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Ethics: The Basics, 2nd Edition

John Mizzoni

ISBN: 978-1-119-15070-1 March 2017 Wiley-Blackwell 224 Pages

Description

Updated and revised, Ethics: The Basics, Second Edition, introduces students to fundamental ethical concepts, principles, theories, and traditions while providing them with the conceptual tools necessary to think critically about ethical issues.

  • Introduces students to core philosophical problems in ethics in a uniquely reader-friendly manner
  • Lays out clearly and simply a rich collection of ethical concepts, principles, theories, and traditions that are prevalent in today’s society
  • Considers western and non-western viewpoints and religious interpretations of ethical principles
  • Offers a framework for students to think about and navigate through an array of philosophical questions about ethics

Ethics Self-Orientation ix

Introduction 1

Summary of Philosophical Problems about Ethics 6

1 Relative Ethics or Universal Ethics? 8

1.1 Relative Ethics 9

1.2 Universal Ethics 10

1.3 Cultural Relativism or Ethical Relativism? 11

1.4 Cultural Relativism and Universal Ethics 12

1.5 Ethics and Human Nature 13

1.6 Ethics and Human Rationality 14

1.7 Relative Ethics or Universal Ethics? 15

1.8 Conclusion 17

Concepts, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 1 18

For Further Reading 19

Online Resources 19

Review Questions 20

Discussion Questions 20

2 Virtue Ethics 22

2.1 What Are Virtues? 24

2.2 Aristotle, Happiness, and the Virtues 27

2.3 A Developmental Model 28

2.4 Universalism and Relativism Again 31

2.5 Virtue Ethics: A Guide to Good Behavior 33

2.6 Pros and Cons of Virtue Ethics 35

2.7 Conclusion 37

Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 2 38

For Further Reading 39

Online Resources 40

Review Questions 40

Discussion Questions 40

3 Natural Law Ethics 42

3.1 What Is Natural Law and Where Does It Come From? 43

3.2 The Natural Law and Universal Ethics 46

3.3 Natural Law Ethics and Human Nature 46

3.4 Natural Law Ethics and Virtue Ethics 51

3.5 When Following the Natural Law Is Unclear: Use the Pauline Principle 52

3.6 When Following the Natural Law Is Unclear: Use the Principle of Double Effect 53

3.7 Conclusion 56

Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 3 58

For Further Reading 59

Online Resources 60

Review Questions 60

Discussion Questions 60

4 Social Contract Ethics 62

4.1 Continuities and Discontinuities with Natural Law Ethics 63

4.2 The Principle of Self]Interest (Ethical Egoism) 65

4.3 The State of Nature 66

4.4 A Contract Involves Cooperation 68

4.5 A Contract Involves Rationality 70

4.6 Common]sense Morality (Properly Understood) 72

4.7 Social Contract Ethics Applied 74

4.8 Conclusion 77

Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 4 79

For Further Reading 80

Online Resources 80

Review Questions 81

Discussion Questions 81

5 Utilitarian Ethics 82

5.1 Ethics Is Based on Feelings 83

5.2 Is Ought: Shorthand for Hume’s Theory of Moral Sentiments 86

5.3 Feelings, Utility, and Consequences 88

5.4 Utility and Happiness 91

5.5 Utilitarianism: Relativist or Universalist? 92

5.6 Utility and Equality 93

5.7 Utilitarian Applications 95

5.8 Conclusion 98

Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 5 99

For Further Reading 100

Online Resources 101

Review Questions 101

Discussion Questions 102

6 Deontological Ethics 103

6.1 Duty-centered Ethics 105

6.2 Ethics of Freedom and Rationality 106

6.3 The Main Deontological Principle: The Categorical Imperative 107

6.4 One Form of the Categorical Imperative: The Principle of Autonomy 110

6.5 Another Form of the Categorical Imperative: The Principle of Universality 112

6.6 Duties Correlate with Rights (Usually) 114

6.7 Deontology: Relativist or Universalist? 117

6.8 Deontological Applications 117

6.9 Conclusion 121

Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 6 123

For Further Reading 124

Online Resources 125

Review Questions 125

Discussion Questions 125

7 Care Ethics 127

7.1 Ethics Is Based on Feelings 129

7.2 Humans Are Relational Beings 130

7.3 Ethics of Principles 133

7.4 Virtue Ethics and Partiality 135

7.5 Feminine Ethics 136

7.6 Care Ethics: Relativist or Universalist? 138

7.7 Care Ethics Applications 140

7.8 Conclusion 142

Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions Introduced in Chapter 7 143

For Further Reading 144

Online Resources 145

Review Questions 145

Discussion Questions 146

8 Conclusion: Using the Tools of Ethics 148

8.1 Living Ethical Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions 150

8.2 Ethical Issues, Both Private and Public 151

8.3 Useful Ethical Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions 151

8.4 Ethical Tools Are Not Mechanical Tools 154

8.5 How to Use Ethical Tools 155

8.6 Pitfalls and Practice 163

8.7 Wrap Up 165

For Further Reading 166

Review Questions 167

Discussion Questions 167

Appendix 1: Ethical Concepts, Principles, Theories, and Traditions 169

Appendix 2: Ethical Principles 177

Appendix 3: Notes on Sources 179

Appendix 4: Metaethics 184

Appendix 5: References 196

Index 203