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Essentials of Modern Materials Science and Engineering

Essentials of Modern Materials Science and Engineering

James A. Newell

ISBN: 978-0-470-47112-8 October 2008 368 Pages

 E-Book

$64.00

Description

This book begins with four fundamental tenants: The properties of a material are determined by its structure.  Processing can alter that structure in specific and predictable ways;The behavior of materials is grounded in science and is understandable; The properties of all materials change over time with use and exposure to environmental conditions;When selecting a material, sufficient and appropriate testing must be performed to insure that the material will remain suitable throughout the reasonable life of the product. This text assumes that the students are at least sophomores, so that they are familiar with basic chemical bonding and the periodic table. But it is an introductory materials course, so there will be no differential equations, percolation theory, quantum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, or other advanced topics. The book is designed as an introduction to the field, not a comprehensive guide to all materials science knowledge. Instead of going into great detail in many areas, the book provides key concepts and fundamentals students need to understand materials science and make informed decisions. An example of the philosophy is found in the materials testing section. Although countless variations exist in testing techniques, the chapter focuses on operating principles and the property to be measured, rather than confusing the student with exposition on variations and exceptions. That material is beyond the scope of most introductory courses.

Related Resources

Chapter 1 Introduction 2

WHY STUDY MATERIALS SCIENCE? 4

1.1 Overview of Materials Science 4

WHAT ISSUES IMPACT MATERIALS SELECTION AND DESIGN? 4

1.2 Property Considerations for Specifi c Applications 5

1.3 Impact of Bonding of Material Properties 10

1.4 Changes of Properties over Time 17

1.5 Impact of Economics on Decision Making 18

1.6 Sustainability and Green Engineering 18

WHAT CHOICES ARE AVAILABLE? 21

1.7 Classes of Materials 21

Chapter 2 Structure in Materials 30

HOW ARE ATOMS ARRANGED IN MATERIALS? 32

2.1 Introduction 32

2.2 Levels of Order 33

2.3 Lattice Parameters and Atomic Packing Factors 36

2.4 Density Estimations 40

2.5 Crystallographic Planes 41

2.6 Miller Indices 43

HOW ARE CRYSTALS MEASURED? 45

2.7 X-Ray Diffraction 45

2.8 Microscopy 52

HOW DO CRYSTALS FORM AND GROW? 53

2.9 Nucleation and Grain Growth 53

WHAT KINDS OF FLAWS ARE PRESENT IN CRYSTALS AND WHAT DO THEY AFFECT? 54

2.10 Point Defects 54

2.11 Dislocations 55

2.12 Slip 56

2.13 Dislocation Climb 59

WHAT NEW DEVELOPMENTS ARE HAPPENING WITH CRYSTALS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES? 60

2.14 Monocrystals and Nanocrystals 60

Chapter 3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties 66

HOW DO I KNOW HOW TO MEASURE PROPERTIES? 68

3.1 ASTM Standards 68

WHAT PROPERTIES CAN BE MEASURED AND WHAT DO THEY TELL ME? 69

3.2 Tensile Testing 69

3.3 Compressive Testing 79

3.4 Bend Testing 80

3.5 Hardness Testing 80

3.6 Creep Testing 83

3.7 Impact Testing 84

WILL I GET THE SAME RESULT EVERY TIME I RUN A SPECIFIC TEST? 86

3.8 Error and Reproducibility in Measurement 86

WHY DO MATERIALS FAIL UNDER STRESS? 91

3.9 Fracture Mechanics 91

HOW DO MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CHANGE OVER TIME? 94

3.10 Fatigue Testing 95

3.11 Accelerated Aging Studies 96

Chapter 4 Metals 104

HOW DO YOU WORK WITH METALS? 106

4.1 Forming Operations 106

WHAT ADVANTAGES DO ALLOYS OFFER? 110

4.2 Alloys and Phase Diagrams 110

4.3 Carbon Steel 118

4.4 Phase Transitions 127

4.5 Age Hardening (Precipitation Hardening) 131

4.6 Copper and Its Alloys 132

4.7 Aluminum and Its Alloys 135

WHAT LIMITATIONS DO METALS HAVE? 137

4.8 Corrosion 137

WHAT HAPPENS TO METALS AFTER THEIR COMMERCIAL LIFE? 141

4.9 Recycling of Metals 141

Chapter 5 Polymers 148

WHAT ARE POLYMERS? 150

5.1 Polymer Terminology 150

5.2 Types of Polymers 153

HOW ARE POLYMER CHAINS FORMED? 161

5.3 Addition Polymerization 162

5.4 Condensation Polymerization 163

5.5 Importance of Molecular Weight Distributions 165

WHAT INFLUENCES THE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS? 167

5.6 Constitution 167

5.7 Configuration 169

5.8 Conformation 173

5.9 Additives 176

HOW ARE POLYMERS PROCESSED INTO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS? 177

5.10 Polymer Processing 177

WHAT HAPPENS TO POLYMERS WHEN THEY ARE DISCARDED? 181

5.11 Recycling of Polymers 181

Chapter 6 Ceramics and Carbon Materials 188

WHAT ARE CERAMIC MATERIALS? 190

6.1 Crystal Structures in Ceramics 190

WHAT ARE THE INDUSTRIAL USES OF CERAMICS? 198

6.2 Abrasives 198

6.3 Glasses 201

6.4 Cements 204

6.5 Refractories 209

6.6 Structural Clay Products 210

6.7 Whitewares 210

6.8 Advanced Ceramics 212

WHAT HAPPENS TO CERAMIC MATERIALS AT THE END OF THEIR USEFUL LIVES? 213

6.9 Recycling of Ceramic Materials 213

IS GRAPHITE A POLYMER OR A CERAMIC? 214

6.10 Graphite 214

DO OTHER CARBON MATERIALS OFFER UNUSUAL PROPERTIES? 215

6.11 Diamond 215

6.12 Carbon Fibers 216

6.13 Fullerenes (Buckyballs) and Carbon Nanotubes 219

Chapter 7 Composites 224

WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND HOW ARE THEY MADE? 226

7.1 Classes of Composites 226

7.2 Fiber-Reinforced Composites 227

7.3 Particulate Composites 237

7.4 Laminar Composites 242

WHAT HAPPENS TO OBSOLETE COMPOSITES? 243

7.5 Recycling of Composite Materials 243

Chapter 8 Electronic and Optical Materials 246

HOW DO ELECTRONS FLOW THROUGH METALS? 248

8.1 Conductivity in Metals 248

8.2 Electrical Resistivity 253

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THERE ARE NO FREE ELECTRONS? 254

8.3 Insulators 254

8.4 Intrinsic Semiconduction 254

8.5 Extrinsic Semiconduction 256

HOW DO ELECTRONIC DEVICES OPERATE? 258

8.6 Diodes 258

8.7 Transistors 259

8.8 Integrated Circuits 260

8.9 Dielectric Behavior and Capacitors 261

WHAT OTHER ELECTRICAL BEHAVIORS DO SOME MATERIALS DISPLAY? 262

8.10 Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Materials 262

WHAT ARE OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND WHY DO THEY MATTER? 263

8.11 Optical Properties 263

8.12 Applications of Optical Materials 267

Chapter 9 Biomaterials and Biological Materials 272

WHAT TYPES OF MATERIALS INTERACT WITH BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS? 274

9.1 Biomaterials, Biological Materials, and Biocompatibility 274

WHAT BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS PROVIDE STRUCTURAL SUPPORT AND WHAT BIOMATERIALS INTERACT WITH OR REPLACE THEM? 275

9.2 Structural Biological Materials and Biomaterials 275

WHAT BIOMATERIALS SERVE A NONSTRUCTURAL FUNCTION IN THE BODY? 285

9.3 Functional Biomaterials 285

WHAT ETHICAL ISSUES ARE UNIQUE TO BIOMATERIALS? 294

9.4 Ethics and Biomaterials 294

APPENDIX A: MAJOR PRODUCERS OF METALS AND POLYMERS 299

APPENDIX B: PROPERTIES OF MAJOR METALS AND ALLOYS 303

Glossary 309

Index 327

 

Animations help students visualize the dynamic processes involved in materials processing, testing, and transformations without requiring the use of expensive and time-consuming laboratory experiments