# Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition SI Version

# Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition SI Version

ISBN: ES8-1-118-31867-6

## Description

*Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics*offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of visual component of fluid mechanics, and strong focus on effective learning. The text enables the gradual development of confidence in problem solving. Each important concept is introduced in easy-to-understand terms before more complicated examples are discussed. Continuing this book's tradition of extensive real-world applications, this latest edition includes more

*Fluid in the News*case study boxes in each chapter, new problem types, an increased number of real-world photos, and additional videos to augment the text material and help generate interest in the topic. Example problems have been updated and numerous new photographs, figures, and graphs have been included. In addition, there are 150 videos designed to aid and enhance comprehension, support visualization skill building and engage users more deeply with the material and concepts.

## Related Resources

**Introduction 1**

Learning Objectives 1

1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3

1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional

Homogeneity, and Units 4

1.2.1 Systems of Units 7

1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 11

1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 11

1.5 Ideal Gas Law 12

1.6 Viscosity 14

1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 20

1.8 Vapor Pressure 23

1.9 Surface Tension 24

1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 27

1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29

References 30

Review Problems 31

Conceptual Questions 31

Problems 31

**2 Fluid Statics** **40**

Learning Objectives 40

2.1 Pressure at a Point 40

2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 42

2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 43

2.4 Standard Atmosphere 49

2.5 Measurement of Pressure 50

2.6 Manometry 52

2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure-Measuring Devices 57

2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 59

2.9 Pressure Prism 65

2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 68

2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 70

2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 74

2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 79

References 80

Review Problems 80

Conceptual Questions 81

Problems 81

**3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics—The Bernoulli Equation 101**

Learning Objectives 101

3.1 Newton's Second Law 101

3.2 F _ ma along a Streamline 104

3.3 F _ ma Normal to a Streamline 108

3.4 Physical Interpretation 110

3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 113

3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli

Equation 117

3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 131

3.8 Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 134

3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 139

References 141

Review Problems 141

Conceptual Questions 141

Problems 141

**4 Fluid Kinematics 157**

Learning Objectives 157

4.1 The Velocity Field 157

4.2 The Acceleration Field 166

4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 175

4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 176

4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 188

References 189

Review Problems 189

Conceptual Questions 189

Problems 190

**5 Finite Control Volume Analysis 199**

Learning Objectives 199

5.1 Conservation of Mass—The

Continuity Equation 200

5.2 Newton's Second Law—The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations 213

5.3 First Law of Thermodynamics—The Energy Equation 236

5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics—Irreversible Flow 253

5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 253

References 254

Review Problems 255

Conceptual Questions 255

Problems 255

**6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 276**

Learning Objectives 276

6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 277

6.2 Conservation of Mass 282

6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 288

6.4 Inviscid Flow 292

6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 286

6.5.1 Uniform Flow 300

6.5.2 Source and Sink 301

6.5.3 Vortex 303

6.5.4 Doublet 306

6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 308

6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 318

6.8 Viscous Flow 319

6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids 321

6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 331

6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 332

References 333

Review Problems 334

Conceptual Questions 334

Problems 334

**7 Dimensional Analysis, Similitude, and Modeling** **346**

Learning Objectives 346

7.1 Dimensional Analysis 347

7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 349

7.3 Determination of Pi Terms 350

7.4 Some Additional Comments About Dimensional Analysis 355

7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 359

7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 360

7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 364

7.8 Modeling and Similitude 368

7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 374

7.10 Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 384

7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 387

References 388

Review Problems 388

Conceptual Questions 389

Problems 389

**8 Viscous Flow in Pipes** **400**

Learning Objectives 400

8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 401

Developed Flow 405

8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 407

8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 416

8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 426

8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 445

8.6 Pipe Flowrate Measurement 459

8.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 465

References 467

Review Problems 468

Conceptual Questions 468

Problems 468

**9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies 480**

Learning Objectives 480

9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 481

9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics 489

9.3 Drag 512

9.3.1 Friction Drag 513

9.4 Lift 528

9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 541

References 542

Review Problems 543

Conceptual Questions 543

Problems 544

**10 Open-Channel Flow 554**

Learning Objectives 554

10.1 General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 555

10.2 Surface Waves 556

10.3 Energy Considerations 561

10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow 566

10.5 Gradually Varied Flow 575

10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 576

10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 589

References 590

Review Problems 591

Conceptual Questions 591

Problems 591

**11 Compressible Flow 601**

Learning Objectives 601

11.1 Ideal Gas Relationships 602

11.2 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 607

11.3 Categories of Compressible Flow 610

11.4 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 614

11.5 Nonisentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 631

11.6 Analogy between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 655

11.7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 657

11.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 658

References 661

Review Problems 662

Conceptual Questions 662

Problems 662

**12 Turbomachines 667**

Learning Objectives 667

12.1 Introduction 668

12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 669

12.3 Basic Angular Momentum

Considerations 673

12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 675

12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 688

12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 693

12.7 Fans 695

12.8 Turbines 695

12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 707

12.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 713

References 715

Review Problems 715

Conceptual Questions 715

Problems 716

A Computational fluid dynamics 725

B Physical Properties of Fluids 737

C Properties of the U.S.

Standard Atmosphere 742

D Compressible Flow graphs

For an Ideal Gas (k _ 1.4) 744

Answers ANS-1

Index I-1

Video Index 000

**Videos:**The video library has been enhanced by the addition of 18 new video segments related directly to the text material. Over 170 videos now illustrate many of the interesting and practical applications of real-world fluid phenomena, and are strategically placed throughout the text to correspond to relevant text material.**Problems:**Approximately 30% new homework problems have been added for this edition.**Multiple-choice concept questions**(developed by Jay Martin and John Mitchell of the University of Wisconsin - Madison) have been added at the beginning of each problems section.**Prevention through Design (PtD):**Several new example problems in this edition incorporate PtD (Prevention through Design) discussion material, an initiative supported by NIOSH with the goal of increasing the awareness and use of proper design of work-day equipment to reduce accidents and injuries in the workplace.**WileyPLUS icons**in the problems section identify for instructors and students which problems are available to be assigned within WileyPLUS for automatic grading, and which problems have tutorial help available (at the instructor's discretion).**New photographs and margin figures**have been added to enhance the text explanation of various fluid phenomena.**New co-author Alric P. Rothmayer**joins the author team.

**Within WileyPLUS:**

*What An Engineer Sees***animations**demonstrate an engineer’s perspective of everyday objects, and relates the transfer of theory to real-life through the solution of a problem involving that everyday object.-
**Office-Hours Videos**demonstrate the solution of selected problems, focusing specifically on those areas in which students run into difficulty, with video and voiceover. - Over 700
**homework problems from the text**that can be assigned for automatic feedback and grading (34 new for the 7^{th}edition). - Including 65
**GO (Guided Online) Tutorial**problems (26 new for this edition).

**Well-paced concept and problem-solving development:**the authors develop student confidence in fluid problem solving by first considering each concept in simple and easy-to-understand circumstances before more complicated features are introduced.**Learning Objectives**at the beginning of each chapter, and the**Chapter Summary and Study Guide and Equation Summary**at the end of each chapter, guide the reader in the key knowledge they are to gain from the chapter.**Illustrations, Photographs, and Videos:**Hundreds of photos, illustrations, and videos help students visualize fluid flow, and connect the math and theory to physical real-world applications.**Fluids In the News:**Short stories that demonstrate some of the latest important and novel ways that fluid mechanics affects our lives, many with associated homework problems.**Problem-Solving Methodology in Example problems**: All of the example problems are outlined and carried out with the problem-solving framework of "Given, Find, Solution, and Comment" to instill in students good problem-solving practices.**Homework problems stressing the practical application of principles**: Problems include simple to complex problems, discussion problems, problems based on the fluids videos, and Excel-based lab problems. Several problems ask students to find a photograph/image of a particular flow situation and write a paragraph describing it. Each chapter also includes Life Long Learning Problems that ask the student to obtain information about a given flow concept and to write about it.**Two Systems of Units**: Both the International System of Units (newtons, kilograms, meters, and seconds) and the British Gravitational System (pounds, slugs, feet, and seconds) are used in the text. About one-half of the examples and homework problems are in each set of units.