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Fish Cognition and Behavior, 2nd Edition

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Fish Cognition and Behavior, 2nd Edition

Culum Brown, Kevin Laland, Jens Krause

ISBN: 978-1-444-34251-2 June 2011 Wiley-Blackwell 472 Pages

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In the second edition of this fascinating book an international team of experts have been brought together to explore all major areas of fish learning, including:
  • Foraging skills
  • Predator recognition
  • Social organisation and learning
  • Welfare and pain

Three new chapters covering fish personality, lateralisation, and fish cognition and fish welfare, have been added to this fully revised and expanded second edition.

Fish Cognition and Behavior, Second Edition contains essential information for all fish biologists and animal behaviorists and contains much new information of commercial importance for fisheries managers and aquaculture personnel. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, fisheries and aquaculture are studied and taught will find it an important addition to their shelves.

Preface and Acknowledgements xv

Series Foreword xvi

List of Contributors xix

1 Fish Cognition and Behaviour 1
Brown, Laland and Krause

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Contents of this book 3

References 9

2 Learning of Foraging Skills by Fish 10
Warburton and Hughes

2.1 Introduction 10

2.2 Some factors affecting the learning process 12

2.2.1 Reinforcement 12

2.2.2 Drive 12

2.2.3 Stimulus attractiveness 12

2.2.4 Exploration and sampling 14

2.2.5 Attention and simple association 14

2.2.6 Cognition 15

2.2.7 Memory systems and skill transfer 18

2.3 Patch use and probability matching 19

2.4 Performance 21

2.5 Tracking environmental variation 23

2.6 Competition 26

2.7 Learning and fish feeding: some applications 27

2.8 Conclusions 27

Acknowledgements 28

References 29

3 Learned Defences and Counterdefences in Predator–Prey Interactions 36
Kelley and Magurran

3.1 Introduction 36

3.2 The predator–prey sequence 38

3.2.1 Encounter 39

3.2.1.1 Avoiding dangerous habitats 39

3.2.1.2 Changing activity patterns 40

3.2.2 Detection 41

3.2.2.1 Crypsis 42

3.2.2.2 Sensory perception 42

3.2.3 Recognition 43

3.2.3.1 Associative learning 43

3.2.3.2 Learning specificity 44

3.2.3.3 Search images 45

3.2.3.4 Aposematism and mimicry 46

3.2.4 Approach 47

3.2.4.1 Pursuit deterrence 47

3.2.4.2 Gaining information about the predator 47

3.2.4.3 Social learning 47

3.2.4.4 Habituation 49

3.2.5 Evasion 49

3.2.5.1 Reactive distance and escape speed and trajectory 50

3.2.5.2 Survival benefits/capture success 50

3.3 Summary and discussion 51

Acknowledgements 52

References 53

4 Learning about Danger: Chemical Alarm Cues and Threat-Sensitive Assessment of Predation Risk by Fishes 59
Brown, Ferrari and Chivers

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Chemosensory cues as sources of information 60

4.2.1 Learning, innate responses and neophobia 60

4.2.2 Learned predator recognition through conditioning with alarm cues 62

4.3 Variable predation risk and flexible learning 62

4.3.1 Assessing risk in time 64

4.3.2 Sensory complementation and threat-sensitive learning 65

4.4 Generalisation of risk 66

4.4.1 Generalising of predator cues 66

4.4.2 Generalisation of non-predator cues 67

4.5 Predator recognition continuum hypothesis 68

4.5.1 Ecological selection for innate versus learned recognition of predators 69

4.5.2 Ecological selection for generalised learning 69

4.6 Retention: the forgotten component of learning 70

4.7 Conservation, management and learning 72

4.7.1 Conditioning predator recognition skills 72

4.7.2 Anthropogenic constraints 73

4.7.3 Field-based studies 73

4.8 Conclusions 74

Acknowledgements 74

References 74

5 Learning and Mate Choice 81
Witte and Nöbel

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Sexual imprinting 82

5.2.1 Does sexual imprinting promote sympatric speciation in fishes? 82

5.3 Learning after reaching maturity 83

5.4 Eavesdropping 84

5.4.1 Eavesdropping and mate choice 84

5.4.2 Benefits of eavesdropping 84

5.4.3 The audience effect 85

5.5 Mate-choice copying 87

5.5.1 Mate-choice copying – first experimental evidence and consequence 88

5.5.2 Mate-choice copying – evidence from the wild 89

5.5.3 Mate-choice copying when living in sympatry or allopatry 91

5.5.4 Mate-choice copying – the role of the early environment 92

5.5.5 Quality of the model fish 93

5.6 Social mate preferences overriding genetic preferences 94

5.6.1 Indications from guppies 94

5.6.2 Indications from sailfin mollies 95

5.7 Cultural evolution through mate-choice copying 96

5.8 Does mate-choice copying support the evolution of a novel male trait? 96

5.8.1 Theoretical approaches 97

5.8.2 Experimental approaches 98

5.9 Is mate-choice copying an adaptive mate-choice strategy? 99

5.9.1 Benefits of mate-choice copying 99

5.9.2 Costs of mate-choice copying 100

5.10 Outlook 101

5.11 Conclusions 102

References 102

6 Aggressive Behaviour in Fish: Integrating Information about Contest Costs 108
Hsu, Earley and Wolf

6.1 Introduction 108

6.2 Information about resource value 110

6.3 Information about contest costs 110

6.3.1 Assessing fighting ability 111

6.3.2 Information from past contests 113

6.3.2.1 Winner and loser effects 113

6.3.2.2 Individual recognition 117

6.3.2.3 Social eavesdropping 117

6.3.3 Integrating different types of cost-related information 118

6.4 Physiological mechanisms 119

6.5 Conclusions and future directions 126

Acknowledgements 128

References 128

7 Personality Traits and Behaviour 135
Budaev and Brown

7.1 Introduction 135

7.2 Observation and description of personality 137

7.2.1 Current terminology 137

7.2.1.1 Shyness–boldness 138

7.2.1.2 Coping styles 140

7.2.1.3 Behavioural syndromes 140

7.2.2 Objectivity 140

7.2.3 Labelling personality traits; construct validity 142

7.2.4 Objective and subjective measurements of personality 142

7.2.5 Modern terminology and statistical approaches 145

7.3 Proximate causation 146

7.4 Ontogeny and experience 149

7.5 Is personality adaptive? 150

7.5.1 Frequency- and density-dependent selection 150

7.5.2 State-dependent models 151

7.6 Evolution 153

7.7 Wider implications 155

7.7.1 Fish production and reproduction 155

7.7.2 Personality and population dynamics 155

7.8 Conclusions 156

Acknowledgements 157

References 157

8 The Role of Learning in Fish Orientation 166
Odling-Smee, Simpson and Braithwaite

8.1 Introduction 166

8.2 Why keep track of location? 166

8.3 The use of learning and memory in orientation 167

8.4 Learning about landmarks 168

8.5 Compass orientation 171

8.6 Water movements 172

8.7 Inertial guidance and internal ‘clocks’ 173

8.8 Social cues 174

8.9 How flexible is orientation behaviour? 174

8.9.1 When to learn? 174

8.9.2 What to learn? 175

8.9.3 Spatial learning capacity 176

8.10 Salmon homing – a case study 177

8.11 Conclusion 179

Acknowledgements 179

References 180

9 Social Recognition of Conspecifics 186
Griffiths and Ward

9.1 Introduction 186

9.2 Recognition of familiars 186

9.2.1 Laboratory studies of familiarity 187

9.2.2 Mechanisms of familiarity recognition 187

9.2.3 Functions of associating with familiar fish 191

9.2.4 Familiarity in free-ranging fishes 194

9.2.5 Determinants of familiarity 195

9.3 Familiarity or kin recognition? 196

9.3.1 Kin recognition theory 196

9.3.2 Evidence for kin recognition from laboratory studies 200

9.3.3 Advantages of kin discrimination 201

9.3.4 Kin association in the wild 201

9.3.5 Explaining the discrepancies between laboratory and field 203

9.3.6 Kin avoidance 205

9.4 Conclusion 206

References 207

10 Social Organisation and Information Transfer in Schooling Fish 217
Ioannou, Couzin, James, Croft and Krause

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Collective motion 218

10.3 Emergent collective motion in the absence of external stimuli 219

10.4 Response to internal state and external stimuli: Information processing within schools 220

10.4.1 Collective response to predators 220

10.4.2 Mechanisms and feedback in information transfer 222

10.4.3 Information transfer during group foraging and migration 225

10.5 Informational status, leadership and collective decision-making in fish schools 225

10.6 The structure of fish schools and populations 227

10.7 Social networks and individual identities 229

10.8 Community structure in social networks 232

10.9 Conclusions and future directions 233

Acknowledgements 234

References 234

11 Social Learning in Fishes 240
Brown and Laland

11.1 Introduction 240

11.2 Antipredator behaviour 241

11.3 Migration and orientation 244

11.4 Foraging 247

11.5 Mate choice 248

11.6 Aggression 249

11.7 Trade-offs in reliance on social and asocial sources of information 250

11.8 Concluding remarks 252

Acknowledgements 252

References 252

12 Cooperation and Cognition in Fishes 258
Alfieri and Dugatkin

12.1 Introduction 258

12.2 Why study cooperation in fishes? 259

12.3 Cooperation and its categories 261

12.3.1 Category 1 – kin selection 261

12.3.1.1 Cognition and kin selection 261

12.3.1.2 Example of kin selected cooperation: Cooperative breeding 262

12.3.1.3 Example of kin selected cooperation: Conditional territory defence 262

12.3.2 Category 2 – reciprocity 263

12.3.2.1 Cognition and reciprocity 264

12.3.2.2 Example of reciprocity: Egg trading 265

12.3.2.3 Example of reciprocity: Predator inspection 266

12.3.2.4 Example of reciprocity: Interspecific cleaning behaviour 267

12.3.3 Category 3 – by-product mutualism 268

12.3.3.1 Cognition and by-product mutualism 268

12.3.3.2 Example of by-product mutualism: Cooperative foraging 269

12.3.4 Category 4 – trait group selection 270

12.3.4.1 Cognition and trait group selection 270

12.3.4.2 Example of trait group selected cooperation: Predator inspection 270

12.4 Conclusion 271

Acknowledgements 272

References 272

13 Machiavellian Intelligence in Fishes 277
Bshary

13.1 Introduction 277

13.2 Evidence for functional aspects of Machiavellian intelligence 279

13.2.1 Information gathering about relationships between other group members 279

13.2.2 Predator inspection 280

13.2.3 Group-living cichlids 281

13.2.4 Machiavellian intelligence in cleaning mutualisms 283

13.2.4.1 Categorisation and individual recognition of clients 283

13.2.4.2 Building up relationships between cleaners and resident clients 284

13.2.4.3 Use of tactile stimulation by cleaners to manipulate client decisions and reconcile after conflicts 284

13.2.4.4 Audience effects in response to image scoring and tactical deception 285

13.2.4.5 Punishment by males during pair inspections 285

13.3 Evidence for cognitive mechanisms in fishes 286

13.3.1 What cognitive abilities might cleaners need to deal with their clients? 286

13.3.2 Other cognitive mechanisms 287

13.4 Discussion 288

13.4.1 Future avenues I: How Machiavellian is fish behaviour? 289

13.4.2 Future avenues II: Relating Machiavellian-type behaviour to brain size evolution 290

13.4.3 Extending the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis to general social intelligence 291

Acknowledgements 291

References 291

14 Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Fish 298
Bisazza and Brown

14.1 Introduction 298

14.2 Lateralized functions in fish 300

14.2.1 Antipredator behavior 300

14.2.1.1 Predator inspection 301

14.2.1.2 Predator evasion 302

14.2.1.3 Fast escape response 303

14.2.2 Mating behavior 304

14.2.3 Aggression 304

14.2.4 Shoaling and social recognition 304

14.2.5 Foraging behavior 306

14.2.6 Exploration and response to novelty 306

14.2.7 Homing and spatial abilities 307

14.2.8 Communication 307

14.3 Individual differences in lateralization 308

14.3.1 Hereditary basis of lateralization 308

14.3.2 Sex differences in lateralization 309

14.3.3 Environmental factors influencing development of lateralization 310

14.3.4 Lateralization and personality 311

14.4 Ecological consequences of lateralization of cognitive functions 312

14.4.1 Selective advantages of cerebral lateralization 312

14.4.2 Costs of cerebral lateralization 314

14.4.3 Maintenance of intraspecific variability in the degree of lateralization 316

14.4.4 Evolutionary significance of population biases in laterality 316

14.5 Summary and future research 317

Acknowledgements 318

References 319

15 Brain and Cognition in Teleost Fish 325
Broglio, Gómez, Durán, Salas and Rodríguez

15.1 Introduction 325

15.2 Classical conditioning 327

15.2.1 Delay motor classical conditioning and teleost fish cerebellum 328

15.2.2 Role of the teleost cerebellum and telencephalic pallium in trace motor classical conditioning 330

15.3 Emotional learning 331

15.3.1 Role of the medial pallium in avoidance conditioning and taste aversion learning 332

15.3.2 Teleost cerebellum and fear conditioning 334

15.4 Spatial cognition 336

15.4.1 Allocentric spatial memory representations in teleost fishes 337

15.4.2 Role of the teleost telencephalon in egocentric and allocentric spatial navigation 340

15.4.3 Map-like memories and hippocampal pallium in teleost fishes 345

15.4.4 Neural mechanisms for egocentric spatial orientation 347

15.5 Concluding remarks 349

Acknowledgements 350

References 350

16 Fish Behaviour, Learning, Aquaculture and Fisheries 359
Fernö, Huse, Jakobsen, Kristiansen and Nilsson

16.1 Fish learning skills in the human world 359

16.2 Fisheries 362

16.2.1 Spatial dynamics 362

16.2.1.1 Learning skills and movement 362

16.2.1.2 Social learning of migration pattern 363

16.2.1.3 Implications of learning for fisheries management 366

16.2.2 Fish capture 367

16.2.2.1 Natural variations in spatial distribution and behaviour 369

16.2.2.2 Avoidance and attraction before fishing 369

16.2.2.3 Before physical contact with the gear 369

16.2.2.4 After physical contact with the gear 371

16.2.2.5 Behaviour after escaping the gear and long-term consequences 372

16.2.3 Abundance estimation 374

16.3 Aquaculture 375

16.3.1 Ontogeny 375

16.3.2 Habituation, conditioning and anticipation 376

16.3.3 Pavlovian learning – delay and trace conditioning 378

16.3.4 Potential use of reward conditioning in aquaculture 379

16.3.5 Operant learning 382

16.3.6 Individual decisions and collective behaviour 383

16.4 Stock enhancement and sea-ranching 384

16.5 Escapees from aquaculture 388

16.6 Capture-based aquaculture 389

16.7 Conclusions and perspectives 389

Acknowledgements 391

References 391

17 Cognition and Welfare 405
Sneddon

17.1 Introduction 405

17.1.1 Fish welfare 406

17.1.2 Preference and avoidance testing 407

17.1.3 Behavioural flexibility and intraspecific variation 408

17.2 What is welfare? 408

17.2.1 Sentience and consciousness 409

17.2.2 Cognition and welfare 410

17.3 What fishes want 410

17.3.1 Preference tests 411

17.3.1.1 Physical habitat 411

17.3.1.2 Breeding 413

17.3.1.3 Diet 413

17.3.1.4 Social interactions 414

17.4 What fishes do not want 416

17.5 Pain and fear in fish 417

17.6 Personality in fish 420

17.7 Wider implications for the use of fish 420

17.7.1 Aquaculture 421

17.7.2 Fisheries 425

17.7.3 Recreational fishing 425

17.7.4 Research 426

17.7.5 Companion fish 427

17.8 Conclusion 427

Acknowledgements 429

References 429

Species List 435

Index 443

“With the inclusion of new aspects and the update of the content of the first edition this book is a must for all researchers in the field of fish behaviour and interaction.”  (Bulletin of Fish Biology, 1 October 2011)

“Summing Up: Recommended.  Upper-division undergraduates through professionals.”  (Choice, 1 March 2012)