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Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication

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Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication

Nathan Blaunstein, Shlomo Engelberg, Evgenii Krouk, Mikhail Sergeev

ISBN: 978-1-119-60199-9 November 2019 Wiley-IEEE Press 300 Pages

Description

This book answers the fundamental question of how to characterize and overcome the drawbacks associated with optical communication links that suffer from various types of fading when optical signals with information traverse these wireless (atmospheric) or wired (fiber optic) channels. The authors present material to help the reader predict the capacity, data rate, spectral efficiency, and bit-error-rate (BER) associated with a channel that experiences fading. It also presents modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems. The book discusses how to model the channels, including treating distortion due to the various fading phenomena. Light waves and their similarity to radio waves are described, and the way light propagates through the atmosphere, through materials, and through the boundary between two materials is explained. This book also presents modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems.

Part I: Optical Communication Links Fundamentals 

Chapter 1: Basic Elements of Optical Communication

1.1 Spectrum of Optical Waves

1.2 Optical Communication in Historical Perspective

1.3 Optical Communication Link Presentation

Bibliography

Chapter 2: Optical Wave Propagation

2.1 Similarity of Optical and Radio Waves

2.2 Electromagnetic Aspects of Optical Waves Propagation 

2.3 Propagation of Optical Waves in Free Space

2.4 Propagation of Optical Waves through the Boundary of Two Media

2.4.1 Boundary conditions

2.4.2 Main formulations of reflection and refraction coefficients

2.5 Total Intrinsic Reflection in Optics

2.6 Propagation of Optical Waves in Material Media

Problems

Bibliography

Part II: Fundamentals to Optical Communication

Chapter 3: Types of Signals in Optical Communication Channels

3.1 Types of Optical Signals

3.2 Mathematical Description of Narrowband Signals

3.3 Mathematical Description of Wideband Signals

Bibliography

Chapter 4: Main Principles of Discrete Signals Coding and Decoding

4.1 Basic concepts of Coding and decoding

4.1.1 General connection scheme

4.1.2 The binary symmetric channel (BSC)

4.1.3 Channel model with AWGN

4.2 Basic Aspects of Coding and Decoding

4.2.1 Criteria of coding

4.2.2 Code parameters for error correction

4.2.3 Linear codes

4.2.4 Estimation of error probability of decoding

4.3 Codes with Algebraic Decoding

4.3.1 Cyclic codes

4.3.2 BCH codes

4.3.3 Reed-Solomon codes

4.4 Decoding of Cyclic Codes

Bibliography

Chapter 5: Coding in Optical Communication Channels

5.1 Peculiarities of Cyclic Codes in Communication Systems

5.2 Codes with Low Density of Parity Checks

5.2.1 Basic definitions

5.2.2 Decoding of LDPC-codes

5.2.3 Construction of the irregular LDPC codes

5.2.4 Construction of the regular LDPC-codes

5.3 Methods of Combining Codes

5.4 Coding in Optical Channels

Bibliography

Chapter 6: Fading in Optical Communication Channels

6.1 Parameters of Fading in Optical Communication Channel

6.1.1 Time dispersion parameters

6.1.2 Coherence bandwidth

6.1.3 Doppler spread and coherence time

6.2 Types of Small-Scale Fading

6.2.1 Narrowband optical links with fading

6.2.2 Wideband optical links with fading

6.3 Mathematical Description of Fast Fading

6.4 Mathematical Description of Large-Scale Fading

Bibliography

Chapter 7: Modulation of Signals in Optical Communication Links

7.1. Analogue Modulation

7.1.1 Analog amplitude modulation

7.1.2 Analog angle modulation - frequency and phase

7.1.3 Spectra and bandwidth of FM or PM signals

7.1.4 Relations between SNR and bandwidth in AM and FM signals

7.2 Digital Signal Modulation

7.2.1 Main parameters of digital modulation

7.2.2 Linear digital modulation

7.2.3 Non-linear digital modulation

Problems

Bibliography

Chapter 8: Optical Sources and Detectors

8.1 Emission and Absorption of Optical Waves

8.2 Operational Characteristics of Laser

8.3 Light-Emitted Sources and Detectors

8.3.1 Light-emitted p-n type diode

8.3.2 Laser p-n type diode

8.3.3 Photodiode

8.3.4 PiN and p-n photodiodes – principle of operation

8.4 Operational Characteristics of Light Diodes

Bibliography

Part III: Wired Optical Communication Links 

Chapter 9: Light Waves in Fiber Optic Guiding Structures 

9.1. Propagation of Light in Fiber Optic Structures

9.1.1 Types of optical fibers

9.1.2 Propagation of optical wave inside the fiber-optic structure

Bibliography

Chapter 10: Dispersion Properties of Fiber Optic Structures

10.1 Characteristic parameters of fiber optic structures

10.2 Dispersion of optical signal in fiber optic structures

Bibliography

Part IV: Wireless Optical Channels

Chapter 11: Atmospheric Communication Channels

11.1 Basic Characteristics of Atmospheric Channel

11.2 Effects of Aerosols on Atmospheric Communication Links

11.3 Effects of Hydrometeors

11.3.1 Effects of Fog

11.3.2 Effects of Rain

11.3.3. Effects of Clouds

11.4 Effects of Turbulent Gaseous Structures on Optical Waves Propagation

11.4.1 Turbulence Phenomenon

11.4.2 Scintillation Phenomenon of Optical Wave passing the Turbulent Atmosphere

11.4.3 Effects of Atmosphere Turbulences on Signal Fading

11.5 Optical Waves Propagation Caused by Atmospheric Scattering

Bibliography

Part V: Parameters of Signals in Atmospheric and Fiber Optic Communication Links

Chapter 12: Transmission of Information Data in Optical Channels: Atmospheric and Fiber Optics

12.1 Characteristics of Information Signal Data in Optical Communication Links

12.2 Bit-Error-Rate of Optical Communication Channel

12.3 Relations between Signal Data Parameters and Fading Parameters in Atmospheric Links

12.4 Effects of Fading in Fiber Optic Communication Link

Bibliography

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