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Food Microbiology: Principles into Practice, 2 Volume Set

Food Microbiology: Principles into Practice, 2 Volume Set

Osman Erkmen, T. Faruk Bozoglu

ISBN: 978-1-119-23785-3

Apr 2016

944 pages

$220.99

Description

This book covers application of food microbiology principles into food preservation and processing. Main aspects of the food preservation techniques, alternative food preservation techniques, role of microorganisms in food processing and their positive and negative features   are covered. Features subjects on mechanism of antimicrobial action of heat, thermal process, mechanisms for microbial control by low temperature, mechanism of food preservation, control of microorganisms and mycotoxin formation by reducing water activity, food preservation by additives and biocontrol, food preservation by modified atmosphere, alternative food processing techniques, and traditional fermented products processing. The book is designed for students in food engineering, health science, food science, agricultural engineering, food technology, nutrition and dietetic, biological sciences and biotechnology fields. It will also be valuable to researchers, teachers and practising food microbiologists as well as anyone interested in different branches of food.

About the Authors, xv

Preface, xvii

Section I: Microbiology and Microbial Behavior in Foods, 1

1 History and Development of Food Microbiology, 3

1.1 Introduction, 3

1.2 History of Microorganisms in Foods, 4

1.2.1 Early Development on Foods, 4

1.2.2 Discovery of Microorganisms, 4

1.2.3 Development of Food Microbiology, 5

1.2.4 Modern Microbiology, 6

1.3 Fields of Food Microbiology, 7

1.3.1 Importance of Microorganisms in Foods, 7

1.3.2 Food Microbiology Course, 12

2 Microbial Growth in Foods, 13

2.1 Introduction, 13

2.2 General Principles of Microbial Growth, 13

2.2.1 Importance Being Small Size, 13

2.2.2 Microbial Reproduction, 14

2.2.3 Growth and Death, 16

2.2.4 Predictive Microbiology, 21

2.2.5 Relationships Among Microorganisms in Foods, 31

2.2.6 Type and Number of Microorganisms in Foods, 34

3 Types of Microorganisms in Foods, 35

3.1 Introduction, 35

3.2 Nomenclature of Microorganisms, 35

3.3 Microorganisms in Foods, 36

3.3.1 Bacteria, 36

3.3.2 Fungi, 51

3.3.3 Viruses and Other Agents, 66

3.3.4 Parasites, 67

3.3.5 Algae, 68

3.4 Microbial Genetics, 68

3.4.1 Characteristics of Microbial Genetics, 68

3.4.2 Genetic Recombination, 69

3.4.3 Extrachromosomal Genes, 72

3.4.4 Genetic Mechanism of Drug Resistance, 73

3.5 Significance of Microorganisms in Foods, 74

3.5.1 Cereals, Starches, and Gums, 74

3.5.2 Canned Foods, 75

3.5.3 Eggs, 75

3.5.4 Fish and Shellfish, 76

3.5.5 Mayonnaise and Salad Dressings, 76

3.5.6 Raw and Pasteurized Milk, 76

3.5.7 Raw and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products, 77

3.5.8 Vegetables, Fruits, and Nuts, 78

3.5.9 Soft Drinks, Fruit and Vegetable Drinks, and Bottled Water, 79

3.5.10 Spices, 79

3.5.11 Sugars and Confectionaries, 80

Section II: Microbial Sources and Factors Affecting Microorganisms, 81

4 Presources of Microorganisms in Foods, 83

4.1 Introduction, 83

4.2 Primary Sources of Microorganisms Present in Foods, 83

4.2.1 Water, 84

4.2.2 Plants and Plant Products, 85

4.2.3 Food Equipment and Packaging Material, 85

4.2.4 Intestinal Tract of Man and Animals, 86

4.2.5 Food Handlers, 86

4.2.6 Food Ingredients, 86

4.2.7 Animals, Birds, and Fish, 87

4.2.8 Sewage, 88

4.2.9 Air, Dust, and Soil, 88

4.2.10 Improper Handling Procedures, 89

4.2.11 Miscellaneous Sources, 90

5 Factors Affecting Microbial Growth in Foods, 91

5.1 Introduction, 91

5.2 Intrinsic Factors, 91

5.2.1 pH, 91

5.2.2 Water Activity, 94

5.2.3 Oxidation–Reduction Potential, 97

5.2.4 Nutrient Content, 100

5.2.5 Antimicrobial Content, 101

5.2.6 Biological Protective Structure, 102

5.3 Extrinsic Factors, 102

5.3.1 Temperature, 102

5.3.2 Relative Humidity, 104

5.3.3 Gaseous Atmosphere, 105

5.3.4 Presence of Other Microorganisms, 105

Section III: Foodborne Diseases, 107

6 Important Factors in Foodborne Diseases, 109

6.1 Introduction, 109

6.2 Important Facts in Foodborne Diseases, 110

6.2.1 Side Effects of Foodborne Diseases, 110

6.2.2 Investigation of Foodborne Diseases, 111

6.2.3 Importance of Foodborne Diseases, 112

6.2.4 Susceptibility to Foodborne Diseases, 114

6.2.5 Types of Foodborne Diseases, 114

6.3 Immune Responses, 117

6.3.1 Interactions Between Immune System and Microorganisms, 118

6.3.2 Immune Systems, 119

6.3.3 Types of Immune Systems, 119

7 Bacterial Pathogenicity and Microbial Toxins, 126

7.1 Introduction, 126

7.2 Bacterial Pathogenicity, 127

7.2.1 Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity, 127

7.2.2 Virulence Factors, 128

7.3 Bacterial Toxins, 131

7.3.1 Types of Bacterial Toxins, 131

7.3.2 Pathogenicity of Bacterial Structure, 135

7.3.3 Enteric Bacterial Toxins, 136

8 Foodborne Invasive Infections, 138

8.1 Introduction, 138

8.2 Types of Foodborne Invasive Infection, 139

8.2.1 Brucella (Brucellosis), 139

8.2.2 Campylobacter (Campylobacteriosis), 141

8.2.3 Pathogenic Escherichia coli Group, 145

8.2.4 Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis), 151

8.2.5 Salmonella (Salmonellosis), 154

8.2.6 Shigella (Shigellosis), 158

8.2.7 Vibrio (Vibriosis), 161

8.2.8 Yersinia enterocolitica (Yersiniosis), 164

8.2.9 Infections with Other Bacteria, 166

9 Foodborne Toxicoinfections, 171

9.1 Introduction, 171

9.2 Types of Foodborne Toxicoinfection, 171

9.2.1 A. hydrophila, 171

9.2.2 B. cereus (Diarrheal Syndrome), 173

9.2.3 C. perfringens, 176

9.2.4 P. shigelloides, 180

9.2.5 V. cholerae, 181

9.2.6 Enterotoxigenic and Enteropathogenic E. coli, 184

10 Foodborne Intoxications, 186

10.1 Introduction, 186

10.2 Bacterial Foodborne Intoxication, 186

10.2.1 B. cereus (Emetic Poisoning), 186

10.2.2 Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcal Poisoning), 187

10.2.3 Clostridium botulinum (Botulism), 190

10.3 Mycotoxins, 193

10.3.1 Characteristics of Mycotoxin-Producing Molds, 193

10.3.2 Contamination of Foods by Mycotoxins, 194

10.3.3 Major Types of Mycotoxins, 195

10.3.4 Stability of Mycotoxins in Foods, 201

10.4 Mushroom Toxins, 202

10.4.1 Protoplasmic Toxins, 203

10.4.2 Neurotoxins, 204

10.4.3 Gastrointestinal Irritants, 205

10.4.4 Disulfiram-Like Poisoning, 205

10.4.5 Other Mushroom Poisonings, 205

10.5 Biogenic Amines, 205

10.5.1 Occurrence of Biogenic Amines in Foods, 206

10.5.2 Biogenic Amine Poisoning, 206

10.5.3 Prevention and Control, 207

11 Parasites, Marine Toxins, and Virus Food Poisonings, 208

11.1 Introduction, 208

11.2 Parasites, 208

11.2.1 Helminths, 209

11.2.2 Protozoa, 212

11.2.3 Occurrence of Parasites in Foods and Water, 214

11.3 Marine Toxins, 215

11.3.1 Types of Marine Poisonings, 215

11.3.2 Prevention of Marine Poisonings, 217

11.4 Chemical Poisoning, 217

11.5 Foodborne Viruses and Prion, 218

11.5.1 Characteristics of Viruses, 218

11.5.2 Important Viruses, 218

11.5.3 Spongiform Encephalopathies, 220

11.6 Food Allergy, 221

12 Indicators of Foodborne Pathogens, 223

12.1 Introduction, 223

12.2 Establishment of Microbiological Criteria, 223

12.3 Indicators of Pathogens in Foods, 225

12.3.1 Coliforms, 226

12.3.2 Fecal Coliforms, 227

12.3.3 E. coli, 228

12.3.4 Enterobacteriaceae, 228

12.3.5 Enterococcus, 229

12.3.6 Total Viable Count, 229

12.3.7 Other Microbial Indicators, 230

Section IV: Detection of Microorganisms, 231

13 Conventional Techniques in Food Microbiology, 233

13.1 Introduction, 233

13.2 Sampling Plan and Sample Preparation, 233

13.2.1 Sampling Plan, 233

13.2.2 Sample Preparation, 235

13.3 Conventional Microbial Counting Methods, 237

13.3.1 Quantitative Methods, 237

13.3.2 Qualitative Methods, 243

14 Advanced Techniques in Food Microbiology, 245

14.1 Introduction, 245

14.2 Developing Rapid Methods, 246

14.2.1 Microbiological Testing of Foods, 246

14.2.2 Problems in Food Analysis, 246

14.2.3 Development and Origin of Rapid Methods, 247

14.3 Physical Methods, 248

14.3.1 Impedance Method, 248

14.3.2 Microcalorimetry, 250

14.3.3 Particle Counting, 250

14.3.4 Bacteriophage, 251

14.3.5 Image Analysis Systems, 251

14.3.6 Chromatographic Method, 251

14.3.7 Electrophoresis, 251

14.3.8 Detection of Microorganisms by Infrared Detectors, 252

14.4 Chemical Methods, 253

14.4.1 Radiometry (Isotopic Method), 253

14.4.2 Bioluminescence, 254

14.4.3 Thermostable Nuclease, 255

14.4.4 Nucleic Acid Probes and PCR Methods, 255

14.4.5 Glucuronidase Assay for E. coli, 257

14.4.6 Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test, 258

14.5 Immunoassay Methods, 258

14.5.1 Radioimmunoassay, 258

14.5.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, 259

14.5.3 Immunofluorescence Antibody, 259

14.5.4 Immunomagnetic Separation, 260

14.5.5 Latex Agglutination, 260

14.5.6 Enrichment Serology, 261

14.5.7 Immunoelectron Microscopy, 261

14.5.8 Precipitin Reaction, 261

14.5.9 Agglutination Tests, 262

14.5.10 Immunoelectrophoresis, 262

14.6 Other Methods, 263

14.7 Limitation of Rapid Methods, 263

14.8 Future Developments in Rapid Methods, 264

14.8.1 Immunosensors or Biosensors, 264

14.8.2 DNA Microarrays (Chips), 265

Section V: Microbial Food Spoilage, 267

15 Principles of Food Spoilage, 269

15.1 Introduction, 269

15.2 Food Spoilage, 269

15.2.1 Acceptable Foods, 269

15.2.2 Classification of Foods Depending on Stability, 270

15.2.3 Types of Agents Causing Food Spoilage, 271

15.2.4 Types of Food Spoilage, 271

15.2.5 Factors Affecting Food Spoilage, 275

16 Spoilage of Meat and Meat Products, 279

16.1 Introduction, 279

16.2 Meat and Meat Products, 279

16.2.1 Bacterial Attachment with Meat, 279

16.2.2 Contamination, 280

16.2.3 Meat Spoilage, 282

16.2.4 Meat Products, 287

16.2.5 Preservation of Meat and Meat Products, 291

16.3 Poultry, 293

16.3.1 Contamination, 293

16.3.2 Spoilage, 294

16.3.3 Preservation of Poultry, 294

17 Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products, 296

17.1 Introduction, 296

17.2 Microbial Contamination, 296

17.3 Spoilage, 297

17.3.1 Nonmicrobial Spoilage, 297

17.3.2 Microbial Spoilage, 297

17.4 Preservation of Eggs and Egg Products, 298

17.4.1 Asepsis, 298

17.4.2 Removal of Microorganisms, 299

17.4.3 Use of Heat Treatment, 299

17.4.4 Use of Low Temperatures, 299

17.4.5 Use of Preservatives, 300

18 Spoilage of Fish and Other Seafoods, 301

18.1 Introduction, 301

18.2 Microbial Contamination, 301

18.3 Spoilage, 302

18.3.1 Fish, 302

18.3.2 Shellfish, 304

18.4 Preservation of Fish and Other Seafoods, 304

19 Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products, 307

19.1 Introduction, 307

19.2 Milk Composition and Microbial Contamination, 307

19.3 Spoilage, 309

19.3.1 Raw Milk Spoilage, 309

19.3.2 Fluid Milk Products Spoilage, 315

19.3.3 Fermented Milk Products Spoilage, 322

19.4 Preservation of Milk and Milk Products, 332

19.4.1 Asepsis, 332

19.4.2 Removal of Microorganisms, 333

19.4.3 Use of Heat, 333

19.4.4 Low Temperature, 334

19.4.5 Drying, 334

19.4.6 Use of Preservatives, 335

19.4.7 Mechanical Reduction of Microorganisms, 336

20 Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruits, 337

20.1 Introduction, 337

20.2 Vegetables and Fruits Spoilage, 338

20.2.1 Natural Microflora, 338

20.2.2 Mechanisms of Microbial Spoilage, 338

20.2.3 Vegetables Spoilage, 340

20.2.4 Fruits Spoilage, 343

20.2.5 Preservation of Vegetables and Fruits, 347

20.3 Fruit Juice and Beverage Spoilage, 349

20.3.1 Spoilage, 349

20.3.2 Pathogens, 353

20.4 Fermented Vegetables and Fruits Spoilage, 354

20.4.1 Sauerkraut Spoilage, 355

20.4.2 Pickle Spoilage, 356

20.4.3 Table Olive Spoilage, 358

20.4.4 Alcoholic Beverage Spoilage, 361

21 Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products, 364

21.1 Introduction, 364

21.2 Contamination, 364

21.3 Spoilage, 365

21.3.1 Cereal Grains Spoilage, 365

21.3.2 Flour Spoilage, 368

21.3.3 Bread Spoilage, 368

21.3.4 Pastas Spoilage, 371

21.3.5 Pastries Spoilage, 371

21.4 Control of Mold and Mycotoxin Contamination, 371

21.4.1 Control of Mold Growth, 372

21.4.2 Prevention of Mold and Mycotoxin Contamination, 373

21.4.3 Decontamination of Mycotoxins, 374

22 Spoilage of Canned Foods, 376

22.1 Introduction, 376

22.2 Canned Foods, 376

22.2.1 Classification of Canned Foods Based on Acidity, 376

22.2.2 Commercial Sterility of Canned Foods, 377

22.3 Canned Food Spoilage, 377

22.3.1 Microbial Spoilage, 378

22.3.2 Chemical Spoilage, 383

22.3.3 Appearance of Unopened Cans, 383

23 Spoilage of Miscellaneous Foods, 385

23.1 Introduction, 385

23.2 Spoilage, 385

23.2.1 Spoilage of Sugar and Honey, 385

23.2.2 Spoilage of Spices, Seasonings, and Dry Soups, 390

23.2.3 Spoilage of Cocoa, Chocolate, and Confectionery, 391

23.2.4 Spoilage of Oil- and Fat-Based Products, 393

23.2.5 Drinking Water, 399

24 Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Food Spoilage, 401

24.1 Introduction, 401

24.2 Spoilage, 401

24.2.1 Nonenzymatic Spoilage, 401

24.2.2 Enzymatic Spoilage, 402

24.2.3 Characteristics of Heat-Stable Enzymes of Psychrotrophs, 404

24.2.4 Spoilage of Foods by Heat-Stable Microbial Enzymes, 404

24.2.5 Inhibition of Enzymes, 406

25 Indicators of Food Spoilage, 407

25.1 Introduction, 407

25.2 Indicators of Food Spoilage, 407

25.2.1 Food Spoilage Criteria, 407

25.2.2 Indicators of Microbial Spoilage Criteria, 408

25.2.3 Heat-Stable Enzymes as Spoilage Criteria, 412

26 Psychrotrophs, Thermophiles, and Radiation-Resistant Microorganisms, 413

26.1 Introduction, 413

26.2 Psychrotrophic Microorganisms, 413

26.2.1 Temperature-Induced Changes, 414

26.2.2 Effect of Low Temperatures on Microbial Physiology, 414

26.2.3 Nature of Low Heat Resistance of Psychrotrophs, 415

26.3 Thermophilic Microorganisms, 416

26.3.1 Thermostability, 416

26.3.2 Factors Affecting Thermophilic Microorganisms, 416

26.4 Radiation-Resistant Microorganisms, 417

26.4.1 Characteristics of Radiation-Resistant Micrococcus, 417

26.4.2 Mechanism of Microbial Radiation Resistance, 418

26.4.3 Factors Affecting Radiation Resistance, 418

Bibliography, 419

Index, 431