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Flight Theory and Aerodynamics: A Practical Guide for Operational Safety, 3rd Edition



Flight Theory and Aerodynamics: A Practical Guide for Operational Safety, 3rd Edition

Charles E. Dole, James E. Lewis, Joseph R. Badick, Brian A. Johnson

ISBN: 978-1-119-23341-1 November 2016 384 Pages

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The pilot's guide to aeronautics and the complex forces of flight

Flight Theory and Aerodynamics is the essential pilot's guide to the physics of flight, designed specifically for those with limited engineering experience. From the basics of forces and vectors to craft-specific applications, this book explains the mechanics behind the pilot's everyday operational tasks. The discussion focuses on the concepts themselves, using only enough algebra and trigonometry to illustrate key concepts without getting bogged down in complex calculations, and then delves into the specific applications for jets, propeller crafts, and helicopters. This updated third edition includes new chapters on Flight Environment, Aircraft Structures, and UAS-UAV Flight Theory, with updated craft examples, component photos, and diagrams throughout. FAA-aligned questions and regulatory references help reinforce important concepts, and additional worked problems provide clarification on complex topics.

Modern flight control systems are becoming more complex and more varied between aircrafts, making it essential for pilots to understand the aerodynamics of flight before they ever step into a cockpit. This book provides clear explanations and flight-specific examples of the physics every pilot must know.

  • Review the basic physics of flight
  • Understand the applications to specific types of aircraft
  • Learn why takeoff and landing entail special considerations
  • Examine the force concepts behind stability and control

As a pilot, your job is to balance the effects of design, weight, load factors, and gravity during flight maneuvers, stalls, high- or low-speed flight, takeoff and landing, and more. As aircraft grow more complex and the controls become more involved, an intuitive grasp of the physics of flight is your most valuable tool for operational safety. Flight Theory and Aerodynamics is the essential resource every pilot needs for a clear understanding of the forces they control.

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Preface xi

About the Authors xiii

1 Introduction 1

The Flight Environment, 1

Basic Quantities, 1

Forces, 2

Mass, 3

Scalar and Vector Quantities, 4

Moments, 5

Equilibrium Conditions, 6

Newton’s Laws of Motion, 6

Linear Motion, 7

Rotational Motion, 8

Work, 8

Energy, 8

Power, 9

Friction, 9

Symbols, 10

Equations, 11

Problems, 12

2 Atmosphere, Altitude, and Airspeed Measurement 13

Properties of the Atmosphere, 13

ICAO Standard Atmosphere, 15

Altitude Measurement, 16

Continuity Equation, 19

Bernoulli’s Equation, 19

Airspeed Measurement, 22

Symbols, 26

Equations, 27

Problems, 27

3 Structures, Airfoils, and Aerodynamic Forces 31

Aircraft Structures, 31

Airfoils, 37

Development of Forces on Airfoils, 42

Aerodynamic Force, 44

Aerodynamic Pitching Moments, 45

Aerodynamic Center, 46

Symbols, 46

Problems, 47

4 Lift 49

Introduction to Lift, 49

Angle of Attack Indicator, 49

Boundary Layer Theory, 51

Reynolds Number, 53

Adverse Pressure Gradient, 54

Airflow Separation, 55

Stall, 56

Aerodynamic Force Equations, 57

Lift Equation, 58

Airfoil Lift Characteristics, 60

High Coefficient of Lift Devices, 61

Lift During Flight Manuevers, 65

Symbols, 67

Equations, 67

Problems, 68

5 Drag 71

Drag Equation, 71

Induced Drag, 71

Ground Effect, 77

Laminar Flow Airfoils, 81

Parasite Drag, 82

Total Drag, 85

Lift to Drag Ratio, 87

Drag Reduction, 88

Symbols, 90

Equations, 91

Problems, 91

6 Jet Aircraft Basic Performance 95

Thrust-Producing Aircraft, 95

Principles of Propulsion, 96

Thrust-Available Turbojet Aircraft, 100

Specific Fuel Consumption, 101

Fuel Flow, 102

Thrust-Available–Thrust-Required Curves, 103

Items of Aircraft Performance, 104

Symbols, 113

Equations, 113

Problems, 114

7 Jet Aircraft Applied Performance 117

Variations in the Thrust-Required Curve, 117

Variations of Aircraft Performance, 121

Equations, 125

Problems, 125

8 Propeller Aircraft: Basic Performance 129

Power Available, 129

Principles of Propulsion, 131

Power-Required Curves, 133

Items of Aircraft Performance, 139

Symbols, 145

Equations, 146

Problems, 146

9 Propeller Aircraft: Applied Performance 149

Variations in the Power-Required Curve, 149

Variations in Aircraft Performance, 153

Equations, 157

Problems, 157

10 Takeoff Performance 161

Definitions Important to Takeoff Planning, 161

Aborted Takeoffs, 164

Linear Motion, 166

Factors Affecting Takeoff Performance, 168

Improper Liftoff, 171

Symbols, 174

Equations, 175

Problems, 175

11 Landing Performance 179

Prelanding Performance, 179

Improper Landing Performance, 185

Landing Deceleration, Velocity, and Distance, 190

Landing Equations, 194

Hazards of Hydroplaning, 197

Symbols, 199

Equations, 199

Problems, 200

12 Slow-Speed Flight 203

Stalls, 203

Region of Reversed Command, 210

Spins, 212

Low-Level Wind Shear, 216

Aircraft Performance in Low-Level Wind Shear, 218

Effect of Ice and Frost, 221

Wake Turbulence, 222

Problems, 224

13 Maneuvering Performance 227

General Turning Performance, 227

Equations, 242

Problems, 243

14 Longitudinal Stability and Control 245

Definitions, 245

Oscillatory Motion, 246

Airplane Reference Axes, 248

Static Longitudinal Stability, 248

Dynamic Longitudinal Stability, 260

Pitching Tendencies in a Stall, 261

Longitudinal Control, 264

Symbols, 266

Equations, 266

Problems, 266

15 Directional and Lateral Stability and Control 269

Directional Stability and Control, 269

Static Directional Stability, 269

Directional Control, 276

Multi-Engine Flight Principles, 280

Lateral Stability and Control, 284

Static Lateral Stability, 284

Lateral Control, 288

Dynamic Directional and Lateral Coupled Effects, 288

Symbols, 293

Equations, 293

Problems, 293

16 High-Speed Flight 295

The Speed of Sound, 295

High-Subsonic Flight, 297

Design Features for High-Subsonic Flight, 298

Transonic Flight, 301

Supersonic Flight, 305

Symbols, 316

Equations, 316

Problems, 316

17 Rotary-Wing Flight Theory 319

Momentum Theory of Lift, 320

Airfoil Selection, 320

Forces on Rotor System, 321

Thrust Development, 323

Hovering Flight, 324

Ground Effect, 326

Rotor Systems, 328

Dissymmetry of Lift in Forward Flight, 330

High Forward Speed Problems, 333

Helicopter Control, 334

Helicopter Power-Required Curves, 336

Power Settling, Settling with Power, and Vortex Ring State, 338

Autorotation, 340

Dynamic Rollover, 341

Problems, 343

Answers to Problems 345

References 349

Index 353

Review copy sent to The Aeronautical Journal 23/11/2017.