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Food Safety for the 21st Century: Managing HACCP and Food Safety Throughout the Global Supply Chain

Food Safety for the 21st Century: Managing HACCP and Food Safety Throughout the Global Supply Chain

Carol A. Wallace , William H. Sperber , Sara E. Mortimore

ISBN: 978-1-444-34800-2

Jun 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

352 pages

Select type: E-Book



The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system is still recognised internationally as the most effective way to produce safe food throughout the supply chain, but a HACCP system cannot operate in a vacuum. It requires prerequisite programmes to be in place and it can be highly affected by, or dependent upon, other major considerations such as animal, plant, human and environmental health, food security and food defence.

This book:

  • Provides a practical and up-to-date text covering the essentials of food safety management in the global supply chain, giving the reader the knowledge and skills that they need to design, implement and maintain a world-class food safety programme.
  • Builds on existing texts on HACCP and food safety, taking the next step forward in the evolution of HACCP and providing a text that is relevant to all sectors and sizes of food businesses throughout the world.
  • Shares practical food safety experience, allowing development of best-practice approaches. This will allow existing businesses to improve their systems and enable businesses that are new to HACCP and food safety management requirements in both developed and developing countries to build on existing knowledge for more rapid application of world-class food safety systems.
  • Educates practitioners such that they will be able to use their judgement in decision-making and to influence those who make food policy and manage food operations.

This book is an essential resource for all scientists and managers in the food industry (manufacturing and foodservice); regulators and educators in the field of food safety; and students of food science and technology.

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

Disclaimer xv

How to use this book xvi

The authors xviii

Glossary of terms and acronyms xx


1 Origin and evolution of the modern system of food safety management: HACCP and prerequisite programmes 3

1.1 Historical perspectives 3

1.2 Origin and evolution of HACCP 5

1.3 The necessity of prerequisite programmes 10

1.4 The future of HACCP 10

2 Lessons learned from food safety successes and failures 12

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 Benefits of using HACCP – lessons learned from successful implementation 12

2.3 Misconceptions or 'failure to understand HACCP' 14

2.4 Barriers to effective HACCP use 20

2.5 Reasons for failure 21

2.6 Difficulties with applying HACCP through the entire food supply chain 24

2.7 Roles and responsibilities – lessons learned 26

2.8 Conclusions 28

3 Food safety challenges in the global supply chain 30

3.1 Introduction 30

3.2 Increased complexity of the global supply chain 32

3.3 Food safety issues in global trade 37

3.4 Strategic-level responses 41

3.5 Tactical level responses 43

3.6 Conclusions 46

4 The future of food safety and HACCP in a changing world 48

4.1 Introduction 48

4.2 Food safety issues 49

4.3 Technology advancements 50

4.4 Food safety management 51

4.5 Changes in thinking/policy making 59

4.6 Conclusions 61


5 Recognising food safety hazards 65

5.1 Introduction 65

5.2 Biological hazards 66

5.3 Chemical hazards 78

5.4 Physical hazards 85

5.5 Conclusions 86

6 Designing safety into a food product 87

6.1 Introduction 87

6.2 Formulation intrinsic control factors 87

6.3 Use of experimental design and analysis 97

6.4 Ingredient considerations 102

6.5 Conclusions 104

7 Designing a safe food process 105

7.1 Introduction 105

7.2 Process control of microbiological hazards 106

7.3 Process control of chemical hazards 117

7.4 Process control of physical hazards 119

7.5 Conclusion 122


8 Overview of a world-class food safety programme 125

8.1 Introduction 125

8.2 Preliminary concepts and definitions 126

8.3 World-class food safety programmes in the global food supply chain 130

8.4 Continuous improvement of the world-class food safety programme 131

8.5 Conclusions 132

9 Building the foundations of a world-class food safety management programme: essential steps and practices 133

9.1 Introduction 133

9.2 Essential management practices 135

9.3 Preparation activities for food safety programmes 143

9.4 Prioritisation of corrective actions 150

9.5 Conclusions 152

10 Formalised prerequisite programmes in practice 154

10.1 Introduction 154

10.2 Prerequisite definitions and standards 154

10.3 Prerequisite programmes – the essentials 155

10.4 Prerequisite programmes and operational prerequisites 173

10.5 Validation and verification of prerequisite programmes 175

10.6 Conclusions 175

11 Conducting a product safety assessment 176

11.1 Introduction 176

11.2 Training for research and development personnel 179

11.3 Example of a product safety assessment 179

11.4 Conclusions 184

12 Developing a HACCP plan 185

12.1 Introduction 185

12.2 Preliminary concepts 186

12.3 Applying the codex logic sequence to develop a HACCP plan 189

12.4 Conclusions 215

13 Implementing a HACCP system 216

13.1 Introduction 216

13.2 Activities for implementation of a HACCP plan 217

13.3 Considerations for implementing updates and changes to an existing HACCP system 223

13.4 Conclusions 223

14 Maintaining a food safety programme 224

14.1 Introduction 224

14.2 What is food safety programme maintenance? 224

14.3 Responsibility for food safety programme maintenance 225

14.4 Maintenance of prerequisite programme elements 226

14.5 Maintenance of HACCP system elements 226

14.6 Use of audit for successful food safety system maintenance 228

14.7 Incident Management 233

14.8 Conclusions 233

References 235


Appendix 1 HACCP case studies 247

Introduction 247

Case study 1: Shell eggs – food safety case study 249

Case study 2: Manufacturing – prepared meals 271

Case study 3: Food service – Lapland UK food service operation 293

Case study 4: Food safety in the home: a review and case study 303

Appendix 2 Global food safety resources 311

Index 315

"Authors Sara Mortimore, Carol Wallace and William Sperber provide practical, up-to-date
coverage on the essentials of food safety management in the global supply chain ... This book provides information relevant to all sectors and sizes of food businesses throughout the world, clearly outlining how the foundations of a world-class food safety management programme can be built." (On the Bookshelf, 2011)

“I highly recommend the work and consider it an essential addition to the personal library of scientists, managers, educators, academic researchers, and students working to understand and advance food safety on a world scale.”  (Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 23 August 2012)