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Food Frying: Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Safety

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$159.99

Food Frying: Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Safety

Alam Zeb

ISBN: 978-1-119-46839-4 January 2019 496 Pages

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Description

A wide-ranging exploration of the science and practice of food frying

Frying is one of the world’s most popular methods of food preparation. Whether using oils or fats, it is valued for the particular flavors and textures it can bring, and represents a multibillion-dollar sector of the global economy. Food Frying: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Safety explores this important cooking technique in its scientific dimensions, charting the relationships between the chemical reactions produced during frying, the changes in food quality that these engender, and associated digestive and health-related issues.

By outlining these connections, the author provides an aid to a safer, healthier approach to food frying. Topics covered range from culturally specific forms of frying to detailed analyses of the chemical and biochemical processes involved in its practice. Delivering these insights in a practical and easy-to-follow manner, this unique text includes:  

  • A complete survey of food frying, encompassing cultural, chemical, biochemical, and toxicological concerns
  • Guidance on the accurate assessment of health, quality, and safety issues associated with food frying Coverage of the latest technologies and methods involved with frying
  • Information on the possible future development of fried foods

Food Frying: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Safety is an invaluable resource for all those who work with fried foods, whether they be food industry professionals, food scientists, or workers in the oil and fat industries. 

Foreword by Bertrand Matthäus xvii

Preface xix

About the Author xxi

Acknowledgement xxiii

Part I Concept of Food Frying 1

1 Food Frying: The Concept 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 History of Frying 3

1.3 Mechanism of Frying 5

1.4 Why We Fry Foods 17

1.5 Key Concepts 18

References 18

2 Frying Techniques 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Concept of Deep Frying 23

2.3 Tools Used in Frying 24

2.4 Optimized Conditions 26

2.5 Types of Frying 36

2.6 Tips to Remember During Frying 53

2.7 Choice of Frying Method 54

2.8 Key Concepts 55

References 56

3 Frying and Culture 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 The Common Point 65

3.3 Frying in American Cuisines 66

3.4 Frying in European Cuisines 67

3.5 Frying in Asian Cuisines 68

3.6 Frying in African Cuisines 68

3.7 Frying in Middle Eastern Cuisines 69

3.8 Key Concepts 69

References 70

Part II Chemistry of Food Frying 71

4 Chemistry of the Frying Medium 73

4.1 Frying Medium 73

4.2 Classification and Choice of Frying Medium 74

4.3 Chemistry of the Frying Medium 75

4.4 Chemistry of Lipid Oxidation During Frying 85

4.5 Formation of Volatile Products 96

4.6 Sterol Oxidation 103

4.7 Tocopherol Oxidation 104

4.8 Formation of Trans Fatty Acids 107

4.9 Techniques for Measuring Lipid Oxidation 108

4.10 Key Concepts 109

References 109

5 Chemistry of Fried Foods 115

5.1 Introduction 115

5.2 Carbohydrates 115

5.3 Proteins and Amino Acids 119

5.4 Lipids 121

5.5 Micromolecules 122

5.6 Frying of Carbohydrate‐Rich Foods 122

5.7 Frying of Protein‐Rich Foods 133

5.8 Frying of Seafood 143

5.9 Frying of Vegetables 150

5.10 Physicochemical Characteristics of Fried Foods 158

5.11 Improving Product Quality 164

5.12 Key Concepts 164

References 165

6 Chemistry of Interactions in Frying 175

6.1 Introduction 175

6.2 Factors Affecting the Frying Medium 176

6.3 Factors Affecting the Food 184

6.4 Heat Transfer 195

6.5 Mass Transfer 195

6.6 Nutritional Value Retention 196

6.7 Key Concepts 200

References 200

7 Analysis of Frying 207

7.1 Introduction 207

7.2 Analysis of Triacylglycerols 208

7.3 Analysis of FA Oxidation Products 225

7.4 Analysis of Sterol Oxidation 236

7.5 Analysis of Sensory Metabolites 245

7.6 Analysis of Heterocyclic Amines 249

7.7 Analysis of Acrylamide 250

7.8 Analysis of Tocopherols 251

7.9 Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds 255

7.10 Analysis of Other Minor Compounds 255

7.11 Key Concepts 256

References 257

Part III Biochemistry of Food Frying 277

8 Digestion and Absorption of Fried Foods 279

8.1 Introduction 279

8.2 Acceptability of Fried Foods 279

8.3 Digestion of Fried Foods 282

8.4 Absorption of Fried Foods 285

8.5 Excretion of Fried Foods 287

8.6 Key Concepts 289

References 289

9 Nutrition and Metabolism of Fried Foods 293

9.1 Introduction 293

9.2 Metabolism of Fried Lipids 295

9.3 Metabolism of Fried Proteins 309

9.4 Metabolism of Fried Carbohydrates 312

9.5 Metabolism of Other Metabolites 316

9.6 Key Concepts 316

References 318

10 Fried Foods in Health and Disease 327

10.1 Introduction 327

10.2 Fried Foods and Health 327

10.3 Fried Foods and Cancer 330

10.4 Fried Foods and Diabetes 333

10.5 Fried Foods and Cardiovascular Diseases 336

10.6 Fried Foods and Aging 339

10.7 Key Concepts 340

References 340

Part IV Safety in Food Frying 347

11 Safety Assessment of Food Frying 349

11.1 Introduction 349

11.2 Guideline for Assessment 350

11.3 Quality Indicators for Used Frying Oils 351

11.4 Physical Assessment 353

11.5 Chemical Assessment 355

11.6 Evaluation of Fried Foods 359

11.7 The Future of Fried Food Safety 359

11.8 Key Concepts 360

References 360

12 Toxicity of Food Frying 365

12.1 Introduction 365

12.2 Toxicity of Oxidized Triacylglycerols 365

12.3 Toxicity of Acrylamide 366

12.4 Toxicity of Acrolein 368

12.5 Toxicity of Amines and Alcohols 375

12.6 Toxicity of Aldehydes 385

12.7 Pro‐Oxidants 391

12.8 Disposal of Fried Foods 391

12.9 Disposal and Use of the Frying Medium 393

12.10 Key Concepts 395

References 396

13 Improving the Quality of Fried Foods 407

13.1 Introduction 407

13.2 Improving the Quality of Fried Foods 407

13.3 Mitigation Strategies for Acrylamide 424

13.4 Reducing Oil Uptake 427

13.5 Fortification 428

13.6 The Role of Natural Antioxidants 428

13.7 Packaging of Fried Foods 431

13.8 Quality Control in Frying 434

13.9 Key Concepts 434

References 434

14 The Future of Food Frying 447

14.1 Introduction 447

14.2 Current Strategies 447

14.3 Future Scenarios 449

14.4 Hurdles 451

14.5 Key Concepts 452

References 452

Index 455