Skip to main content

Essential Readings in Light Metals, Volume 1, Alumina and Bauxite

Essential Readings in Light Metals, Volume 1, Alumina and Bauxite

Don Donaldson (Editor), Benny Raahauge (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-64787-5

Apr 2013

1188 pages




Five decades of landmark original research findings and reviews


Highlighting some of the most important findings reported over the past five decades, this volume features some of the best technical papers published on alumina and bauxite from 1963 to 2011. Papers have been divided into thirteen subject sections for ease of access. Each section has a brief introduction and a list of recommended articles for researchers interested in exploring each subject in greater depth.

Only about fifteen percent of the alumina and bauxite papers ever published in Light Metals were chosen for this volume. Selection was based on a rigorous review process. Among the papers, readers will find landmark original research findings and expert reviews summarizing current thinking on key topics at the time of publication.

From basic research to advanced applications, the articles published in this volume collectively represent our body of knowledge in alumina and bauxite. Students, scientists, and engineers should turn to this volume to discover the historical development of alumina and bauxite research as well as the current state of the science and the technology. Moreover, the papers published in this volume will serve as a springboard for future research and discoveries.

Preface xvii

Lead Editors xxi

Editorial Team xxiii

Part 1: Bauxite

Section Introduction 1
L. Perander

Bauxite -Its Technical and Economical History During the Last Hundred Years 3
J. Régnier

Bauxite Mineralogy 21
H Hose

The Classification of Bauxites from the Bayer Plant Standpoint 30
V. Hill and R. Robson

Effect of Bauxite Microstracture on Beneficiation and Processing 37
K. Solymàr, F. Màdai, and D. Papanastassiou

Chinese Bauxite and Its Influences on Alumina Production in China 43
G. Songqing

Impact of Jamaican Bauxite Mineralogy on Plant Operations 48
D. Lawson, A. Rijkeboer, L. Andermann Jr., and A. Mooney

Sustainable Bauxite Mining: A Global Perspective 54
MI, BAC, and C. Wagner

Bauxite Mining Sustainability 60
P.Atkins, C. Bayliss, and S. Ward

Bauxite Mine Rehabilitation Programs: A Progress Report 66
P. Atkins

Cross-Country Bauxite Slurry Transportation 70
R. Gandhi, J. Norwood, and Y. Che

Design and Operation of the World's First Long Distance Bauxite Slurry Pipeline 75
PSI, R. Gandhi, M. Weston, M. Talavera, CVRD, G. Brittes, and E. Barbosa

Recommended Reading 81

Part 2: Bayer Process

Section Introduction 83
F. Williams

Bayer Process Design

A Hundred Years of the Bayer Process for Alumina Production 85
F. Habashi

The Alumina Industry Technology Roadmap 94
I. Anich, T. Bagshaw, N. Margolis, anclM. Skillingberg

Basic Principles of Bayer Process Design 100
A. Adamson, E. Bloore, and A. Carr

Chemical Reaction Engineering in the Bayer Process 118
D. Thomas and B. Pei

The Effect of Silica, Temperature, Velocity and Particulates on Heat Transfer to Spent Bayer Liquor 124
A. Duncan, M. Groemping, B. Welch, and H. Muller-Steinhagen

Physical Data

The Effect of Four Common Bayer Liquor Impurities on Alumina Solubility 132
R. Bird, H. Vance, and C. Fuhrman

Autoprecipitation of Gibbsite andBoehmite 141
T. Harato, T. Ishida, and K. Yamada

Equilibrium Composition of Sodium Aluminate Liquors 148
B. McCoy andJ. Dewey

Boiling Point Rise of Bayer Plant Liquors 155
J. Dewey

Viscosity, Specific Gravity, and Equilibrium Concentration of Sodium Aluminate Solutions 162
T. Ikkatai and N. Okada

The Heat of Dissolution of Gibbsite at Bayer Digestion Temperatures 170
J. Langa

Reactions of Iron Minerals in Sodium Aluminate Solutions 176
P. Basu

Identification of Organics in Bayer Liquor 184
G. Lever

Behavior of Radioactive Elements (Uranium and Thorium) in Bayer Process 191
C. Sato, S. Kazama, A. Sakamoto, and K. Hirayanagi

Solubility of Bayer Liquor Impurities in Evaporative Crystallization 198
E. Schiller

Calcium Chemistry

Reaction of Lime in Sodium Aluminate Liquors 202
N. Chaplin

Some Aspects of Calcium Chemistry in the Bayer Process 210
S. Rosenberg, D. Wilson, and C. Heath

Chemistry of Bayer Liquor Causticization 217
R. Young

The Equilibrium Approach to Causticization for Optimizing Liquor Causticity 228
G. Roach

Layered Double Hydroxides in the Bayer Process: Past, Present, and Future 235
S. Rosenberg and L. Armstrong

Silica Chemistry

Dissolution Kinetics of Kaolin in Caustic Liquors 240
G. Roach and A. White

Dissolution Rate of Quartz and the Rate of Desilication in the Bayer Liquor 247
T. Oku and K. Yamada

Mathematical Modeling of the Kinetics of Gibbsite Extraction and Kaolinite Dissolution/Desilication in the Bayer Process 255
N. Raghavan and G. Fulford

Autoclave Desilication of Digested Bauxite Slurry in The Flashing Circuit 263
A. Damaskin, A. Suss, A. Panov, I. Paromova, N. Kuznetzova, N. Kutkova, O. Shipova, and A. Kuvyrkina

Organic Removal

Characterization of Organics in Bayer Liquor 268
J. Guthrie, P. The, and W. Imbrogno

Review of Bayer Organics-Oxalate Control Processes 278
B. Gnyra and G. Lever

Sizing an Organic Control System for the Bayer Process 284
J. Pulpeiro, L. Fleming, B. Hiscox, J. Fenger, and B. Raahauge

Organic Control Technologies in Bayer Process 291
G. Soucy, J. Larocque, and G. Forte

Removal of HMW Organic Compounds by Partial Wet Oxidation 297
B. Foster andM. Roberson

Removal of Organic Carbon from Bayer Liquor by Wet Oxidation in Tube Digesters 304
W. Arnswald, H Kaltenberg, and E. Guhl

A Year of Operation of the Solid-Liquid Calcination (SLC) Process 309
J. Pulpeiro, M. Gayol, H. Boily, A. Carruthers, B. Hiscox, J. Fenger, andB. Raahauge

A Thermodynamically Based Model for Oxalate Solubility in Bayer Liquor 314
K Beckham and S. Grocott

Oxalate Removal by Occlusion in Hydrate 320
V. Esquerre, P. Clerin, and B. Cristol

Recommended Reading 325

Part 3: Digestion

Section Introduction 329
D. Donaldson

Bayer Digestion and Predigestion Desilication Reactor Design 331
J. Kotte

Digester Design Using CFD 350
J. Woloshyn, L. Oshinowo, anclJ. Rosten

Preheaters and Digesters in the Bayer Digestion Process 356
G. Songquing and Y. Zhonglin

The Improved Low Temperature Digestion (ILTD) Process: An Economic and Environmentally Sustainable Way of Processing Gibbsitic Bauxites 362
G. Bànvòlgyi and P. Siklósi

New Technology for Digestion of Bauxites 371
R. Kelly, M. Edwards, D. Deboer, and P. Mclntosh

Boehmitic Reversion in a Double Digestion Process on a Bauxite Containing Trihydrate and Monohydrate 377
J. Lamerant and Y. Perret

Mixer Design Optimization for High Solids Contents Media: Methodology and Application to the Pechiney's High Density Predesilication Process 381
Robin Industries, F. Bouquet

Mechano-Activated Bauxite Behaviour 387
S. Fortin and G. Forte

Processing of Diaspore Bauxites 393
G. Wargalla and W. Brandt

On-Line Multivariable Control for Digestion A/C Analysis 402
M. Hardin

Recommended Reading 409

Part 4: Clarification, Red Mud Washing, and Liquor Filtration

Section Introduction 411
T. Laros

Selection of Sedimentation Equipment for the Bayer Process: An Overview of Past and Present Technology 413
TMS, T. Laros, and F. Baczek

Effect of Particle Characteristics on the Solids Density of Bayer Mud Slurries 417
G. Roach, E. Jamieson, N. Pearson, A. Yu

Red Mud Flocculants Used in the Bayer Process 425
F. Ballentine, M. Lewellyn, and S. Moffatt

Development of New Bayer Process Flocculants 431
D. Spitzer, A. Rothenberg, H. Heitner, M. Lewellyn, L. Laviolette, T. Foster, and P. Avotins

Effects of Temperature and Method of Solution Preparation on the Performance of a Typical Red Mud Flocculent 436
P. Ferland, J. Malito, and E. Phillips

Advanced Filtration Methods for Pregnant Liquor Purification 444
R. Bott, T. Langeloh, andJ. Hahn

Impact of Excess Synthetic Flocculent on Security Filtration 449
J. Rousseaux and P. Ferland

Hydroseparators, Hydrocyclones and Classifiers as Applied in the Bayer Process for Degritting (Desanding) of Digested Bauxite, and for Sand Washing to Recover Soda 454
F. Krause, N. Beaton, and K. Grüner

Development of a Self-Sluicing Pressure Leaf Filter 461
B. Cousineau andJ. Lumsden

Comparison of the Rheology of Bauxite Residue Suspensions 466
N. Pashias, D. Boger, J. Summers, and D. Glenister

Pressure Decantation at Gramercy Alumina 470
P. Landry and H. Edwards

The Manufacture of Tricalcium Aluminate 476
L. Andermann Jr. and G. Pollet

Recommended Reading 483

Part 5: Precipitation, Classification, and Seed Filtration

Section Introduction 485
C. Misra

Precipitation Technology 487
J. Anjier andM. Roberson

Some Studies in Alumina Trihydrate Precipitation Kinetics 492
W. King

Physical Chemistry Considerations in Aluminum Hydroxide Precipitation 499
M. Chaubal

Modeling Bayer Precipitation with Agglomeration 509
D. Ilievski and E. White

Gibbsite Growth History: Revelations of a New Scanning Electron Microscope Technique 516
G. Roach, J. Cornell, and B. Griffin

Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process 522
R. Hond

Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process - Past, Present and Prospects 528
R. Hond, I. Hiralal, and A. Rijkeboer

Improvements by the New Alusuisse Process for Producing Coarse Aluminum Hydrate in the Bayer Process 534
O. Tschamper

Agitation Effects in Precipitation 541
C. Misra

Hydrodynamics Effect on Precipitation Yield 550
B. Cristol, Y. Perret, and H. Santos-Cottin

Hydrodynamics of Hydrate Slurries inPrecipitators: Application to Precipitators Design 559
Y. Perret

Alumina Crystallizer Mixing Using CFD 563
J. Perron andJ. Larocque

Particle Strength of Bayer Hydrate 570
J. Anjier and D. Marten

The Effect of Glucoisosaccharinate on the Bayer Precipitation of Alumina Tnhydrate 576
P. The

Influence of Mineral and Organic Impurities on the Alumina Trihydrate Precipitation Yield in the Bayer Process 582
A. Lectard and F. Nicolas

Factors Affecting Residual NA20 in Precipitation Products 592
J. Sang

Soda Incorporation During Hydrate Precipitation 602
C. Vernon, J. Loh, D. Lau, and A. Stanley

A Method for Evaluating Seed Balance Parameters in Alumina Refinery Seed Classifications Systems 608
W. Bounds Jr.

Utilization of Horizontal Belt Filters for Washing Fine Alumina Seed and Kiln Feed Product 615
R. Crawford, D. Dahlstrom, and G. Minear

Recommended Reading 621

Part 6: Product Hydrate Filtration and Alumina Production by Calcination

Section Introduction 623
B. Raahauge

The World's Largest Hydrate Pan Filter: Engineering Improvements and Experiences 625
B. Peter sen, M. Bach, andR. Arpe

Utilization of Steam Hoods in Horizontal Table Filters 630
H. Serres and J. Sorrentino

Conversion of Conventional Rotary Kiln into Effective Sandy Alumina Calciner 636
M. Ishihara, T. Hirano, and H. Yajima

Application of Circulating Fluid Bed Calcinaters in Large-size Alumina Plants 641
L. Reh and H. Schmidt

Alumina Calcination in the Fluid-Flash Calciner 648
W. Fish

Industrial Prospects and Operational Experience with 32 Mtpd Stationary Alumina Calciner 653
B. Raahauge and J. Nickelsen

Experience with 3 X 4500 TPD Gas Suspension Calciners (GSC) for Alumina 664
J. Fenger, B. Raahauge, and C. Wind

Alcoa Pressure Calcination Process for Alumina 669
S. Sucech and C. Misra

Recommended Reading 675

Part 7: Water, Evaporation, and Energy

Section Introduction 677
F. Williams

Alumina Refinery Wastewater Management: When Zero Discharge Just Isn't Feasible 679
L. Martin and S. Howard

Wastewater Treatment Methods 685
D. Smith, F. Williams, and S. Moffatt

The Need for Energy Efficiency in Bayer Refining 691
L. Henrickson

Prediction of Heat Exchanger -Heat Transfer Coefficient Decay Due to Fouling 697
G. O'Neill

Heat Transfer in the Bayer Process 705
D. Thomas

Perspective on Bayer Process Energy 711
D. Donaldson

Recommended Reading 715

Part 8: Alumina Quality

Section Introduction 717
B. Raahauge

Dehydration Products of Gibbsite by Rotary Kiln and Stational Calciner 719
K. Yamada, T. Harato, S. Hamano, and K. Horinouchi

Morphological Analysis of Alumina and Its Trihydrate 727
H. Hsieh

Factors Affecting the Attrition Strength of Alumina Products 740
J. Sang

The Generation of Fines Due to Heating of Alumina Trihydrate 747
J. Zwicker

Development of Particle Breakdown and Alumina Strength During Calcination 757
S. Wind, C. Jensen-Holm, and B. Raahauge

Measurement of Sandy Alumina Dustiness 765
S. Perra

Alumina Handling Dustiness 774
M. Authier-Martin

The Influence of Alumina Properties on Its Dissolution in Smelting Electrolyte 783
A. Bagshaw and B. Welch

The Influence of Physical and Chemical Properties of Alumina on Hydrogen Fluoride Absorption 788
J. Coyne, M. Wainwright, M. Brungs, and A. Bagshaw

SGA Requirements in Coming Years 793
S. Lindsay

Recommended Reading 799

Part 9: Health, Safety, and Plant Maintenance

Section Introduction 801
D. Donaldson

Application of Operation Integrity Management in the Alumina Industry 803
C. Suarez, D. Welshons, J. McNerney, andJ. Webb

Management Methodology for Pressure Equipment 808
P. Bletchly

The Design of Pressure Safety Systems in the Alumina Industry 817
B. Haneman

Inspection Techniques for Digestion Pressure Relief System 823
W. Harrington, G. Harrell, and B. Cohea Jr.

Benefits of the Utilization of Cleaning Liquor in Red Side of CVG-Bauxllum 828
R. Galarraga andR. Diaz

MAX HT™ Sodalite Scale Inhibitor: Plant Experience and Impact on the Process 832
D. Spitzer, O. Chamberlain, C. Franz, M. Lewellyn, and Q. Dai

Recommended Reading 839

Part 10: Process Control/Simulation

Section Introduction 841
D. Donaldson

Modern Control Instrumentation and Process Management in Bayer Plants 843
P. Mclntosh and E. Barker

Process Control in Alumina Refining, Review and Prospects 849
J. Riffaud

Development of Automatic Control of Bayer Plant Digestion 852
J. Riffaud

Aspen Modeling of the Bayer Process 860
J. Langa, T. Russell, G. O'Neill, P. Gacka, V. Shah, J. Stephenson, andJ. Snyder

Bayer Digester Optimization Studies Using Computer Techniques 870
J. Kotte and V. Schleider

Equations for Calculating Recovery of Soluble Values in a Countercurrent Decantation Washing System 879
H. Scandrett

Simulation and Development of Internal Model Control Applications in the Bayer Process 885
P. Colombé, R. Dablainville, andJ. Vacarisas

Dynamic Modeling of Yield and Particle Size Distribution in Continuous Bayer Precipitation 891
J. Stephenson and C. Kapraun

Recommended Reading 899

Part 11: Red Mud Disposal and Other Environmental Concerns

Section Introduction 901
L. Perander

Opportunities for Improved Environmental Control in the Alumina Industry 903
R. Mimna, J. Kildea, E. Phillips, W. Carlson, B. Keiser, andJ. Meier

Ferrosilt (Red Mud): Geotechnical Properties and Soil Mechanical Considerations 909
F. Jenny

Correlation of Red Mud Consolidation with Its Soil Properties 915
J. Stinson

Mobility in Mud 922
D. Morin

Developments in the Disposal of Residue from the Alumina Refining Industry 927
D. Cooling

Thickened Tailing Disposal in Any Topography 933
E. Robinsky

Solar Drying of Red Mud 938
J. Chandler

Red Mud Stacking 944
M. Bélanger

Proposed Mechanism for the Formation of Dust Horizons on Bauxite Residue Disposal Area 951
C. Klauber, N. Harwood, R. Hockridge, and C. Middleton

Induction of Biological Activity in Bauxite Residue 957
F. Williams andM. Hamdy

The Conversion and Sustainable Use of Alumina Refinery Residues: Global Solution Examples 965
L. Fergusson

Recommended Reading 973

Part 12: Alternative Processes and Raw Materials

Section Introduction 975
L. Perander

Alumina Production by the Pedersen Process: History and Future 977
J. Miller and A. Irgens

Efficiency ofNepheline Ore Processing for Alumina Production 983
B. Arlyuk, D. Sc, and A. Pivnev

A Technological Comparison of Six Processes for the Production of Reduction-Grade Alumina from Non-Bauxitic Raw Materials 998
K. Bengston

The Comparative Economics of Producing Alumina from U.S. Non-Bauxitic Ores 1031
R. Nunn, P. Chuberka, L. Malm, A. San Jose

Recovery of Alumina from Non-Bauxite Aluminum-Bearing Raw Materials 1057
J. Cohen and H. Mercier

Alumina Extraction from a Pennsylvania Diaspore Clay by an Ammonium Sulfate Process 1065
J. Fetterman and S. Sun

Alumina From Clay: A Nitric Acid Process 1074
J. Dewey

The Ammonoalunite Process for Production of Alumina From Clay 1082
R. Bartlett, R. Wesely, and T. Bolles

Options in the HC1 Process for the Production of Alumina from Clay 1089
D. Shanks, D. Thompson, R. Arington, G. Dan, andJ. Eisele

The Leaching of Aluminium in Spanish Clays, Coal Mining Wastes and Coal Fly Ashes by Sulphuric Acid 1098
A. Fernandez, J. Ibanez, M. Llavona, and R. Zapico

Recommended Reading 1109

Part 13: Non-Metallurgical Uses of Bauxite, Hydrate, and Alumina

Section Introduction 1111
T. Laros

Non-Metallurgical Use of Alumina and Bauxite 1113
W. Sleppy, A. Pearson, C. Misra, and G. MacZura

The Grafting of Industrial Chemicals Operations onto the Bayer Process 1121
L. Chin

On Alumina Powders for Ceramics 1124
Y. Oda, H. Okamoto, and S. Shibusawa

Development of Alumina and Silica Based Products in Hungary 1129
G. Baksa, G. Szalay, and F. Valló

The Use of Bayer Alumina Fines for Other Industrial Purposes 1137
P. Garcia, R. Zapico, J. Ayala, andJ. Sancho

Aluminas in Air Pollution Control 1144
J. Murphy

Aluminium Fluoride Synthesis in Circulating Fluidbeds 1158
E. Bóhm and L. Plass

Recommended Reading 1165

Author Index 1167