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Ethnobotany: A Phytochemical Perspective



Ethnobotany: A Phytochemical Perspective

Barbara M. Schmidt (Editor), Diana M. Klaser Cheng (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-96192-6 July 2017 Wiley-Blackwell 376 Pages

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Ethnobotany: A Phytochemical Perspective explores the chemistry behind hundreds of plant medicines, dyes, fibers, flavors, poisons, insect repellants, and many other uses of botanicals. Bridging the gap between ethnobotany and chemistry, this book presents an introduction to botany, ethnobotany, and phytochemistry to clearly join these fields of study and highlight their importance in the discovery of botanical uses in modern industry and research.

Part I. Ethnobotany, explores the history of plant exploration, current issues such as conservation and intellectual property rights, and a review of plant anatomy. An extensive section on plant taxonomy highlights particularly influential and economically important plants from across the plant kingdom. Part II. Phytochemistry, provides fundamentals of secondary metabolism, includes line drawings of biosynthetic pathways and chemical structures, and describes traditional and modern methods of plant extraction and analysis. The last section is devoted to the history of native plants and people and case studies on plants that changed the course of human history from five geographical regions: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Ocean. Throughout the entire book, vivid color photographs bring science to life, capturing the essence of human botanical knowledge and the beauty of the plant kingdom.

List of Contributors ix

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

Part I Introduction to Ethnobotany and Phytochemistry 1

1 Ethnobotany 3
B. M. Schmidt

Key Terms and Concepts 3

Ethnobotany throughout History 4

References and Additional Reading 18

Current Topics in Ethnobotany 18

References 22

Taxonomy: Plant Families 23

References and Additional Reading 90

Plant Anatomy and Architecture: The Highlights 93

References and Additional Reading 105

Keys for Plant Identification 106

Herbaria, Plant Collection, and Voucher Specimens 107

References and Additional Reading 109

2 Phytochemistry 111
D. M. Klaser Cheng

Primary and Secondary Metabolites 111

References and Additional Reading 126

Databases 126

References 127

Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques 127

References 133

Evaluation of Biological Activities 134

References 139

Part II Case Studies 141

3 Introduction 143

4 Africa 145
M.H. Grace, P.J. Smith, I. Raskin, M.A. Lila, B.M. Schmidt, and P. Chu

Introduction 145

Northern Africa 149

Southern Africa 151

The African Diaspora 156

References and Additional Reading 159

Achillea millefolium: Re]Exploring Herbal Remedies for Combating Malaria 160

References 164

Vanilla: Madagascar’s Orchid Economy 166

References 170

Traditional Treatments for HIV in South Africa 171

References 176

Duckweed as a More Sustainable First]Generation Bioethanol Feedstock 178

References 181

5 The Americas 183
J. Kellogg, B.M. Schmidt, B.L. Graf, C.J. Jimenez, H.A. Cumplido, C. Calfío, L.E. Rojo,  K. Cubillos]Roble, A.
Troncoso]Fonseca, and J. Delatorre]Herrera

Introduction 184

North America 185

Central America and the Caribbean 189

South America 194

References and Additional Reading 198

Phlorotannins in Seaweed 199

References 202

Agave: More Than Just Tequila 203

References 208

Quinoa: A Source of Human Sustenance and Endurance in the High Andes 209

References 213

Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis): An Ancient Mapuche Medicine with Antidiabetic Potential 215

References 220

Betalains from Chenopodium quinoa: Andean Natural Dyes with Industrial Uses beyond Food and Medicine 222

References 226

6 Asia 227
P. Li, W. Gu, C. Long, B.M. Schmidt, S.S. Ningthoujam, D.S. Ningombam, A.D. Talukdar, M.D. Choudhury, K.S. Potsangbam, H. Singh, S. Khatoon and M. Isman

Introduction 228

Central Asia 229

Western Asia 231

South Asia 233

Southeast Asia 237

East Asia 240

References and Additional Reading 243

Ethnobotany of Dai People’s Festival Cake in Southwest China 244

References 247

The Ethnobotany of Teeth Blackening in Southeast Asia 247

References 251

Artemisia Species and Human Health 252

References 257

Traditional Treatment of Jaundice in Manipur, Northeast India 258

References 265

Ethnobotany and Phytochemistry of Sacred Plant Species Betula utilis (bhojpatra) and Quercus oblongata (banj) from Uttarakhand Himalaya, India 267

References 270

Neem]Based Insecticides 272

References 275

7 Europe 277
T.B. Tumer, B.M. Schmidt, and M. Isman

Introduction 278

References and Additional Reading 285

Differential Use of Lavandula stoechas L. among Anatolian People against Metabolic Disorders 285

References 289

Mad Honey 291

References 294

Indigo: The Devil’s Dye and the American Revolution 295

References 302

Insecticides Based on Plant Essential Oils 303

References 306

8 Oceania 309
B.M. Schmidt

Introduction 310

References and Additional Reading 317

Banana (Musa spp.) as a Traditional Treatment for Diarrhea 317

References 322

Pharmacological Effects of Kavalactones from Kava (Piper methysticum) Root 323

References 328

Botanical Index 329

Subject Index 339