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Food Flavour Technology, 2nd Edition

Food Flavour Technology, 2nd Edition

Andrew J. Taylor (Editor), Robert S. T. Linforth (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-444-31778-7

Dec 2009, Wiley-Blackwell

376 pages



Food flavour technology is of key importance for the food industry. Increasingly, food products must comply with legal requirements and conform to consumer demands for “natural” products, but the simple fact is that, if foods do not taste good, they will not be consumed and any nutritional benefit will be lost.  There is therefore keen interest throughout the world in the production, utilisation and analysis of flavours. 

The second edition of this successful book offers a broad introduction to the formulation, origins, analysis and performance of food flavours, updating the original chapters and adding valuable new material that introduces some of the newer methodologies and recent advances.

The creation of flavourings is the starting point for the book, outlining the methodology and constraints faced by flavourists.  Further constraints are considered in a chapter dealing with international legislation. The origins of flavours are described in three chapters covering thermal generation, biogeneration and natural sources, keeping in mind the adjustments that manufacturers have had to make to their raw materials and processes to meet the demand for natural products whilst complying with cost issues. Delivery of flavours using encapsulation or through an understanding of the properties of the food matrix is described in the next two chapters, and this section is followed by chapters describing the different ways to analyse flavours using instrumental, modelling and sensory techniques. The book is aimed at food scientists and technologists, ingredients suppliers, quality assurance personnel, analytical chemists and biotechnologists.

List of contributors


1 Creating and formulating flavours

John Wright

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Interpreting analyses

1.3 Flavour characteristics

1.4 Applications

1.5 Flavour forms

1.6 Production issues

1.7 Regulatory affairs

1.8 A typical flavour

1.9 Commercial considerations

1.10 Summary


2 Flavour legislation

Jack Knights

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Methods of legislation

2.3 Legislation in the United States

2.4 International situation: JECFA

2.5 Council of Europe

2.6 European community

2.7 Current EU Situation and the future


3 Basic chemistry and process conditions for reaction flavours with particular focus on Maillard-type reactions

Josef Kerler, Chris Winkel, Tomas Davidek and Imre Blank

3.1 Introduction

3.2 General aspects of the Maillard reaction cascade

3.3 Important aroma compounds derived from Maillard reaction in food and process flavours

3.4 Preparation of process flavours

3.5 Outlook


4 Biotechnological flavour generation

Ralf G. Berger, Ulrich Krings and Holger Zorn

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Natural flavours: market situation and driving forces

4.3 Advantages of biocatalysis

4.4 Micro-organisms

4.5 Enzyme technology

4.6 Plant catalysts

4.7 Flavours through genetic engineering

4.8 Advances in bioprocessing

4.9 Conclusion


5 Natural sources of flavours

Peter S.J. Cheetham

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Properties of flavour molecules

5.3 Dairy flavours

5.4 Fermented products

5.5 Cereal products

5.6 Vegetable sources of flavour

5.7 Fruit

5.8 Other flavour characteristics

5.9 Fragrance uses

5.10 Conclusion


6 Useful principles to predict the performance of polymeric flavour delivery systems

Daniel Benczédi

6.1 Overview

6.2 Introduction

6.3 Compatibility and cohesion

6.4 Sorption and swelling

6.5 Diffusion and release


7 Delivery of flavours from food matrices

Saskia M. van Ruth and Jacques P. Roozen

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Flavour properties

7.3 Thermodynamic aspects of flavour delivery

7.4 Kinetic aspects of flavour delivery

7.5 Delivery systems: food technology applications

7.6 Conclusions


8 Modelling flavour release

Rob Linforth

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Equilibrium partition models

8.3 Dynamic systems

8.4 In vivo consumption

8.5 Conclusion


9 Instrumental methods of analysis

Gary Reineccius

9.1 Analytical challenges

9.2 Aroma isolation

9.3 Selection of aroma isolation method

9.4 Aroma isolate fractionation prior to analysis

9.5 Flavour analysis by gas chromatography

9.6 Flavour analysis by HPLC

9.7 Identification of volatile flavours

9.8 Electronic ‘noses’

9.9 Summary


10 On-line monitoring of flavour processes

Andrew J. Taylor and Rob S.T. Linforth

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Issues associated with in vivo monitoring of flavour release

10.3 Pioneers and development of on-line flavour analysis

10.4 On-line aroma analysis using chemical ionisation techniques

10.5 Analysis of tastants using direct mass spectrometry

10.6 Applications

10.7 Future


11 Sensory methods of flavour analysis

Ann C. Noble and Isabelle Lesschaeve

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Analytical tests

11.3 Consumer tests

11.4 Sensory testing administration

11.5 Selection and training of judges

11.6 Statistical analysis of data

11.7 Relating sensory and instrumental flavour data

11.8 Summary


12 Brain imaging

Luca Marciani, Sally Eldeghaidy, R.C. Spiller, P.A. Gowland and S.T. Francis

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Cortical pathways of taste, aroma and oral somatosensation

12.3 Imaging of brain function

12.4 Brain imaging of flavour

12.5 Future trends