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Flow and Fracture of Rocks

Flow and Fracture of Rocks

H. C. Heard (Editor), I. Y. Borg (Editor), N. L. Carter (Editor), C. B. Raleigh (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66406-3

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

352 pages

Select type: Online Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 16 (The Griggs Volume).

David Tressel Griggs was born October 6, 1911, in Columbus, Ohio. His parents were Robert Fiske and Laura Amelia Tressel Griggs. His father was a widely known professor of botany and a leading ecologist and environmental conservationist at a time when these viewpoints were less familiar than they are today. David was an undergraduate at Ohio State University in 1930 when he participated in a National Geographic Society expedition, led by his father, to the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. This Alaskan experience and the encouragement he received from a gifted and enthusiastic teacher, Professor Edmund M. Spieker, led him to choose for his life work the application of physics to the problems of the earth. After a year of graduate studies in geology at Ohio State, David moved on in 1933 to Harvard, where a new progTam of high-pressure studies devoted to geophysical problems had just been initiated under the inspired guidance of Percy W. Bridgman, pre-eminent leader in the experimental exploration of the physics of very high pressures and in the philosophical analysis of the logical processes of scientific thinking.

Dedication vii

Foreword
LA. GETTING AND W. W. RUBEY ix

Experimental Folding of Rocks under Confining Pressure: Buckling of Single-Layer Beams
JOHN HANDIN, MELVIN FRIEDMAN, JOHN M. LOGAN, LINDA J . PATTISON, AND HENRI S. SWOLFS 1

Plasticity of Single Crystals of Synthetic Quartz
B . E . HOBBS, A. C. MCLAREN, AND M. S. PATERSON 29

Transmission Electron Microscope Investigation of Some Naturally Deformed Quartzites
A. C. MCLAREN AND B . E . HOBBS 55

Preferred Orientation of Quartz Produced by Mechanical Dauphine* Twinning: Thermodynamics
and Axial Experiments
JAN TULLIS AND TERRY TULLIS 67

Orientation Distribution Diagrams for Three Yule Marble Fabrics
H.-R. WENK AND W. R. WILDE 83

Some Observations of Translation Gliding and Kinking in Experimentally Deformed Calcite and
Dolomite
L. E. WEISS AND F. J. TURNER 95

Effect of Water on the Experimental Deformation of Olivine
JAMES D. BLACIC 109

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Experimentally Deformed Olivine Crystals
PREM PHAKEY, GERALD DOLLINGER, AND JOHN CHRISTIE 117

Deformation Processes in the Upper Mantle
H. W. GREEN II AND S. V. RADCLIFFE 139

Seismic Velocity Anisotropy Calculated for Ultramafic Minerals and Aggregates
DAVID W. BAKER AND NEVILLE L. CARTER 157

Seismic Anisotropy, Flow, and Constitution of the Upper Mantle
NEVILLE L. CARTER, DAVID W . BAKER, AND RICHARD P . GEORGE, JR. 167

Steady-State Flow in Polycrystalline Halite at Pressure of 2 Kilobars
HUGH C. HEARD 191

Experimental Recrystallization of Ice under Stress
BARCLAY KAMB 211

Deformation of Non-Newtonian Materials
B. E . HOBBS 243

Model for Aftershock Occurrence
L. KNOPOFF 259

Pore Pressure in Geophysics
W. F . BRACE 265

Faulting and Crustal Stress at Rangely, Colorado
C. B . RALEIGH, J . H. HEALY, AND J . D. BREDEHOEFT 275

Plate Tectonics, the Analogy with Glacier Flow, and Isostasy
F. C. FRANK 285

Some Shock Effects in Granodiorite to 270 Kilobars at the Piledriver Site
I. Y . BORG 293

General Shock Conditions
MONTGOMERY H. JOHNSON AND EDWARD TELLER 313

Lunar Tidal Acceleration on a Rigid Earth
R. A. BROUCKE, W. E . ZURN, AND L. B. SLICHTER 319

Oscillating Disk Dynamo and Geomagnetism
E. C. BULLARD AND D. GUBBINS 325

Notes on Geyser Temperatures in Iceland and Yellowstone National Park
FRANCIS BIRCH AND GEORGE C. KENNEDY 329