# Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition SI Version

ISBN: 978-1-118-02641-0

Oct 2011

896 pages

Select type: Paperback

\$264.95

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## Description

One of the bestselling texts in the field, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics continues to provide students with a balanced and comprehensive approach to mastering critical concepts. The new eighth edition once again incorporates a proven problem solving methodology that will help students develop an orderly plan to finding the right solution. It starts with basic equations, then clearly states assumptions, and finally, relates results to expected physical behavior. Many of the steps involved in analysis are simplified by using Excel.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION /1

1.1 Note to Students /3

1.2 Scope of Fluid Mechanics /4

1.3 Definition of a Fluid /4

1.4 Basic Equations /5

1.5 Methods of Analysis /6

System and Control Volume /7

Differential versus Integral Approach /8

Methods of Description /9

1.6 Dimensions and Units /11

Systems of Dimensions /11

Systems of Units /11

Preferred Systems of Units /13

Dimensional Consistency and “Engineering” Equations /14

1.7 Analysis of Experimental Error /15

1.8 Summary /16

Problems /17

CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS /20

2.1 Fluid as a Continuum /21

2.2 Velocity Field /23

One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows /24

Timelines, Pathlines, Streaklines, and Streamlines /25

2.3 Stress Field /29

2.4 Viscosity /31

Newtonian Fluid /32

Non-Newtonian Fluids /34

2.5 Surface Tension /36

2.6 Description and Classification of Fluid Motions /38

Viscous and Inviscid Flows /38

Laminar and Turbulent Flows /41

Compressible and Incompressible Flows /42

Internal and External Flows /43

2.7 Summary and Useful Equations /44

References /46

Problems /46

CHAPTER 3 FLUID STATICS /55

3.1 The Basic Equation of Fluid Statics /56

3.2 The Standard Atmosphere /60

3.3 Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid /61

Incompressible Liquids: Manometers /61

Gases /66

3.4 Hydraulic Systems /69

3.5 Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surfaces /69

Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Submerged Surface /69

Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Submerged Surface /76

*3.6 Buoyancy and Stability /80

3.7 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion (on the Web) /W-1

3.8 Summary and Useful Equations /83

References /84

Problems /84

CHAPTER 4 BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME /96

4.1 Basic Laws for a System /98

Conservation of Mass /98

Newton’s Second Law /98

The Angular-Momentum Principle /99

The First Law of Thermodynamics /99

The Second Law of Thermodynamics /99

4.2 Relation of System Derivatives to the Control Volume Formulation /100

Derivation /101

Physical Interpretation /103

4.3 Conservation of Mass /104

Special Cases /105

4.4 Momentum Equation for Inertial Control Volume /110

*Differential Control Volume Analysis /122

Control Volume Moving with Constant Velocity /126

4.5 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Rectilinear Acceleration /128

4.6 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Arbitrary Acceleration (on the Web) /W-6

*4.7 The Angular-Momentum Principle /135

Equation for Fixed Control Volume /135

Equation for Rotating Control Volume (on the Web) /W-11

4.8 The First Law of Thermodynamics /139

Rate of Work Done by a Control Volume /140

Control Volume Equation /142

4.9 The Second Law of Thermodynamics /146

4.10 Summary and Useful Equations /147

Problems /149

CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID MOTION /171

5.1 Conservation of Mass /172

Rectangular Coordinate System /173

Cylindrical Coordinate System /177

*5.2 Stream Function for Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow /180

5.3 Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics) /184

Fluid Translation: Acceleration of a Fluid Particle in a Velocity Field /185

Fluid Rotation /190

Fluid Deformation /194

5.4 Momentum Equation /197

Forces Acting on a Fluid Particle /198

Differential Momentum Equation /199

Newtonian Fluid: Navier-Stokes Equations /199

*5.5 Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics /208

The Need for CFD /208

Applications of CFD /209

Some Basic CFD/Numerical Methods Using a Spreadsheet /210

The Strategy of CFD /215

Discretization Using the Finite-Difference Method /216

Assembly of Discrete System and Application of Boundary Conditions /217

Solution of Discrete System /218

Grid Convergence /219

Dealing with Nonlinearity /220

Direct and Iterative Solvers /221

Iterative Convergence /222

Concluding Remarks /223

5.6 Summary and Useful Equations /224

References /226

Problems /226

CHAPTER 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW /235

6.1 Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation /237

6.2 Euler’s Equations in Streamline Coordinates /238

6.3 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow /241

*Derivation Using Streamline Coordinates /241

*Derivation Using Rectangular Coordinates /242

Static, Stagnation, and Dynamic Pressures /244

Applications /247

Cautions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation /252

6.4 The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation /253

6.5 Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line /257

*6.6 Unsteady Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline (on the Web) /W-16

*6.7 Irrotational Flow /259

Bernoulli Equation Applied to Irrotational Flow /260

Velocity Potential /261

Stream Function and Velocity Potential for Two-Dimensional, Irrotational, Incompressible Flow: Laplace’s Equation /262

Elementary Plane Flows /264

Superposition of Elementary Plane Flows /267

6.8 Summary and Useful Equations /276

References /279

Problems /279

CHAPTER 7 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE /290

7.1 Nondimensionalizing the Basic Differential Equations /292

7.2 Nature of Dimensional Analysis /294

7.3 Buckingham Pi Theorem /296

7.4 Determining the Π Groups /297

7.5 Significant Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics /303

7.6 Flow Similarity and Model Studies /305

Incomplete Similarity /308

Scaling with Multiple Dependent Parameters /314

Comments on Model Testing /317

7.7 Summary and Useful Equations /318

References /319

Problems /320

CHAPTER 8 INTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW /328

8.1 Introduction /330

Laminar versus Turbulent Flow /330

The Entrance Region /331

PART A. FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW /332

8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow Between Infinite Parallel Plates /332

Both Plates Stationary /332

Upper Plate Moving with Constant Speed, U /338

8.3 Fully Developed Laminar Flow in a Pipe /344

PART B. FLOW IN PIPES AND DUCTS /348

8.4 Shear Stress Distribution in Fully Developed Pipe Flow /349

8.5 Turbulent Velocity Profiles in Fully Developed Pipe Flow /351

8.6 Energy Considerations in Pipe Flow /353

Kinetic Energy Coefficient /355

8.7 Calculation of Head Loss /357

Major Losses: Friction Factor /357

Minor Losses /361

Pumps, Fans, and Blowers in Fluid Systems /367

Noncircular Ducts /368

8.8 Solution of Pipe Flow Problems /369

Single-Path Systems /370

*Multiple-Path Systems /383

PART C. FLOW MEASUREMENT /387

8.9 Direct Methods /387

8.10 Restriction Flow Meters for Internal Flows /387

The Orifice Plate /391

The Flow Nozzle /391

The Venturi /393

The Laminar Flow Element /394

8.11 Linear Flow Meters /397

8.12 Traversing Methods /399

8.13 Summary and Useful Equations /400

References /402

Problems /403

CHAPTER 9 EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW /421

PART A. BOUNDARY LAYERS /423

9.1 The Boundary-Layer Concept /423

9.2 Boundary-Layer Thicknesses /425

9.3 Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution (on the Web) /W-19

9.4 Momentum Integral Equation /428

9.5 Use of the Momentum Integral Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient /433

Laminar Flow /434

Turbulent Flow /439

Summary of Results for Boundary-Layer Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient /441

9.6 Pressure Gradients in Boundary-Layer Flow /442

PART B. FLUID FLOW ABOUT IMMERSED BODIES /445

9.7 Drag /445

Pure Friction Drag: Flow over a Flat Plate Parallel to the Flow /446

Pure Pressure Drag: Flow over a Flat Plate Normal to the Flow /450

Friction and Pressure Drag: Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder /450

Streamlining /456

9.8 Lift /459

9.9 Summary and Useful Equations /474

References /477

Problems /478

CHAPTER 10 FLUID MACHINERY /492

10.1 Introduction and Classification of Fluid Machines /494

Machines for Doing Work on a Fluid /494

Machines for Extracting Work (Power) from a Fluid /496

Scope of Coverage /498

10.2 Turbomachinery Analysis /499

The Angular-Momentum Principle: The Euler Turbomachine Equation /499

Velocity Diagrams /501

Performance—Hydraulic Power /504

Dimensional Analysis and Specific Speed /505

10.3 Pumps, Fans, and Blowers /510

Application of Euler Turbomachine Equation to Centrifugal Pumps /510

Application of the Euler Equation to Axial Flow Pumps and Fans /512

Performance Characteristics /516

Similarity Rules /522

Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head /526

Pump Selection: Applications to Fluid Systems /529

Blowers and Fans /541

10.4 Positive Displacement Pumps /548

10.5 Hydraulic Turbines /552

Hydraulic Turbine Theory /552

Performance Characteristics for Hydraulic Turbines /554

Sizing Hydraulic Turbines for Fluid Systems /558

10.6 Propellers and Wind-Power Machines /562

Propellers /563

Wind-Power Machines /571

10.7 Compressible Flow Turbomachines /581

Application of the Energy Equation to a Compressible Flow Machine /581

Compressors /582

Compressible-Flow Turbines /586

10.8 Summary and Useful Equations /586

References /589

Problems /591

CHAPTER 11 FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS /600

11.1 Basic Concepts and Definitions /603

Simplifying Assumptions /604

Channel Geometry /605

Speed of Surface Waves and the Froude Number /606

11.2 Energy Equation for Open-Channel Flows /610

Specific Energy /613

Critical Depth: Minimum Specific Energy /616

11.3 Localized Effect of Area Change (Frictionless Flow) /619

Flow over a Bump /620

11.4 The Hydraulic Jump /625

Depth Increase Across a Hydraulic Jump /627

Head Loss Across a Hydraulic Jump /628

11.5 Steady Uniform Flow /631

The Manning Equation for Uniform Flow /633

Energy Equation for Uniform Flow /639

Optimum Channel Cross Section /640

11.6 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth /641

Calculation of Surface Profiles /644

11.7 Discharge Measurement Using Weirs /646

Suppressed Rectangular Weir /646

Contracted Rectangular Weirs /647

Triangular Weir /648

11.8 Summary and Useful Equations /650

References /652

Problems /653

CHAPTER 12 INTRODUCTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW /657

12.1 Review of Thermodynamics /659

12.2 Propagation of Sound Waves /665

Speed of Sound /665

Types of Flow—The Mach Cone /670

12.3 Reference State: Local Isentropic Stagnation Properties /673

Local Isentropic Stagnation Properties for the Flow of an Ideal Gas /674

12.4 Critical Conditions /681

12.5 Summary and Useful Equations /681

References /683

Problems /683

CHAPTER 13 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW /689

13.1 Basic Equations for One-Dimensional Compressible Flow /691

13.2 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas: Area Variation /694

Subsonic Flow, M , 1 /697

Supersonic Flow, M . 1 /697

Sonic Flow, M 5 1 /698

Reference Stagnation and Critical Conditions for Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas /699

Isentropic Flow in a Converging Nozzle /704

Isentropic Flow in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle /709

13.3 Normal Shocks /715

Basic Equations for a Normal Shock /716

Fanno and Rayleigh Interpretation of Normal Shock /718

Normal-Shock Flow Functions for One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas /719

13.4 Supersonic Channel Flow with Shocks /724

Flow in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle /724

Supersonic Diffuser (on the Web) /W-24

Supersonic Wind Tunnel Operation (on the Web) /W-25

Supersonic Flow with Friction in a Constant-Area Channel (on the Web) /W-26

Supersonic Flow with Heat Addition in a Constant-Area Channel (on the Web) /W-26

13.5 Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction /727

Basic Equations for Adiabatic Flow /727

Adiabatic Flow: The Fanno Line /728

Fanno-Line Flow Functions for One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas /732

Isothermal Flow (on the Web) /W-29

13.6 Frictionless Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Heat Exchange /740

Basic Equations for Flow with Heat Exchange /740

The Rayleigh Line /741

Rayleigh-Line Flow Functions for One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas /746

13.7 Oblique Shocks and Expansion Waves /750

Oblique Shocks /750

Isentropic Expansion Waves /759

13.8 Summary and Useful Equations /768

References /771

Problems /772

APPENDIX A FLUID PROPERTY DATA /785

APPENDIX B EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES /796

APPENDIX C VIDEOS FOR FLUID MECHANICS /798

APPENDIX D SELECTED PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR PUMPS AND FANS /801

APPENDIX E FLOW FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTATION OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOW /816

APPENDIX F ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTY /827

APPENDIX G SI UNITS, PREFIXES, AND CONVERSION FACTORS /834

APPENDIX H A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL (ON THE WEB) /W-33

Answers to Selected Problems /836

Index /865

• Case Studies in Energy and the Environment: A new case study begins each chapter, providing a survey of the most interesting and novel applications of fluid mechanics for generating increasing amounts of the world s energy from renewable sources.
• Demonstration Videos: The classic NCFMF video references from the previous edition have all been retained and supplemented with new videos from a variety of sources. The videos provide visual aids for many of the concepts covered in the text, and are available on the student and instructor sections of the book website.
• CFD: The section on basic concepts of computational fluid dynamics in Chapter 5 now includes material on using the spreadsheet for numerical analysis of simple 1D and 2D flows; it includes an introduction to the Euler method.
• Many Restructured and Updated Chapters: Including those chapters relating to Fluid Machinery, Open-Channel Flow, and Compressible Flow.
• New Homework Problems: Over 500 of the roughly 1700 problems are new or modified for this edition, some created by a panel of instructors and subject matter experts. End-of-chapter homework problems are now grouped and labeled according to text sections.
• This book sets the benchmark for undergraduate textbooks in terms of its comprehensive treatment of all the main areas of fluid mechanics, as well as its level of presentation.
• Proven, consistent problem-solving methodology: A consistent problem methodology is demonstrated in every example, demonstrating best practices for students.
• Over 100 detailed example problems illustrate important fluid mechanics concepts and incorporate problem-solving techniques that allow students to see the advantages of using a systematic procedure.
• More than 1,700 end-of-chapter problems with varying degrees of difficulty give instructors many options when creating assignments.
• Integration with Excel: The problem-solving approach is integrated with Excel so instructors can focus more class time on fundamental concepts. Instructors can also use the 51 Example Excel workbooks to present a variety of fluid mechanics phenomena, especially the effects produced when varying input parameters.
• Extensive explanations of theoretical derivations give instructors the choice to either review theory in class or assign it as homework so that lecture time can be more flexible.