and biology knowledge to succeed in the course. ORION Foundations provides adaptive self study content for foundational Chapters 1, The Chemical Basis of Life and 2, Aqueous Chemistry.
  • A selection of end of chapter questions can be assigned and graded
  • Assignable Brief Bioinformatics exercises Written by Rakesh Mogul, Cal Poly Pomona,  these exercises introduce students to the rich variety of biochemical information and software tools available over the Internet and show them how to mine this information, thereby illuminating the connections between theory and applied biochemistry and stimulating student interest and proficiency in the subject.
  • Sample calculations: Students come to biochemistry with different levels of math skills. These embedded videos, created by Charlotte Pratt, walk students through the Sample Calculations provided for key equations throughout the text.
  • Exercise Questions: Over 750 questions with meaningful immediate feedback. These questions were written by Rachel Milner and Adrienne Wright University of Alberta, based on curating ten years of student misconceptions in the course.