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Fachenglisch für Laborberufe

Fachenglisch für Laborberufe

Steven L. Hanft

ISBN: 978-3-527-69064-0

Dec 2015

408 pages

Description

Mit fortschreitender Globalisierung von Waren und Dienstleistungen hält an immer mehr Arbeitsplätzen in Chemie-, Pharma- und Biotech-Branche die englische Sprache Einzug. In der Schule hat man zwar gelernt, sich über Alltagsthemen zu unterhalten, aber wenn es darum geht, dem Kundendienst am Telefon die Fehlfunktion des teuersten Geräts im Labor zu beschreiben, kommt doch so mancher ins Schwitzen.

Nach einer Einführung, in der die wichtigsten Besonderheiten der englischen Sprache aus Sicht eines deutschen Sprechers rekapituliert werden, behandelt der Autor in 12 Lektionen Schritt für Schritt den Spezialwortschatz und fachspezifische Sprach- und Schreibformen. Die Themen reichen von mathematischen Ausdrücken über chemische Nomenklatur, Biomoleküle, Versuchstiere und Prozesstechnik bis hin zum Umgang mit Regulierungsbehörden und Audits. Gesprächssituationen wie der Anruf beim Kundendienst, die Vorstellung beim neuen Chef oder das Kundengespräch am Messestand werden analysiert und eingeübt.

Mit direktem Bezug zur Berufspraxis geht dieser Sprachführer über herkömmliche Englischkurse weit hinaus und bietet wertvolle Hilfe für alle, die im Beruf besser Englisch sprechen wollen. Auch für den fachbezogenen Sprachunterricht an Fachschulen und Hochschulen ist dieses Buch bestens geeignet. Komplett mit Übungen, Tests und Rezepten, wie man die häufigsten Fehler vermeidet.

Preface XVII

Acknowledgments XXI

1 English Grammar 101 1

1.1 Parts of Speech: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, and so on 1

1.1.1 Noun =Subject (Person, Place, Thing) 2

1.1.2 Pronoun = Expresses a Distinction of a Person 2

1.1.3 Adjective =WordsThat Describe or Modify a Noun 2

1.1.4 Verb =ActionWord 2

1.1.4.1 The Use of the Two Verbs; Can vs. May 2

1.1.5 Adverb =WordsThat Modify a Verb 3

1.1.5.1 Good (adj.) vs.Well (adv.) 4

1.1.6 Gerund =Using -ing, an ActionWord, a Verb Becomes a Noun 4

1.1.7 Prepositions Indicate a Relation BetweenThings 5

1.1.7.1 Between (zwischen) vs. Among (unter); two confusing prepositions 5

1.1.8 Conjunctions Connect TwoWords, Phrases, or Clauses 5

1.1.9 Interjections:Words of Exclamation, Interjections or Expressions of an Emotion or Sentiment 6

1.2 Practical Usage of Adjectives and Their Comparative and Superlative Forms 6

1.2.1 Citius, Altius, Fortius! (Faster, Higher, Stronger!) 6

1.2.1.1 One-Syllable Adjectives 6

1.2.1.2 Two-Syllable Adjectives 8

1.2.1.3 Adjectives withThree or More Syllables 9

1.2.1.4 Exceptions – Irregular Adjectives 9

1.2.2 QUIZ YOURSELF: Practical Usage of Adjectives and Their Comparative and Superlative Forms 10

1.2.2.1 Part I: Answer the Following Questions in the Space Provided 10

1.2.2.2 Part II: Quiz Based on Text Below – First Read the Paragraph Below andThenWrite the Adjective in [Brackets] into its Correct Comparative or Superlative Form in the Spaces Below 11

1.3 Use of QuestioningWords for the Inquisitive LabWorker 11

1.3.1 What are the QuestioningWords Used in Speech? 12

1.3.2 QuestioningWords; Further Applications in Sentence Form – Practical Use of QuestioningWords 13

2 English Grammar 102 15

2.1 Capitalization Rules (Regeln für Groß- und Kleinschreibung) 15

2.1.1 German vs. English Language Capitalization Rules 15

2.1.2 Basic Capitalization Rules with Exemplary Sentences 16

2.1.2.1 Gender Titles (Geschlechtsbezeichnungen) 19

2.1.2.2 Professional Titles (Further Discussed in Section 5.1) 19

2.1.2.3 FirstWord of the Salutation and Complimentary Closing to a Brief or Letter 19

2.1.2.4 Words CapitalizedWhen They Stand before or after a Name or When Used as Part of a Name 19

2.1.2.5 QUIZ YOURSELF: Capitalization – Correct for Any Capitalization Mistake(s) 20

2.2 Punctuation Marks and Punctuation Rules (Interpunktionszeichen und Interpunktionsregeln) 20

2.2.1 Punctuation Marks 20

2.2.2 Punctuation Marks and Their Usage 21

2.2.3 QUIZ YOURSELF: Punctuation Marks in the Space Provided, Where Necessary, Make Corrections to the Sentence’s Punctuation 24

2.3 Spelling Hints, Tips, and a Rule with Exceptions! 24

2.3.1 Two confusing words: Receipt and Recipe 24

2.3.2 German versus English:Words Spelled with “ie” or “ei” and Their Pronunciation 25

2.3.3 The Spelling Rule with Exceptions:Words in English with “ie” vs. “ei” 26

2.3.4 European English 27

3 Technical English Vocabulary 29

3.1 Grammar 101: Homonyms 29

3.1.1 HomonymsThat are Spelled the Same, yet Many Times Have a Different Pronunciation, and Different Meanings 30

3.1.2 Homonyms with Similar Pronunciations, But Having a Different Meaning and Spelling 32

3.1.3 QUIZ YOURSELF: Homonyms 38

3.2 Prefixes and Suffixes 39

3.2.1 Useful Hints Toward Deciphering the TechnicalWord’s Definition 39

3.2.1.1 Photosynthesis... AWonderful ScientificWord to Start withThis Topic, Prefixes-/Suffixes! 40

3.2.1.2 Prefixes and Suffixes 41

3.2.1.3 QUIZ YOURSELF 42

3.2.1.4 Scientific-/Technical Vocabulary List with Prefixes and Suffixes 43

3.2.1.5 QUIZ YOURSELF on Prefixes/Suffixes 47

3.3 Synonyms vs. Antonyms 47

3.3.1 Three Examples of Synonyms with Specific Prefixes and their Antonyms 48

3.3.2 QUIZ YOURSELF: Synonyms vs. Antonyms 49

4 Specialized Usages of English Language 51

4.1 GenderWars: Masculine vs. FeminineWords 51

4.1.1 EnglishWords of Gender – A Basic List 51

4.2 Comparisons of British (Oxford) EnglishBrE vs. American EnglishAmE: The Spelling and ExpressionWars! 52

4.2.1 Spelling Differences Between British and American-English 55

4.2.2 Other Spelling Differences Between BrE and AmE 57

4.2.3 Irregular Spelling (Follows No Definite Rule) 57

4.2.4 BritishWords or Expressions,Which are Rarely Used by Americans 58

4.2.5 BrE vs. AmE – Other Expressions and their meanings with Translations 59

4.2.6 BrE Versus AmE; Other Differences 60

5 MBA 101 – Business Communication Skills 61

5.1 Abbreviations for Everyday Needs in the Laboratory 61

5.1.1 Common German Language Abbreviations with Translations in English 61

5.1.2 Abbreviation Lists 62

5.1.2.1 Common Abbreviations, Some WhichWill Further Appear in Other Chapters of This Book 62

5.1.2.2 Abbreviations for Scientific Equipment 64

5.1.2.3 Abbrevations for Regulatory Affairs and Industry 64

5.1.3 Abbreviations for Certain Measurements 65

5.1.4 World Time Zone Abbreviations (Useful for Global Business Purposes) 66

5.1.5 International Currency Symbols 67

5.1.6 European Company Entities 67

5.1.7 What doThese Business Titles or Abbreviations Mean (Discussed Further in Section 6.1)? 68

5.1.8 Abbreviations for Months of the Year/Days of theWeek 68

5.1.9 Time of Day Abbreviations 69

5.1.10 Gender (Geschlecht) Title Abbreviations 70

5.1.11 Professional Title Abbreviations 70

5.1.12 Abbreviations of Nations, Political Units or Governmental-/Military Organizations 71

5.1.13 Company Legal Entities Abbreviations 71

5.1.14 NGOs – Non-Governmental Organizations 73

5.2 Oral Communication Skills 75

5.2.1 English Language & Usage 75

5.2.1.1 Schadenfreude, A Good Example of a German LoanWord 75

5.2.1.2 Expressions, Idioms & Proverbs 76

5.2.1.3 Expressions, Idioms, and Proverbs 76

5.2.1.4 Special Quotes or Proverbs fromWell-Known People 82

5.2.1.5 QUIZ YOURSELF: Business Expressions, Idioms, and Proverbs 83

5.3 Writing Communication Skills 84

5.3.1 Improving Your Automatic E-mail Response (When Away from the Lab Station or Desk) 84

5.3.1.1 Business Travel 85

5.3.1.2 Two Anonymous Examples of Automatic E-Mail Responses 85

5.3.1.3 Lesson for only German and English automatic E-mail responses 87

5.3.1.4 Below are Five Different Automatic German/English E-mail Responses 88

5.3.1.5 TransitionalWords or Phrases for Business Communication 91

5.4 BusinessWriting Communication Skills 92

5.4.1 Writing Effective E-mails and Business Letters 92

5.4.1.1 A Professional Business Letter’s Format –What Should it Contain? 94

5.4.1.2 Writing an Effective E-mail 96

5.5 Writing a ShortBio (Short Biography) 99

6 MBA 102 – Business Communication Skills 101

6.1 Company Hierarchies and Business Titles Used in Industry 101

6.1.1 Your Business Title, it’s your “Sheriff’s Badge,” soWear ItWell! 101

6.1.2 Executive Management – What are Typical Business Titles for “C-Level” Positions 101

6.1.3 Flow Chart: A Typical Global Fortune 500 Company’s Hierarchy 102

6.2 Participating in a Sector Industry Event 103

6.2.1 Comparing an onsite Seminar vs. an onlineWebinar 103

6.2.2 Participating in Typical Sector Industry Event – Interpreting a Full-Day Seminar Program 105

6.2.3 QUIZ YOURSELF: Interpreting a Seminar Program 106

6.3 Participating in aWebinar 107

6.3.1 What is a Webinar? 107

6.3.2 Reading Comprehension: Reviewing a Flyer from a Seminar Program 108

6.3.2.1 QUIZ YOURSELF: Reading Comprehension 111

6.3.3 What did you Learn from this Lesson? 111

6.4 Business Speaking Skills 112

6.4.1 The Elevator Speech, the 30 Second(s) Drill 112

6.4.2 Small Talk, the Fine Art of Schmoozing 113

6.4.2.1 Learning “Small Talk” – How to Become a Good Schmoozer 114

6.4.2.2 “Small Talk” Topics to Select from and Schmooze with... 114

6.4.3 Making a Presentation: Presenting to Industry Colleagues at a Conference, Congress, or Trade Show 117

6.4.3.1 Key Phrases or Expressions to Consider Using in a Presentation 118

6.4.3.2 The Template for a Presentation 121

7 Science 101 125

7.1 Branches of Science – Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Other Related Fields of Science 125

7.2 Weather and Meteorology 126

7.3 Meteorology 127

7.4 Fields of Science 128

7.4.1 Studies in the Field of Biology 128

7.4.2 Studies in the Field of Chemistry 133

7.4.3 Studies in the Field of Physics 135

7.5 Soft vs. Hard Sciences 138

7.6 Capitalization Rules for the Various Fields of Science 139

7.7 Branches of Medicine –The Many Facets and Faces of the Medical Field 139

7.7.1 QUIZ YOURSELF: Branches of Medicine 142

8 Bio-Medicine 102 145

8.1 Human Anatomy and Physiology: An In-depth Look at the Human Endocrine System 145

8.1.1 Mr. H’s Tip: Prefixes with Greek or Latin Language Roots, which are Heavily Used in Chemistry, Medicine and Other Sciences 147

8.1.2 Comparing Endocrine (Ductless) Gland vs. Exocrine (Duct) Gland 147

8.1.3 The Endocrine System 148

8.2 Laboratory Animals 150

8.2.1 The Animal Kingdom: Gender, Grouping, and Offspring Names 150

8.2.2 QUIZ YOURSELF – The Animal Kingdom: Gender, Grouping, and Offspring names 152

8.2.3 Working with Laboratory Animals 154

8.2.4 Dissection and its Instrumentation 155

9 Chemistry 101 157

9.1 Introduction to Basic Chemistry Terminology 157

9.1.1 Matter 158

9.1.2 Basic Chemistry Terminology 158

9.1.3 Elements of the Periodic Table 159

9.1.4 Elements Selected by Their Importance in the Laboratory 160

9.1.5 What is a Salt? 162

9.1.6 Metals 162

9.1.7 Noble Gases 165

9.1.8 QUIZ YOURSELF – Elements of the Periodic Table 165

9.1.9 Elements:Their Atomic Numbers, Atomic Masses, and Isotopes 167

9.1.9.1 QUIZ YOURSELF: Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 168

9.1.9.2 QUIZ YOURSELF: Calculating Number of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons 168

9.1.10 Isotopes: ElementsWith the Same Atomic Number, but Varying Atomic Masses 168

9.1.10.1 QUIZ YOURSELF – Isotopes: Calculating the Number of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons 169

9.1.11 Covalent versus Ionic: Two Major Chemical Bonds 169

9.1.12 Physical vs. Chemical Properties of Substances 169

9.1.12.1 Comparing Physical vs. Chemical Properties of Substances 170

9.1.12.2 Mr. H Puts Forth a Puzzling Question... 171

9.1.12.3 QUIZ YOURSELF: Which is it, a Physical or Chemical Change? 172

9.2 Nomenclature – Organic and Inorganic Chemistry 173

9.2.1 Inorganic Chemistry – Nomenclature for Ionic Bonded Compounds 173

9.2.1.1 Binary Compounds (Contains Two Elements)With the -ide Suffix 174

9.2.1.2 Some Binary Compound Acids, Which Have -ic Suffixes 174

9.2.1.3 Compounds with CN−, OH−,Which Use the -ide Suffix 174

9.2.1.4 When to Use the -ite and -ate Suffixes 174

9.2.1.5 Acids andTheir Anions 175

9.2.1.6 When to Use the -ic and -ous Suffixes 175

9.2.1.7 When to Use the bi- and di- Hydrogen Prefix 175

9.2.2 Inorganic Chemistry Nomenclature – Covalent Bonding 176

9.2.3 Organic Chemistry Nomenclature ... for Many a Nightmare (Albtraum)! 177

9.2.3.1 Cracking Organic Chemistry’s “DaVinci Code” ... it All Comes Down to Prefixes and Suffixes! 177

9.2.3.2 QUIZ YOURSELF: Organic Chemistry Nomenclature 178

9.3 Acids, Bases, and pH 179

9.3.1 Acids and Bases – Terminology 179

9.3.2 pH Scale – Various Substances and their pH Ranges 181

9.3.3 Pepsin and Trypsin – Two Important Human Digestive (Verdauungssystem) Enzymes and their pH Values 182

9.3.4 QUIZ YOURSELF: Acids, Bases, Neutral Substances, and pH 183

9.3.4.1 In the Brackets, Circle the Correct Answers 183

9.3.4.2 Multiple Choice Questions 183

9.3.4.3 Matching Quiz 184

9.3.4.4 QUIZ YOURSELF: Organic and Inorganic Compounds 184

9.4 Laboratory Equipment, Utensils, and Apparatus 187

9.4.1 QUIZ YOURSELF: Laboratory Equipment, Utensils, and Apparatus 188

9.4.2 QUIZ YOURSELF: Laboratory Equipment, Utensils, and Apparatus 190

10 Biochemistry 102 193

10.1 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 193

10.1.1 Carbohydrates and Their Chemistry 193

10.1.2 Sugar, Cellulose, and Starch:TheThree Carbohydrates 194

10.1.2.1 Sugars 194

10.1.2.2 Cellulose 195

10.1.2.3 Starch 195

10.1.3 QUIZ YOURSELF: Place the Letter from Column “B” with Its Correct Answer from Column “A” 196

10.1.4 Lipids 196

10.1.5 Proteins 199

10.1.6 QUIZ YOURSELF: Lipids and Proteins 199

10.1.7 QUIZ YOURSELF: Lipids and Proteins – Translate into either German or English 200

10.2 Nutrition 200

10.2.1 Typical Nutritional Label for a Food Product Sold in the USA 201

10.2.2 The Food Pyramid – Food Groups and the Recommended Amount per Day 202

10.2.3 Vitamins 202

10.2.4 QUIZ YOURSELF: Vitamins 206

10.2.5 QUIZ YOURSELF: Fill in the Blanks 207

10.2.6 QUIZ YOURSELF: Translate into either German or English 207

10.3 Fermentation and its Industrial Applications 207

10.3.1 Ethanol Production 209

10.4 The 3 E’s: Emulsions, Emulsifiers, and Enzymes 210

10.4.1 Emulsion 210

10.4.2 Emulsifier 212

10.4.3 Enzymes andTheir Applications in Industry 213

10.4.3.1 Trypsin, Amylase, and Pepsin 213

10.4.3.2 Human Digestive Enzymes and the Food Products They Help Digest 215

10.4.3.3 The Human Digestive System 215

10.4.3.4 Enzymes as Catalysts 216

10.4.4 QUIZ YOURSELF – The 3Es; Emulsifiers, Emulsions, Enzymes 217

10.4.5 Reading Comprehension – Chemical Digestion of Protein 217

11 Chemistry 103 221

11.1 Physical Properties of Compounds 221

11.2 Describing a Substance or Compound’s Physical Properties 221

11.3 QUIZ YOURSELF 225

12 Physics 101 227

12.1 What Is Physics? 227

12.2 SoundWaves vs. LightWaves 228

12.2.1 Convex and Concave Lenses 229

12.2.2 Refraction throughWater or Air 230

12.2.3 What is Sound? 230

12.3 Force 231

12.4 Gravity 232

12.5 Osmosis 233

12.6 Temperature 234

12.7 Torque 235

12.8 Viscosity 238

12.9 QUIZ YOURSELF – Is it Force, Torque, Temperature, or Viscosity that’s being described? 239

12.10 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 240

12.11 Astronomy 242

12.11.1 The Hertzsprung–Russell Diagram 242

12.11.2 Spectral Classifications of Stars 243

12.11.3 The Big Bang (Urknall)Theory 244

13 Regulatory Affairs 101 245

13.1 Regulatory Affairs 245

13.1.1 GHS Classification and LabelingAmE System 246

13.1.2 Implementation of Regulations for Potential Global Crisises 248

13.1.3 Regulatory, What Does It Actually Mean? 249

13.1.4 European Regulatory Authorities, Governmental Organizations, and Agencies 254

13.1.5 National Regulatory Authorities 256

13.1.6 International Regulatory Authorities, Organizations & Agencies 257

13.1.7 USA Regulatory Authorities, Governmental Organizations, and Agencies 258

13.1.8 QUIZ YOURSELF: Match the City and Nation with the Correct Regulatory Organization 259

13.2 EU REACH Regulation, Its Language, Terminology, and Abbreviations 260

13.2.1 The Supply Chain 261

13.2.2 REACH’s Unique Language 262

13.2.3 QUIZ YOURSELF – REACH Terminology 267

13.3 CAS Numbers – Identifying Compounds, Reagents, and Chemicals 270

13.4 The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)/Safety Data Sheet (SDS): Terminology 271

13.4.1 The Difference Between an MSDS and SDS 271

13.4.2 The 16 Sections of a Typical MSDS/SDS 273

13.4.3 Example of an MSDS and Its 16 Sections 274

13.4.4 QUIZ YOURSELF – The Sections of a Typical MSDS 279

13.5 Health Risks and Occupational Safety: Expressions for Use in the Lab 280

14 Legal Language 101 283

14.1 Introduction 283

14.2 Reviewing a Typical Contract,Which Concerns Two Parties 283

14.3 Preparing for the Visit of an English-speaking Technical Representative 293

14.4 Analyzing and Understanding aWarranty’s Terms and Conditions (Geschäftsbedingungen) 296

14.4.1 Reading Comprehension Based on an ActualWarranty 296

15 Mathematics 101 299

15.1 Basic Math Operations and Terminology 300

15.2 Numerals, Factors, andWords of Succession (Ranking or Order) 300

15.2.1 Numerals 301

15.2.2 Factor Numbers 301

15.2.3 Numbers of Succession 302

15.2.4 Fractions 302

15.2.5 Time and Frequency 303

15.2.6 Words of Succession (Rank or Order) 303

15.3 Geometry and Geometric Shapes 304

15.4 Velocity (Speed) 305

15.5 Density 306

15.5.1 Calculating Density 307

15.5.2 Calculating aThree-Dimensional Object’s Volume 307

15.6 Exponents (Scientific Notation) 310

16 Measurements 313

16.1 The Metric System 313

16.1.1 Measuring Temperature – Comparing Celsius (∘C) Versus Fahrenheit (∘F) Temperatures 314

16.1.2 Measuring Sizes with the Metric System 315

16.1.3 QUIZ YOURSELF: Measuring Sizes with the Metric System 315

16.2 The Micro Versus MacroWorlds 316

16.2.1 The Microscope, an Instrument Used to Observe the “Micro-World” 316

16.2.2 The Telescope, an Instrument Used to Observe Our “Macro-World.” 316

17 Biology 101 317

17.1 Biological Applications Used in Industry 317

17.2 The Cell, the Basic Unit of Life 318

17.3 Comparisons: Prokaryotes Versus Eukaryotes 318

17.3.1 What are Prokaryotes? 318

17.3.2 What are Eukaryotes? 319

17.3.3 Comparing Prokaryotic (Bacteria) vs. Eukaryotic Cells (Plant and Animal Cells) 321

17.3.4 Comparisons: Plant Versus Animal Cells 321

17.3.5 Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 322

17.4 Hierarchy and Organization of Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems, and the Organism 323

17.5 The Protists, Uni-cellular Organisms 324

17.5.1 Tissue, a Group of Cells Functioning Together Form a Tissue 324

17.5.2 Types of Human or Animal Tissues 325

17.5.3 Types of Connective Tissue 325

17.5.4 Ligaments and Tendons – Specialized Connective Tissue 326

17.5.5 Vascular Tissue (Blood, Lymph) 327

17.5.6 Muscle Tissue (Smooth, Cardiac, and Striated) 329

17.5.6.1 Muscle Tissue (Mammal) 329

17.5.7 Muscle Tissue 330

17.6 Organ, a Group of Tissues Functioning Together (Organ, Pronounced like, “Morgen”) 331

17.7 System, a Group of Organs Functioning Together 333

17.8 Organism, a Group of Systems Functioning Together 334

17.9 Comparing Vertebrates (Wirbeltiere) vs. Invertebrates (Wirbellose Tiere) 334

17.9.1 Mammals 334

17.9.2 Birds 336

17.9.3 Exothermic (Cold-Blooded) Vertebrates 337

17.9.4 Reptiles and Amphibians, also Exothermic Vertebrates 338

17.9.5 Invertebrates, AnimalsWithout Backbones 338

17.9.6 Arthropods 339

17.9.7 QUIZ YOURSELF: Vertebrates versus Invertebrates 340

17.10 Advanced Biology Terminology 341

18 Sector Industry Terminology 343

18.1 Cosmetics and Toiletries (C&T), Personal or Consumer Health Care, Household Cleaning Products 343

18.1.1 What is an Anti-Perspirant? Deodorant? Anti-Itch Cream or Anti-Acne Ointment? 344

18.1.2 Perspiration vs. Transpiration 345

18.1.3 A commonly asked question: How does a Cream differ from an Ointment? 346

18.1.4 Cosmetics and Toiletries (C&T), Personal or Consumer Health Care, Household Cleaning Products 347

18.2 Coating, Spraying, Tabletting Technology 350

18.2.1 Defining the Meaning for Coating, Spraying, and Tabletting 350

18.2.2 Coating, Spraying, and Tabletting Terminology for Chemicals, Food, Cosmetics, Consumer or Personal Health Care, Pharmaceutical, and Medical Products 353

18.2.3 QUIZ YOURSELF: Storage and the Stocking of Chemicals 358

18.3 Flavor and Fragrance Terminology 359

18.4 Medical, Pharma, and Consumer Health: How Drugs and Medications are Administered to Humans 360

Answers 365

Chapter 1: English Grammar 101 365

Chapter 2: English Grammar 102 365

Chapter 3: Technical English Vocabulary 367

Chapter 5: MBA 101 Business Communications Skills 367

Chapter 6: MBA 102 Business Communications Skills 368

Chapter 7: Science 101 369

Chapter 8: Bio-Medicine 102 370

Chapter 9: Chemistry 101 370

Chapter 10: Biochemistry 102 373

Chapter 11: Chemistry 103 374

Chapter 12: Physics 101 374

Chapter 13: Regulatory Affairs 101 374

Chapter 14: Legal Language 101 376

Chapter 15: Mathematics 101 376

Chapter 16: Measurements 377

Chapter 17: Biology 101 377

Sources of EducationalMaterials – Textbooks, Publications, and Online Sources 379

Astronomy, Earth Science 379

Biology 379

Chemistry 380

English Grammar, Business Communication Skills 380

Regulatory and Legal 380

Sector Industry or Trade Organizations 381

Physics 381

Mathematics 381

Other Online Sources Used for This Book 382

Industry Related Sources 383