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Fingerprint Development Techniques: Theory and Application

Fingerprint Development Techniques: Theory and Application

Stephen M. Bleay, Ruth S. Croxton, Marcel De Puit

ISBN: 978-1-119-99261-5

Apr 2018

520 pages

In Stock

$120.00

Description

A comprehensive review of the latest fingerprint development and imaging techniques

With contributions from leading experts in the field, Fingerprint Development Techniques offers a comprehensive review of the key techniques used in the development and imaging of fingerprints. It includes a review of the properties of fingerprints, the surfaces that fingerprints are deposited on, and the interactions that can occur between fingerprints, surfaces and environments. Comprehensive in scope, the text explores the history of each process, the theory behind the way fingerprints are either developed or imaged, and information about the role of each of the chemical constituents in recommended formulations. 

The authors explain the methodology employed for carrying out comparisons of effectiveness of various development techniques that clearly demonstrate how to select the most effective approaches. The text also explores how techniques can be used in sequence and with techniques for recovering other forms of forensic evidence. In addition, the book offers a guide for the selection of fingerprint development techniques and includes information on the influence of surface contamination and exposure conditions.

This important resource:

  • Provides clear methodologies for conducting comparisons of fingerprint development technique effectiveness
  • Contains in-depth assessment of fingerprint constituents and how they are utilized by development and imaging processes
  • Includes background information on fingerprint chemistry
  • Offers a comprehensive history, the theory, and the applications for a broader range of processes, including the roles of each constituent in reagent formulations

Fingerprint Development Techniques offers a comprehensive guide to fingerprint development and imaging, building on much of the previously unpublished research of the Home Office Centre for Applied Science and Technology.

Series Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiii

1 Introduction 1
Stephen M. Bleay and Marcel de Puit

References 10

2 Formation of fingermarks 11
Stephen M. Bleay and Marcel de Puit

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Initial contact 12

2.3 Interaction outcomes 13

2.4 The finger 17

2.5 The surface 24

2.6 Removal of the finger from the surface 30

2.7 Summary of the initial contact 32

References 33

3 Composition and properties of fingermarks 35
Ruth S. Croxton, Stephen M. Bleay and Marcel de Puit

3.1 Chemical composition of fingermarks 35

3.2 Biological properties of fingermarks 55

3.3 Physical properties of fingermarks 57

References 62

4 Ageing of fingermarks 69
Stephen M. Bleay and Marcel de Puit

4.1 The ‘triangle of interaction’ 69

4.2 The fingermark 70

4.3 The surface 70

4.4 The environment 78

4.5 Interactions 81

4.6 Time 94

References 96

5 Initial examination and the selection of fingermark enhancement processes 99
Stephen M. Bleay

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Processing options 100

5.3 Process selection 103

5.4 The processing environment 105

References 109

6 Optical detection and enhancement techniques 111
Stephen M. Bleay

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Current operational use 116

6.3 Visual examination 117

6.4 Fluorescence examination 125

6.5 Ultraviolet reflection 138

6.6 Infrared reflection 141

6.7 Colour filtration and monochromatic illumination 144

6.8 Multispectral imaging 149

References 151

Further reading 153

7 Vapour phase techniques 155
Stephen M. Bleay and Marcel de Puit

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Current operational use 156

7.3 Superglue/cyanoacrylate fuming 158

7.4 Vacuum metal deposition 172

7.5 Iodine fuming 181

7.6 Radioactive sulphur dioxide 185

7.7 Other fuming techniques 189

References 193

Further reading 196

8 Solid phase selective deposition techniques 199
Stephen M. Bleay

8.1 Introduction 199

8.2 Current operational use 200

8.3 Powders 201

8.4 ESDA 213

8.5 Nanoparticle powders 216

References 219

9 Amino acid reagents 221
Stephen M. Bleay

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Current operational use 223

9.3 Ninhydrin 224

9.4 1,8]Diazafluoren]9]one 231

9.5 1,2]Indandione 237

9.6 Ninhydrin analogues 242

9.7 Fluorescamine 246

9.8 o]Phthalaldehyde 250

9.9 Genipin 252

9.10 Lawsone 256

9.11 Alloxan 259

9.12 4]Chloro]7]nitrobenzofuran chloride 260

9.13 Dansyl chloride 262

9.14 Dimethylaminocinnemaldehyde and dimethylaminobenzaldehyde 263

References 268

Further reading 272

10 Reagents for other eccrine constituents 275
Stephen M. Bleay

10.1 Introduction 275

10.2 Current operational use 276

10.3 4]Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde 277

10.4 Silver nitrate 279

References 281

Further reading 282

11 Lipid reagents 283
Stephen M. Bleay

11.1 Introduction 283

11.2 Current operational use 285

11.3 Solvent Black 3 (Sudan Black) 286

11.4 Basic Violet 3 (Gentian Violet, Crystal Violet) 290

11.5 Oil Red O (Solvent Red 27) 295

11.6 Iodine solution 297

11.7 Ruthenium tetroxide 299

11.8 Osmium tetroxide 301

11.9 Europium chelate 302

11.10 Natural Yellow 3 (curcumin) 305

11.11 Nile Red and Nile Blue A 308

11.12 Basic Violet 2 311

11.13 Rubeanic acid–copper acetate 313

11.14 Phosphomolybdic acid 315

References 317

Further reading 320

12 Liquid phase selective deposition techniques 321
Stephen M. Bleay

12.1 Introduction 321

12.2 Current operational use 323

12.3 Small particle reagent 326

12.4 Powder suspensions 330

12.5 Physical developer 336

12.6 Multi]metal deposition 345

References 352

Further reading 355

13 Enhancement processes for marks in blood 357
Stephen M. Bleay

13.1 Introduction 357

13.2 Current operational use 361

13.3 Protein stains 363

13.4 Peroxidase reagents 369

References 380

Further reading 381

14 Electrical and electrochemical processes 383
Stephen M. Bleay

14.1 Introduction 383

14.2 Current operational use 385

14.3 Etching 386

14.4 Corrosion visualisation 388

14.5 Electrodeposition 392

References 397

Further reading 399

15 Miscellaneous processes: lifting and specialist imaging 401
Stephen M. Bleay

15.1 Introduction 401

15.2 Current operational use 403

15.3 Lifting 404

15.4 Scanning electron microscopy 407

15.5 X]ray fluorescence (and X]ray imaging) 410

15.6 Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) 413

15.7 Matrix]assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI]MS) 414

15.8 Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR]FTIR) 415

References 417

Further reading 419

16 Evaluation and comparison of fingermark enhancement processes 421
Stephen M. Bleay

16.1 Introduction 421

16.2 Technology Readiness Level 3: Proof of concept 423

16.3 Technology Readiness Level 4: Process optimisation 425

16.4 Technology Readiness Level 5: Laboratory trials 427

16.5 Technology Readiness Level 6: Pseudo]operational trials 437

16.6 Technology Readiness Level 7: Operational trials 439

16.7 Technology Readiness Level 8: Standard operating procedures 439

16.8 Technology Readiness Level 9: Ongoing monitoring 440

References 440

17 Sequential processing and impact on other forensic evidence 443
Stephen M. Bleay and Marcel de Puit

17.1 Sequential processing of fingermarks 443

17.2 Test methodologies for developing processing sequences 449

17.3 Integrated sequential forensic processing 453

References 466

18 Interpreting the results of fingermark enhancement 469
Stephen M. Bleay

18.1 Introduction 469

18.2 Location of the mark 471

18.3 Type of substrate 473

18.4 Constituents of the mark 478

18.5 Enhancement process 480

18.6 The environment 482

18.7 Image processing 483

18.8 Image capture 484

References 487

Index 489